Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Chapter 2    The OSI  Model and the     TCP/IP  Protocol SuiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite                                       ...
OBJECTIVES:   To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication    and networking and the interrelationship ...
Chapter               2.1 Protocol Layers  Outline                        2.2 The OS M                                  I ...
2-1 PROTOCOL LAYERS In Chapter 1, we discussed that a protocol is required        when      two    entities  need   to com...
Topics Discussed in the Section Hierarchy ServicesTCP/IP Protocol Suite              5
Example 2.1Assume Maria and Ann are neighbors with a lot ofcommon ideas. However, Maria speaks only Spanish,and Ann speaks...
Figure 2.1   Example 2.1TCP/IP Protocol Suite             7
Example 2.2Now assume that Ann has to move to another townbecause of her job. Before she moves, the two meetfor the last t...
Figure 2.2   Example 2.2TCP/IP Protocol Suite             9
2-2 THE OSI MODEL  Established in 1947, the International  Standards      Organization    (ISO)   is   a  multinational bo...
Topics Discussed in the Section Layered Architecture Layer-to-layer Communication Encapsulation Layers in the OSI Mode...
Note                ISO is the organization;                   OSI is the model.TCP/IP Protocol Suite                     ...
Figure 2.3   The OSI modelTCP/IP Protocol Suite               13
Figure 2.4   OSI layersTCP/IP Protocol Suite            14
Figure 2.5   An exchange using the OSI modelTCP/IP Protocol Suite                                 15
Note       The physical layer is responsible for         moving individual bits from one               (node) to the next....
Figure 2.6   Summary of OSI LayersTCP/IP Protocol Suite                       17
2-3 TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE  The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed  prior to the OSI model. Therefore, the layers  in the ...
Topics Discussed in the Section Comparison between OSI and TCP/IP Layers in the TCP/IP SuiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite       ...
Figure 2.7   Layers in the TCP/IP Protocol SuiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite                                     20
Figure 2.8   TCP/IP and OSI modelTCP/IP Protocol Suite                      21
Figure 2.9   A private internetTCP/IP Protocol Suite                    22
Figure 2.10         Communication at the physical layer                                      Legend        Source       De...
Note          The unit of communication at the               physical layer is a bit.TCP/IP Protocol Suite                ...
Figure 2.11      Communication at the data link layer                           Legend        Source     Destination D Dat...
Note      The unit of communication at the data               link layer is a frame.TCP/IP Protocol Suite               26
Figure 2.12      Communication at the network layer                    Legend       Source   Destination D Data   H Header...
Note          The unit of communication at the            network layer is a datagram.TCP/IP Protocol Suite               ...
Figure 2.13    Communication at transport layer              A            Legend        Source    Destination D Data    H ...
Note       The unit of communication at the       transport layer is a segment, user    datagram, or a packet, depending o...
Figure 2.14   Communication at application layer                A                                                         ...
Note          The unit of communication at the           application layer is a message.TCP/IP Protocol Suite             ...
2-4 ADDRESSING  Four levels of addresses are used in an  internet employing the TCP/IP protocols:  physical address, logic...
Topics Discussed in the Section  Physical Addresses  Logical Addresses  Port Addresses  Application-Specific Addresses...
Figure 2.15   Addresses in the TCP/IP protocol suiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite                                         35
Example 2.3In Figure 2.16 a node with physical address 10 sends aframe to a node with physical address 87. The two nodesar...
Figure 2.16       Example 2.3: physical addresses                                       packet            packet          ...
Example 2.4As we will see in Chapter 3, most local area networksuse a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12hexade...
Example 2.5Figure 2.17 shows a part of an internet with two routersconnecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router)...
Figure 2.17   Example 2.5: logical addresses               20 10 A P Data          20 10 A P Data    33 99 A P Data       ...
Note        The physical addresses will change          from hop to hop, but the logical            addresses remain the s...
Example 2.6Figure 2.18 shows two computers communicating viathe Internet. The sending computer is running threeprocesses a...
Figure 2.18    Example 2.6: port numbers               A            Sender                   Receiver          P          ...
Note       The physical addresses change from        hop to hop, but the logical and port       addresses usually remain t...
Example 2.7As we will see in future chapters, a port address is a16-bit address represented by one decimal number asshown....
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Internet Technology

1,120 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Internet Technology

  1. 1. Chapter 2 The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol SuiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication and networking and the interrelationship between layers. To discuss the OSI model and its layer architecture and to show the interface between the layers. To briefly discuss the functions of each layer in the OSI model. To introduce the TCP/IP protocol suite and compare its layers with the ones in the OSI model. To show the functionality of each layer in the TCP/IP protocol with some examples. To discuss the addressing mechanism used in some layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite for the delivery of a message from the source to the destination.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
  3. 3. Chapter 2.1 Protocol Layers Outline 2.2 The OS M I odel 2.3 TCP IPP / rotocol Suite 2.4 AddressingTCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
  4. 4. 2-1 PROTOCOL LAYERS In Chapter 1, we discussed that a protocol is required when two entities need to communicate. When communication is not simple, we may divide the complex task of communication into several layers. In this case, we may need several protocols, one for each layer. Let us use a scenario in communication in which the role of protocol layering may be better understood. We use two examples. In the first example, communication is soTCP/IP Protocol Suite can occur in only one layer. simple that it 4
  5. 5. Topics Discussed in the Section Hierarchy ServicesTCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
  6. 6. Example 2.1Assume Maria and Ann are neighbors with a lot ofcommon ideas. However, Maria speaks only Spanish,and Ann speaks only English. Since both havelearned the sign language in their childhood, theyenjoy meeting in a cafe a couple of days per weekand exchange their ideas using signs. Occasionally,they also use a bilingual dictionary. Communication isface to face and Happens in one layer as shown inFigure 2.1.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
  7. 7. Figure 2.1 Example 2.1TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
  8. 8. Example 2.2Now assume that Ann has to move to another townbecause of her job. Before she moves, the two meetfor the last time in the same cafe. Although both aresad, Maria surprises Ann when she opens a packetthat contains two small machines. The first machinecan scan and transform a letter in English to a secretcode or vice versa. The other machine can scan andtranslate a letter in Spanish to the same secret codeor vice versa. Ann takes the first machine; Mariakeeps the second one. The two friends can stillcommunicate using the secret code, as shown inFigure 2.2.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
  9. 9. Figure 2.2 Example 2.2TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
  10. 10. 2-2 THE OSI MODEL Established in 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards. Almost three-fourths of countries in the world are represented in the ISO. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It was first introduced in the late 1970s.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
  11. 11. Topics Discussed in the Section Layered Architecture Layer-to-layer Communication Encapsulation Layers in the OSI Model Summary of OSI LayersTCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
  12. 12. Note ISO is the organization; OSI is the model.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
  13. 13. Figure 2.3 The OSI modelTCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
  14. 14. Figure 2.4 OSI layersTCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
  15. 15. Figure 2.5 An exchange using the OSI modelTCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
  16. 16. Note The physical layer is responsible for moving individual bits from one (node) to the next.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
  17. 17. Figure 2.6 Summary of OSI LayersTCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
  18. 18. 2-3 TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed prior to the OSI model. Therefore, the layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not match exactly with those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as four software layers built upon the hardware. Today, however, TCP/IP is thought of as a five-layer model with the layers named similarly to the ones in the OSI model. Figure 2.7 shows both configurations.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
  19. 19. Topics Discussed in the Section Comparison between OSI and TCP/IP Layers in the TCP/IP SuiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
  20. 20. Figure 2.7 Layers in the TCP/IP Protocol SuiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
  21. 21. Figure 2.8 TCP/IP and OSI modelTCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
  22. 22. Figure 2.9 A private internetTCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
  23. 23. Figure 2.10 Communication at the physical layer Legend Source Destination A R1 R3 R4 B Physical Physical layer layer Link 1 Link 3 Link 5 Link 6 011 ... 101 01 1. .. 10 1 011 ... 101 011 ... 101TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
  24. 24. Note The unit of communication at the physical layer is a bit.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
  25. 25. Figure 2.11 Communication at the data link layer Legend Source Destination D Data H Header A R1 R3 R4 BData link Data linkPhysical Physical Link 1 Link 3 Link 5 Link 6 D2 H2 Frame D2 ame Fr H2 D2 H2 D2 H2 Frame FrameTCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
  26. 26. Note The unit of communication at the data link layer is a frame.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
  27. 27. Figure 2.12 Communication at the network layer Legend Source Destination D Data H Header A R1 R3 R4 BNetwork NetworkData link Data linkPhysical Physical D3 H3 Datagram D3 H3 DatagramTCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
  28. 28. Note The unit of communication at the network layer is a datagram.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28
  29. 29. Figure 2.13 Communication at transport layer A Legend Source Destination D Data H Header B Transport Transport R1 R3 R4 Network Network Data link Data link Physical Physical D4 H4 Segment D4 H4 SegmentTCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
  30. 30. Note The unit of communication at the transport layer is a segment, user datagram, or a packet, depending on the specific protocol used in this layer.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
  31. 31. Figure 2.14 Communication at application layer A B Application Legend Source Destination D Data H Header Application Transport Transport R1 R3 R4 Network Network Data link Data link Physical Physical D5 D5 Message D5 D5TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31 Message
  32. 32. Note The unit of communication at the application layer is a message.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
  33. 33. 2-4 ADDRESSING Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical address, logical address, port address, and application-specific address. Each address is related to a one layer in the TCP/IP architecture, as shown in Figure 2.15.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33
  34. 34. Topics Discussed in the Section  Physical Addresses  Logical Addresses  Port Addresses  Application-Specific AddressesTCP/IP Protocol Suite 34
  35. 35. Figure 2.15 Addresses in the TCP/IP protocol suiteTCP/IP Protocol Suite 35
  36. 36. Example 2.3In Figure 2.16 a node with physical address 10 sends aframe to a node with physical address 87. The two nodesare connected by a link (a LAN). At the data link layer, thisframe contains physical (link) addresses in the header.These are the only addresses needed. The rest of theheader contains other information needed at this level. Asthe figure shows, the computer with physical address 10 isthe sender, and the computer with physical address 87 isthe receiver. The data link layer at the sender receivesdata from an upper layer. It encapsulates the data in aframe. The frame is propagated through the LAN. Eachstation with a physical address other than 87 drops theframe because the destination address in the frame doesnot match its own physical address. The intendeddestination computer, however, finds a match between thedestination address in the frame and its own physicaladdress.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36
  37. 37. Figure 2.16 Example 2.3: physical addresses packet packet discarded discarded 1 packet 87 10 87 10 Data accepted Data 2 3 4TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37
  38. 38. Example 2.4As we will see in Chapter 3, most local area networksuse a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal digits)is separated by a colon, as shown below: 07:01:02:01:2C:4B A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical addressTCP/IP Protocol Suite 38
  39. 39. Example 2.5Figure 2.17 shows a part of an internet with two routersconnecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router)has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for eachconnection. In this case, each computer is connected toonly one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses.Each router, however, is connected to three networks. Soeach router has three pairs of addresses, one for eachconnection. Although it may be obvious that each routermust have a separate physical address for eachconnection, it may not be obvious why it needs a logicaladdress for each connection. We discuss these issues inChapters 11 and 12 when we discuss routing. Thecomputer with logical address A and physical address 10needs to send a packet to the computer with logicaladdress P and physical address 95. We use letters to showthe logical addresses and numbers for physical addresses,but note that both are actually numbers, as we will see inTCP/IP Protocol Suitelater chapters. 39
  40. 40. Figure 2.17 Example 2.5: logical addresses 20 10 A P Data 20 10 A P Data 33 99 A P Data Physical addresses changed 95 66 A P Data 95 66 A P Data 33 99 A P Data Physical addresses changedTCP/IP Protocol Suite 40
  41. 41. Note The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical addresses remain the same.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41
  42. 42. Example 2.6Figure 2.18 shows two computers communicating viathe Internet. The sending computer is running threeprocesses at this time with port addresses a, b, andc. The receiving computer is running two processes atthis time with port addresses j and k. Process a in thesending computer needs to communicate with processj in the receiving computer. Note that although bothcomputers are using the same application, FTP, forexample, the port addresses are different becauseone is a client program and the other is a serverprogram, as we will see in Chapter 17.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42
  43. 43. Figure 2.18 Example 2.6: port numbers A Sender Receiver P Data Data a j Data a j Data A P a j Data A P a j Data H2 A P a j Data H2 A P a j Data InternetTCP/IP Protocol Suite 43
  44. 44. Note The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and port addresses usually remain the same.TCP/IP Protocol Suite 44
  45. 45. Example 2.7As we will see in future chapters, a port address is a16-bit address represented by one decimal number asshown. 753 A 16-bit port address represented as one single numberTCP/IP Protocol Suite 45

×