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Concept of Entrepreneur and
• Entrepreneurship has traditionally been defined as the process of designing, launching and
running a new business, which typically begins as a small business, such as a start-up
company, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire, and the people who do so
are called 'entrepreneurs'.
• It has been defined as the "capacity and willingness to develop, organize, and manage a
business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit.“
• While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the launching and running of
businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of
businesses have to close, due to a "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic
crisis -- or a combination of all of these“ or due to lack of market demand.
• In the 2000s, the definition of "entrepreneurship" has been expanded to explain how and
why some individuals (or teams) identify opportunities, evaluate them as viable, and then
decide to exploit them, whereas others do not, and, in turn, how entrepreneurs use these
opportunities to develop new products or services, launch new firms or even new industries
and create wealth. Recent advances stress the fundamentally uncertain nature of the
entrepreneurial process, because although opportunities exist their existence cannot be
discovered or identified prior to their actualization into profits .
• What appears as a real opportunity ex ante might actually be a non-opportunity or one
that cannot be actualized by entrepreneurs lacking the necessary business skills, financial or
• Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as "a person who starts, organizes and
manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk".
• "Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a small business and assumes
all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale.
The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and
• Entrepreneurs tend to be good at perceiving new business opportunities and they often
exhibit positive biases in their perception (i.e., a bias towards finding new possibilities and
seeing unmet market needs) and a pro-risk-taking attitude that makes them more likely to
exploit the opportunity.
• "Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking.“
• While entrepreneurship is often associated with new, small, for-profit start-ups,
entrepreneurial behaviour can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms, new and
established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary
sector groups, charitable organizations and government.
An entrepreneur is one who undertakes the risk of investment to create and market a good
or service for financial gains. He is very perceptive and takes advantage of business
opportunities that will generate high profits. Entrepreneurs can be sole traders, partners
in a business or a group of shareholders.
Entrepreneurs are of vital importance to an economy.
They are motivated by their own self-interest to make profits and in so doing provide
employment, create goods and services and generate revenue impacting on the economy’s
level of national income and hence potential for economic growth.
The entrepreneur is a shrewd investor and takes calculated risks i.e. ones that minimize
loss when choosing investment opportunities.
The entrepreneur is the conceptualizer of the initial business idea.
He must identify the best resources that suit the business operation and ensure the
efficiency of each resource employed.
For example, training workers, using machinery to increase labour productivity, maximizing
the use of factory and shop space and borrowing money at low interest rates. The
entrepreneur must continuously evaluate the performance of his ventures. Information
can be garnered from the balance sheets and Management Information Systems.
Personal Qualities of an Entrepreneur:
Entrepreneurship requires the following characteristics for success:
1. The creativity to innovate new product and ideas.
2. The drive and determination to be successful.
3. The ability to take calculated risks.
4. The flexibility to adapt to changes in the market and industry.
5. Very goal- oriented to purposely and aggressively accomplish task and meet
Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs:
2) Inner drive to succeed
4) Stress takers
5) Ability to mobilize resources
7) Competitive by nature
9) Openness to change
10) Time Management
12) Business Planning
13) Locus of control
16) Analytical ability of mind
18) Highly motivated and energetic
19) Communication Skills
20) Confronting uncertainty
Traits/Qualities of an Entrepreneur:
2) Time Management
4) Financial Knowhow
5) Administration Skills
6) Problem-solving Skills
7) Vision and Leadership Skills
9) Conflict and Consensus Management Skills
10) Technical Skills
11) Interpersonal Skills
12) Communication Skills
13) Ethics and Morals
• All business ventures begin with the conceptualization of an idea.
• At this initial stage the product or service idea is envisioned.
• Most Entrepreneurs identify a need in the market i.e. a service that is not being
provided or a product that does not exist. If the product or service already exists then
ideas to make improvements may be conceptualized.
• The entrepreneur is a shrewd investor and takes calculated risks.
• Before investing money in a business venture a market research must therefore be
done to ascertain the extent of the need for the product or service.
• This helps to minimize losses.
• A market research involves gathering information about a potential market to help an
investor make decisions about entering that market.
3. Identification of resources
• What resources are needed to start the business?
• If the market research is favourable the entrepreneur must now identify the necessary resources
to operate business.
• The resources required are land, labour and capital. Land refers to location or place used to set
up a business. This may be bought, rented or family home.
• Labour employed must be qualified and skilled to efficiently carry out their duties.
• Capital includes money, raw material and assets such as machinery and equipment.
4. Creation of a business plan
• Preparing a business plan is very important before the start of a business.
• This will help the business to ascertain whether or not the business will be profitable.
• A business plan outlines the goals of a business and the strategies that will be employed to
• Usually financial institutions require that a business plan be presented when a loan is requested
for business investment.
5. Acquisition of funds
• There are several ways of acquiring funds to start a business.
• There are a myriad of financial institutions that are willing to assist small businesses once
their business plans are deemed workable.
• The investor must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of acquiring funds from the
various financial institutions.
• The cost of borrowing i.e. the interest rate charged and the length of the repayment period
are factors to consider.
• Funds may be borrowed from friends and relatives that may attract a lower or no
repayment cost and a more flexible repayment schedule.
• Funds can also be acquired from personal savings. Encouraging partners or selling shares
are ways of avoiding high costs of capital.
6. Operation of a business
• A business must be efficiently operated to ensure high quality goods and service.
• This is important to keep existing customers and for business growth.
• Many companies employ an operation manager to design and oversee its operations.
• This person develops and manages the various processes used to create goods and services
efficiently to ensure customer satisfaction.
Advantages of Entrepreneur:
1. It gives a great amount of freedom -
If you are working for a boss and a company, you need to meet all their requirements and only
have very little freedom on the job.
On the other hand, if you start your own business, you will be able to make your own demands
and set your own schedule.
You dictate everything you do, giving you a level of freedom that you will not see when you are
2. It can be exciting –
Entrepreneurship can be very exciting, with many entrepreneurs considering their ventures
Every day will be filled with new opportunities to challenge your determination, skills and
3. It allows you to set your own earnings –
Of course, you will be the one setting your own wage and making investments when
you own the business.
The work that you do would be for something you own, which can be a huge
advantage compared to when you are working as an employee for a certain company.
4. It offers flexibility –
As an entrepreneur, you can schedule your work hours around other commitments,
including quality time you would spend with your family.
5. Being in Control –
The best thing about an entrepreneur is that he is in absolute control of his life. He
does not have to report to anybody.
He can take a vacation anytime he feels he needs one. He gets to decide what can
happen in his venture.
Best of all, nobody can fire him.
Disadvantages of Entrepreneur:
1. It requires you to dedicate a huge amount of time -
One big challenge in starting your own business is the amount of time you have to
dedicate to it.
Remember that entrepreneurship is not easy, and for it to be successful, you have to
take a level of time commitment that many people are just not willing to make.
And even if you are able to enjoy flexibility in your work schedule when your venture
does become successful, you will still have to dedicate a substantial amount of time to
growing the business.
2. It can be difficult to compete with other businesses -
It is very important for an entrepreneur to stay competitive.
This means that you have to differentiate your business from others in your niche in
order to build a solid customer base and, finally, become profitable.
3. It does not guarantee 100% success -
Entrepreneurship would make your dreams come true, which does not often happen
with traditional employment, but you need to make some sacrifices to make it
You should know that this type of venture does not guarantee 100% success.
4. It comes with unpredictable work schedules -
One major drawback of being an entrepreneur is that more work and longer hours
will be required from you than being an employee.
While you want to become your own boss, you must first know the amount of effort,
time and investment to make your venture successful.
Even though there is a lot of rewards coming from it, it also has certain downsides.
The capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture
along with any of its risks in order to make a profit.
The most obvious example of entrepreneurship is the starting of new businesses.
In economics, entrepreneurship combined with land, labor, natural resources and
capital can produce profit.
Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking, and is an
essential part of a nation's ability to succeed in an ever changing and increasingly
competitive global marketplace.
Characteristics of Entrepreneurship:
1} Economic Activity: involves creation and operation of an enterprise. Hence, it is
essentially an economic activity concerned with value or wealth.
2} Purposeful Activity: It is the purposeful activity of an individual or a group of
individuals who seek to earn profits through the production and distribution of
goods and services.
3} Decision making: Entrepreneurship involves both risk and uncertainty, decision
making is crucial on the part of the entrepreneurs to establish and run the enterprise
4} Accepting challenges: While accepting entrepreneurship as a career, the
entrepreneur accepts the challenges of all odds and puts his efforts to convert the
odds into viable business opportunities by pooling the resources together for
building and running the enterprise.
5} Risk Taking: Entrepreneur, by his deep insight and scientific approach, analyses the
situations objectively and reduces the risk considerably on one hand and enhances
the profit factor on the other.
6} Building Organization: Entrepreneurship presupposes the initiative and skill on
building the organization. It is by delegation of authorities and proper leadership[
that organization can be built up.
7} Dynamic Process: Entrepreneurs thrive on the challenging environment which
brings new opportunities for business. Flexibility is the hallmark of a successful
8} Gap Filling Function: It is the job of an entrepreneur to fill the gaps between needs
and goods or services. They have to complete the inputs and provide the knowledge
about the production process.
9} Mobilization of Resources: Entrepreneurs make themselves distinct from the rest
of the population because of their innate capability to mobilize resources.
10} Skillful Management: For effective management, the role of an entrepreneur is to
initiate and supervise design of organization-improvement projects in relation to
upcoming opportunities is very much important.
Role of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development
1. Entrepreneurship promotes capital formation by mobilising the idle saving of the public.
2. It provides immediate large-scale employment. Thus, it helps reduce the unemployment
problem in the country, i.e., the root of all socio-economic problems.
3. It promotes balanced regional development.
4. It helps reduce the concentration of economic power.
5. It stimulates the equitable redistribution of wealth, income and even political power in the
interest of the country.
6. It encourages effective resource mobilisation of capital and skill which might otherwise remain
unutilized and idle.
7. It also induces backward and forward linkages which stimulate the process of economic
development in the country.
8. Last but no means the least, it also promotes country’s export trade i.e., an important
ingredient to economic development.
Thus, it is clear that entrepreneurship serves as a catalyst of economic development. On the
whole, the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of a country can best be put as “an
economy is the effect for which entrepreneurship is the cause”.
Difference between Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship:
An entrepreneur one who undertakes and
operates a new enterprise and assumes some
accountability for the inherent risks
Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new
organizations, particularly new businesses
generally in responses to identified opportunities.
Entrepreneur is often synonymous with founder. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects
to major undertakings creating many job
The person who starts and operates a business
enterprise is an entrepreneur.
The process in which an entrepreneur starts and
operates his business enterprise is
The entrepreneur is a coordinator as he
coordinates all the three elements of production
i.e. land, labour and capital.
Entrepreneurship is the coordination maintained
by an entrepreneur.
The person who innovates something new is an
The innovation of something new or the process of
innovation is entrepreneurship.
He who leads an enterprise towards its vision
thorough leadership, motivation is an
The way in which an entrepreneur leads his
manpower, motivates them for the achievement of
the firms goal is entrepreneurship.
He who bears risk of the firm for the sake of
making a reasonable profit is an entrepreneur.
The risk bearing practice that is done by an
entrepreneur is entrepreneurship.