Lecture• Popular during the Middle Ages when tabula rasa theory of education prevailed• Spoken words by the instructor• Needs plenty of interesting and colorful examples• Should be accompanied by feed back activity
Reading• Instructors should announce discussions or test• Supply syllabus for “Easter-egg hunt”• Reading that does not permit further growth is a questionable investment
Demonstration• Illustrated lectures• Suitable for psychomotor objectives• Close integration of the spoken and visual stimulus are the key to a successful demonstration
Field trips• “Easter-egg hunt” image is very helpful• Permit learners to experience sensory impressions which could never occur in the classrooms or conference rooms
Note-taking• Controversial – Necessary to imprint data – Others think that note taking may be a distraction People may take control of hat they write causing them to misinterpret the information
Programmed Instructions• Requires active involvement of the learners• Provides immediate feedback about the quality of the learner’s response
Structured Discussion• Conversations between trainees• Objective should be clearly announced in advance• Instructor-supplied agenda may be totally inconsistent with the climate needed for adult learning
Panel Discussion• Variation discussion format• Sometimes called: colloquies; symposiums• Short lectures by variety of peopleAnti dote for learners’ very low participation * question-answer participation * post-panel structured discussion
Open-forum Discussion• Learners should take full responsibility for the content of the discussion• Only the topic is announced• Any member may speak to any member• Moderator should be there
Performance try-out• Used for measurement and evaluation• Valid demonstration• Practical application“Learning is acquired through doing.” -Carl Rogers
Brain storming• Specialized form of discussion• Real-problem situation• Train people to listen positively to the ideas of others• Groups can generate more ideas that many people doing it individually
• Participants must control their inputs. Controls occurs through the instructions and behaviors of the leader.1. Generate, don’t evaluate.2. Create new ideas by amending those which have been suggested3. Post all suggestions on a visible list in front of the group
Case study• Popular way to induce involvement• an intensive analysis of an individual unit• Participants receive a printed description of the problem situation containing details of the problem• Control of the discussion is through a description of the desired output, such as: recommendation, decision, action plan, and justification
CASE STUDYIncident Process• Specialized form of case study• Insufficient data are given so that a decision cannot be reached• The data are available to the instructor and doles theses out in response to specific questions by the learners.
CASE STUDYAction mazes• Programmed case study• Printed description of the case with enough details to take them to the first decision point• Leader supplies the next frame which will explain the consequences of their decision• Effective way to let people discover the value of dissent, debate, confrontation, compromise
Role plays• Allows learners to reenact situations• Through reenactment, learners can reexamine previous behaviors, tryout behaviors they have just acquired or experiment on behavior which strike them as potentially useful• To make the role play totally relevant and realistic, instructors sometimes ask participants to write their own role plays.
REVERSE ROLE PLAYS• Participants switch roles at a critical moment in the role play• Helps gain understanding of another person’s viewpoint
Doubling role plays• Observers of the role plays get into the action when they feel moved to do so• They step behind the current player and become another “body and voice” for that character.• Doubling role play is an enacted brain storm
Rotation role plays• Variation of doubling role plays• One learner replaces another participant in the role play.• Learners are in greater control of the content and processes• Can also be managed by the instructor
Hot role plays• Used to resolve issues that arise spontaneously in the classroom dynamics• No instructions are given to the learners• Can become psychodrama• “alter-egoing”• “magic shop”• “magic wand”
Simulations• Somewhat like action mazes being role played• Operation of a real-world process or system over time.• To “mimic or simulate a real system so that we can explore it, perform experiments on it and understand it before implementing it in the real world”
Baskets• Form of simulation• Gets the realities of the job through the paper symptoms of that job• limited period of time to set priorities, organize their working schedule accordingly and respond to mails and phone calls
Games• Simulation made competitive• For therapeutic training, games can be sued for self-actualization and self-fulfillment• Develop listening skills• Greater involvement• Some behavior may be indentified as contributive or counter productive
Clinics• Learners devote their energy in solving a given problem• Discussion format• Helpful in developing problem-solving, decision-making or team membership skills• Real-world situation
Critical incident method• Identifies and analyzes actual participant experiences as a basis for better understanding real problems• Does not identify problem situations for class analysis but describe the details of an incident that “changed their lives”• Also called as the peak-experience approach• Incidents come from the learners themselves
CIT is a flexible method that usuallyrelies on five major areas.1. Determining and reviewing the incident2. Fact-finding3. Identify the issues.4. Decision on how to resolve the issues based on various possible solutions5. Evaluation, which will determine if the solution that was selected will solve the root cause of the situation
T-groups• ”sensitivity training”• form of group psychotherapy where participants themselves learn about themselves through their interaction with each other.• use feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, and groups.
Organization development data gatheringinvolves the process of diagnosis aimed atdeciding which one or what combination ofspecific methods may be useful to achievedevelopment objectives as a group or as anorganization
Asking what method to use for a trainingprogram is like asking a physician whatinstrument to use for surgery. It all dependson the nature of the operation.