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  1. 1. Personality
  2. 2. What is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior <ul><li>Personality Determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Determinants of Personality Contd…
  4. 4. Heredity Environment <ul><li>Physical stature (tall/short) </li></ul><ul><li>Facial attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle composition </li></ul><ul><li>Energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Biological rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures such as values, dressing, definition of success </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural impacts are not uniform on each individual as they are also transmitted through parents and other people </li></ul><ul><li>Individual experience and social pressures </li></ul>
  5. 5. Family Social <ul><li>Significant influence particularly in early stage </li></ul><ul><li>Parents of the same sex as child serve as the model for child’s identification </li></ul><ul><li>1 st identification: similarity of behavior between child and model </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd identification: child’s motives or desires to be like the model </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd identification: process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model </li></ul><ul><li>Overall home environment </li></ul><ul><li>Person acquires behavioral attributes from wide range of behavioral potentialities or capabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>that are open to person starting from the birth </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization starts with: initial contact with mother, and afterwards the immediate family (father, brothers, sisters, relatives etc) , followed by the social groups (peers, school, friends etc) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Situational Note: Determinants discussed so far are more concerned with the historical nature of personality development, however the immediate situation(s) may also predominate
  7. 7. Some Other Personalities Traits Influencing OB <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem & Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Type A and Type B personality </li></ul>
  8. 8. Locus of Control Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
  9. 9. Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
  10. 10. Risk-Taking <ul><li>High Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make quicker decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use less information to make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are slower to make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require more information before making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in larger organizations with stable environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Propensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Type - A Type - B <ul><li>Always in hurry: moving, walking & eating rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Feels impatience with the pace of events taking place </li></ul><ul><li>Strive or think to do 2 or more things at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Can not cope with leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how much of anything they acquire </li></ul><ul><li>Never suffer from a sense time urgency with its accompanying impatience </li></ul><ul><li>Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is mandatory by situation </li></ul><ul><li>Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost </li></ul><ul><li>Can relax without guilt </li></ul>