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  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODS What is research?
  2. 2. Meaning of Research • It is conceptualized depending on perspectives -Simply research is a search for knowledge -A careful inquiry for new facts intending to-A careful inquiry for new facts intending to obtain answers of particular questions about a phenomena or events through the application of scientific procedures.
  3. 3. Research means… • Kothari(2004) holds that Research is a systematic and scientific search for information on specific topic. • He also views as an art of searching information involving procedures.information involving procedures. Educational research; it's the application of scientific research methods and processes and procedures in solving educational problems in educational field.
  4. 4. Educational research cont.. • Gall et al(2005)define educational research as a systematic collection and analysis of data in order to get valid description & generalization interventions in education. Generally, Research is the way of explainingGenerally, Research is the way of explaining and predicting a phenomena which is helpful to make changes and rearrangements.
  5. 5. Character… of Research 1. Research is systematic –has to follow structured rules and principles/procedures 2. Research is logical-it employs a system that needs reasoning i.e.. why this and not that? 3. It is empirical-it relies on empirical evidence3. It is empirical-it relies on empirical evidence may be after observation. e.g.. Observed data 4. Research demands accuracy and description- precise and accurate data are needed.
  6. 6. Characteristics cont.. 5.Research is replicable/transferable-can be repeated through being done by other people or other places i.e.. It can be recollected/replicated by reviewing other research findings.other research findings. 6.Research is directed towards the solution, that is, done in order to answer questions or finding the relationship between variables.
  7. 7. Characteristics cont… 7.Research is generative-that is, it generates other researches for other people to do. 8.Emphasizes on making generalization, developing principles and establishment ofdeveloping principles and establishment of theories. 9.Research forecast future events-predicts future occasions
  8. 8. Obj/purpose of research • General purpose, To find answers to hidden questions which are not yet known to solve problems. General objectives;General objectives; 1.To gain deeper understanding of a phenomena 2.Enables to achieve new insights 3.Provides help to describe features of an individual e.g.. accurate x-cs of a person
  9. 9. objectives cont… 4.To determine the frequency with which something is happening, to what extent the phenomena occurs. 5.To test hypothesis to obtain casual5.To test hypothesis to obtain casual relationship of a phenomena. Gall et al(2005)objectives 6.To achieve interventions of various programs.
  10. 10. Significance of research (Rationale) 1. To have basic knowledge about research 2. It is part of developing careers i.e. Doctors, teachers, counselors etc wishing to be consultants 3. Research inculcates us with the ability to evaluate3. Research inculcates us with the ability to evaluate other researches or findings and use the info. Collected to solve existing problems. 4. Enables us to make intellectual decisions in solving existing problems in the society.
  11. 11. Significance cont… 5.It instills thinking-makes one to reason and promote logical thinking (inspires thinking) 6.Is a basis for planning solution on social etc 7.Used for policy making and decisions by policy makers 7.Used for policy making and decisions by policy makers 8.Generates new ideas, facts and knowledge 9.May develop new theories and principles which guides day 2day life styles
  12. 12. Types of Research • There are different ways of classifying research a) Basing on purpose b) Basing on nature c) Basing on time d) Basing on Approach
  13. 13. Basing on purpose I. Basic/ pure/ fundermental research- its purpose is to formulate theories/make contribution to existing body of knowledgeexisting body of knowledge II. Applied research-An immediate and practical solution applied to solve the problem. NB: Basic and Applied types are the primary research types
  14. 14. Basing on Approach I. Quantitative research-deals with quantification ofinformation. In terms of numbers and it uses objective measurement & numerical measurement. II. Qualitative research-uses words to explainII. Qualitative research-uses words to explain the phenomena i.e.. Deals with hypothesizing unlike quantitative by which hypothesis is generated at the end. -It doesn't use numerical measurement but description
  15. 15. Quantitative categories • Experimental quantitative-involves control of variables • Non-experimental quantitative-there is• Non-experimental quantitative-there is no control of variables, relation ship is maintained
  16. 16. Basing on nature I. Descriptive research-descriptions II. Analytical research-analysis Basing on time I. Cross-sectional research-looks variables once within a short period of I. Cross-sectional research-looks variables once within a short period of time. II. Longitudinal research-carried over a long period of time covers a wider range of time
  17. 17. Types of research • Other types of research I. Empirical research- use evidences for data interpretation II. Conceptual research-concerns with abstract theories & concepts mostly used by II. Conceptual research-concerns with abstract theories & concepts mostly used by philosophers -used by experienced researchers. III Field searching research-A researcher go to field /area –collect information to a study area.
  18. 18. Other type cont… IV. Laboratory research –conducted in the laboratory it involve control of variables e.g. specimen. V .Simulation research-done when the respondents/informants you observe consider ethical to perform it respondents/informants you observe consider ethical to perform it VI. Clinical /diagnostic research-conducted for diagnostic purposes knowing the casual relationship of the existing phenomenon
  19. 19. Variables • Express the constructs on which a person wishes to find the relationship between them. • Variable is any thing which is subjected to change –decreasing or increasingchange –decreasing or increasing • Note -any thing that cant be subjected to change is not a variable • A variable is any thing which is varied example age of students, different courses, rate of dropout, performance curve etc.
  20. 20. Variables cont… • For example, students are of the same age but they have different characteristics Examples of variables>weight, height, distance, teachers qualification-Degree, diploma, certificate etc. Classification of variablesClassification of variables I (a) Categorical variables-are those which its subjects are classified into groups. e.g.. A-level classes, Academic staff, School heads etc.
  21. 21. Classification cont… b) Continuous variables-are those which the attributes have infinite number of ranges. -Have wide number of ranges e.g.. Distance when infinite II a) Independent variables-are those whichII a) Independent variables-are those which affect/influence another variables) e.g.. height of a child is influenced by his/her age. -Hence, age is an independent variable, influences height
  22. 22. Classification cont… b) Dependent variables-are kinds of variables in which its effects shown depends depend on an independent variables -Those which are influenced by other variables eg. The height of a child is influenced by the age of that child Hence, height is a dependent variable in research.
  23. 23. RESEARCH PROCESS • Activities involved in research process differ in accordance with the field or location. Sometimes may differ incase of the kind of researchresearch -Quantitative -Qualitative
  24. 24. Processes 1.Identification of research problem Define a research problem planned or intended to be researched in a more detail and clearly. -It should be a question to answer or a statement -Should be from unknown aspects-Should be from unknown aspects 2.Literature Review Involves reading previous research studies done by others pertaining the same topic/problem -It help a new researcher to find skills of attempting such problem but in different ways.
  25. 25. Research process cont.. 3.Formulation of hypothesis A tentative answers upon the selected problem. The assumptions, statement or expectation. i) Null hypothesis-a statement whichi) Null hypothesis-a statement which negates the phenomenon ii) Alternative hypothesis-this positive form of statement of a problem
  26. 26. Process…. 4. Identification of Variables -Identifying variables that can be used in research process -The variables should be labeled after being identified-The variables should be labeled after being identified i.e.. independent/dependent 5.Designing research study-conceptually, designing a research structure which a researcher will follow (a way) in conducting his/her research. ie design data collection techniques
  27. 27. Research process cont.. -Selection of the design (way) to follow depends on the nature of the research eg. Available resources like money, participants/ respondents, time and knowledge of a researcher like computer skills. 6.Selection of research methods6.Selection of research methods -These are data collection and analysis methods ie.Questionaire, observation, interview, focus group discussion -Nature of research determines the selection of research method.
  28. 28. Process cont.. 7.Development of research instruments -Are questions in which a researcher will ask the respondents which will assist him or her to obtain appropriate information. 8.Data collection8.Data collection -At field, a researcher is to collect information using different data collection methods. Though sometimes a researcher may post questionnaires to the field without going there.
  29. 29. Process cont.. 9.Interpretation and analysis of information -Careful analysis and interpretation of info. according to the methods used. -It is so, in order to get meaningful info. about research-It is so, in order to get meaningful info. about research conducted. 10.Report writing-the last and most important stage. A research writes a report ready to be published for knowledge acquisition.
  30. 30. Report writing…. -A report involves; • procedures followed in you research • Writings in past form and • Put forward the research findings/information in the• Put forward the research findings/information in the way that others may easily access. Note. Research proposal is written in future tenses-what is expected before research has been done.
  31. 31. RESEARCH PROBLEM Kothari(2004) defines research problem as difficult which a researcher experiences in the context of theoretical or practical situational and need to find solution. -Research problem doesn't exist in the vacuum there-Research problem doesn't exist in the vacuum there should be people facing that problem and objectives that at end, one needs to attain those objectives.
  32. 32. Characteristics of research problem • Should be manageable- in terms of time and money • Should be researchable • Should be of interest to the researcher • Should seek to bring originality• Should seek to bring originality
  33. 33. Sources of Research problem Experience-experience of a difficult by a person may be a source of a research problem and the problem needs solutions. Hence a research study is employed. Eg. Experience from delay of Loans to higher educationEg. Experience from delay of Loans to higher education students. Theory-one may draw research problem from assumptions. E.g. Child development theory of Bandura>As child interacts with environment his/her growth is affected
  34. 34. Sources cont… Literature review-reviewing what has been done by other researchers of the same problem, research problem can be drawn from that literary work by raising queries/doubts. Practical/actual situation. Policy change. Curriculum development.Curriculum development. Technological advancements. Authority advise from expertise How to select Research problem? >Choose a particular field of experience >Choose field of your interest >Field selected should be familiar to a prospective researcher.
  35. 35. Selecting research problem…. >Should logically be selected-reasoning to be part of it. >Narrow the selected problem to get very specific problems >Should be researchable-should access easily the information from participants (respondents)information from participants (respondents) i.e.. Sexual practices info can't be easily obtained, you should select researchable problem
  36. 36. Selection of r. problem… >Should be ethically appropriate-ethics is to be considered ie. Methods of interviewing participants should be ethical, unethical questions should end to invalid info. >Should be suitable to the researcher in terms of>Should be suitable to the researcher in terms of knowledge >Should add knowledge or solve problems >Should open up to new research-other area of searching
  37. 37. Format of research proposal Mainly contains 3 main chapters 1.Chapter I-Introduction 2.Chapter II-Literature Review 3.Chpter III-Methodology Before chapter I there is-Before chapter I there is- >Preliminary information-Title of the topic -Name -Course/program -Table of content(1pg)
  38. 38. RESEARCH PROPOSAL • Is a description or plan to be followed in carrying out a proposed study. Rationale/purpose/why research proposal? @Helps the researcher to think of important issues about the study eg. How to collect data & where necessary info is available. about the study eg. How to collect data & where necessary info is available. @Helps the researcher to evaluate the study by looking at the difficulties which are likely to be involved. @Provides a guide/plan of general strategies to be undertaken-directs a researcher where to go
  39. 39. Research proposal…. After chapter III there is- >References-list of books used >Appendices/appendix-includes sample of research instruments that you will use eg. Questionnaire, intervieweg. Questionnaire, interview In preliminary information:- TITLE of the study should indicate major independent & dependent variables. -May include the population on which the study will be undertaken
  40. 40. Preliminary info cont… -Title should be brief preferably less than 19 words Example of a title 1.“The influence of personality on academic performance among the second year diplomaperformance among the second year diploma students at Mpuguso teachers college” i) Personality-independent variable ii) Academic performance-dependent variable
  41. 41. Title • Includes population eg.second year diploma students 2.Gender & academic performance in LG courses at UDOMat UDOM -Gender>independent variable -Performance in LG courses-dependent variable
  42. 42. CHAPTER I/INTRODUCTION (Before all prepare an abstract) Organization of chapter I -Contains a number of items/element including; 1.Background to the problem-info acquired for1.Background to the problem-info acquired for understanding the problem. Provide the context of the study by answering the question `why should the study choose this problem? -should start from broad to specific
  43. 43. Chapter I In background-the research should try to convince the experts have an argument to the problem. -Expected to review other works to reveal what is known eg. What is the subject? what are the weaknesses of thewhat are the weaknesses of the current? Questions included; i) What current & previous studies have done?
  44. 44. Questions cont… ii) What is the available info on the magnitude nature & causes of the problem? iii) What are present gaps in knowledge? iv) What makes that problem important for studying?iv) What makes that problem important for studying? v) Why not been talked yet? vi) What do you intend to do to fill the gaps/solve the problems vii) What do you intend to do to bring new in the problem?
  45. 45. Chapter I cont.. 2.Statement of the problem- An attempt which focus on the study by providing direction on the problem -can be declarative statement or question, usually need a lot of words (relatively 19-20 words) and state whya lot of words (relatively 19-20 words) and state why is the proposed study? 3.Purpose of the study-A single statement or paragraph which explains what the study intends to accomplish.
  46. 46. Chapter I cont… >Purpose of the study should specify variables that a research intends to focus on Eg.1.The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of study hours on the memory of the students.of study hours on the memory of the students. 2.The purpose of the study is to discover the relationship between the timing of the lesson & the students attendance to the lecture/lesson.
  47. 47. Chapter I 4.Objectives of the study-are specific statements which come from the purpose. -They are indicators of what a researcher is going to do. Examples of objectives: -To show how the students attendance to lectures differ according to the lecture hours -To examine the relationship between sex and attendance of lecture in different hours
  48. 48. Chapter I cont… 5. Hypotheses-likely outcome/expectation. Are simply stated and can either be NULL or ALTERNATIVE=(Ho or Ha) respectively. -Null hypothesis is denying the phenomenon E.g. “There is no relationship between lecture hour &E.g. “There is no relationship between lecture hour & the attendance of students in lectures” -Alternative hypothesis is a positive statement Eg.“There is relationship between study hours and memory of students”
  49. 49. Chapter I cont… -Question can also be used to help a researcher E.g.Is there a significant difference between attendance of male students and those of female students in different lectures. 6. Significance of the study-answers number of6. Significance of the study-answers number of questions including; -Why is the study important? -To whom is it important? -What benefit will be brought when the study is conducted? (justify materials, time, money)
  50. 50. Chapter I 7.Limitations of the study-they could be money, time, methodological weaknesses. -Which practical & theoretical drawbacks are? E.g.. Is the topic chosen could be achieved to the timeE.g.. Is the topic chosen could be achieved to the time scheduled?
  51. 51. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW • Literature Review starts from the beginning and through out the research. -Research starts in the library and ends in the library. Literature Review is;Literature Review is; 1.Locating literature in a variety of sources, reading it carefully and thoroughly, evaluating the content, breaking down the content into things and organizing it along the scenes of the study.
  52. 52. Literature Review cont… 2.The systematic identification & analysis of documents containing info related to the study. Features of Literature Review >Should point how the problem of the study I related>Should point how the problem of the study I related to previous research findings. >Should demonstrate how the approach of the study is likely to differ from others. >Should justify the need for the study esp. if similar study has been done before on a particular area
  53. 53. Literature Review features cont… -look on the aim and method of the study to justify the need to research for a similar study before done before. >Should find out methodological errors and any oppositions among various findingsoppositions among various findings -should show discrepancy of the different findings of the similar study. >Should start with broad ideas and narrow them down to specific ideas i.e. World issues to nation/institution level
  54. 54. Literature review features cont… >Should not be list mere of research- not to list but give an argument of your study -should be complete >Should be critical- should see if the result is objective or subjective, were it contain facts etc.or subjective, were it contain facts etc. -See what is lacking, what is not appropriate? -was a researcher influenced by his political, regional, religion atmosphere?
  55. 55. Literature review features cont… >Should only concern itself with the variables of the study-primarily to concern with the areas a researcher intends to deal with. Sources/documents of Literature review; -Gvt documents e.g.. Edn & Training policy 1995-Gvt documents e.g.. Edn & Training policy 1995 -Dissertation & thesis -Books, journals, magazines, articles, newspaper, -Dictionaries, encyclopedia, Gvt BEST (Basic Edn Stat.) and Conference papers.
  56. 56. Best/authentic source of L. Review -Is the author/institution known & respected to the field? -Is the reference made to other work in this field? -Is there a bias to this piece of info that affect the way that it has presented?that it has presented? >political, social, economic biases -Does the info seem objective? -Is there any motive behind/underlying agenda/propaganda? -How current is the information?
  57. 57. Why literature Review/purpose of L.R • To gain knowledge in subject area • To find out where literature is fit-finding gap in knowledge • Gaining feedback info in order to rethink and focus a• Gaining feedback info in order to rethink and focus a research problem. • To discover how others have researched the chosen topic area.-methods used, hypothesis made • To justify why & how you have done the research in the way you have done.
  58. 58. Purpose of L.R • To have a body of information to compare your research findings. -to compare your results with the findings of other researches.other researches. Reflection Think of your title and then write two pages of Literature review (how can it look like?)
  59. 59. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (How to plan for) 1.Research design 2.Study population 3.Sampling strategy and sample size3.Sampling strategy and sample size 4.Area of study and its characteristics 5.Data collection techniques 6.Validity and Reliability 7.Ethical issues 8.Data analysis plan
  60. 60. 1.Research Design • Is your plan that will show the specific sources and type of information relevant to your research problem. • Is your plan that shows the approach to be used forIs your plan that shows the approach to be used for data collection and analysis • Sometime your design gives a clue of time frame and cost of the study.
  61. 61. Research Design cont… • There are so many Research Designs-but consider these you can practice a) Experimental research design b) Descriptive research design c) Explanatory research designc) Explanatory research design d) Exploration research design e) Cross-sectional design f) Longitudinal design
  62. 62. Research design.. • Things to consider when selecting research design i. What is the study about? ii. Why is the study being conducted? iii. Where will the research be carried out?iii. Where will the research be carried out? iv. What type of data is required? v. Where can the required data be obtained?
  63. 63. Research design cont.. vi. What period of time will the study include?5yrs? Vii What will be the sample design? viii.What data collection techniques will be used? ix. How will the data collected be analyzed? x. What style will the research report be prepared and presented?
  64. 64. Research design.. • Good research design meet these criteria: The design is flexible-considers many aspects Appropriate for the study Efficient-yield what is requiredEfficient-yield what is required Economical-takes less time and money Minimizes bias & maximizes reliability of data collection NB. Not one design fits all kinds of studies
  65. 65. 2.Study population • What is population? Population is the group that you will generalize your results of the research (theoretical population) Sometimes population can be something other thanSometimes population can be something other than group of people, such as temperature, automobiles produced by a given company,etc
  66. 66. 2.Study population cont.. • But sometimes you might find difficulty in getting the list of your population E.g. Street children in Tanzania. It's hard to get their names in each urban center. • Hence the alternative is Accessible population From this example the accessible population might be street children in Dodoma municipality aged 5-18 years
  67. 67. Study population cont… • Sampling Frame-this is the list of the accessible population from which you will draw your sample. From the example of street children of Dodoma municipal, those you managed to reach and registermunicipal, those you managed to reach and register is your Sample frame However, it is not easy to study all respondents in the sample frame. You need a sample
  68. 68. 3. SAMPLE • What is a sample? Sample is a subset of the population Sample is the small group of people you select to be in your studyyour study The reason you sample is to get an estimate for the population from which you sampled
  69. 69. Who do you want to generate to? Theoretical population What population The study population Can u get access to? How can u get The sampling frame access to them? Who is in your study? The sample
  70. 70. Sampling techniques Probability samples Non probability samples -where the probability of Reflect an unknown proba selecting each respondent bility of selection. is known. 1.Simple random 1.Convenience sampling1.Simple random 1.Convenience sampling 2.Systematic sampling 2.Quota sampling 3.Stratified random s.. 3.Dimensional sampling 4.Cluster/area sampling 4.Purposive sampling 5.Snowball sampling 6.Mixed sampling design
  71. 71. a) Simple random sampling • Simple random sample each person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen for the sample study. Criteria: 1.No one is listed more than once, nobody is excluded1.No one is listed more than once, nobody is excluded 2.Sampling without replacement ie. 1/100;1/50(selection is equal at any given stage of sampling 3.Use table of random numbers, flip of coin, lottery or spin of roulette wheel.
  72. 72. 1 26 51 761 26 51 76 Determine the number of unitsDetermine the number of units 2 27 52 772 27 52 77 N=100N=100 3 28 53 783 28 53 78 Determine the sample size (N)Determine the sample size (N) 4 29 54 794 29 54 79 Want n=20Want n=20 5 30 55 805 30 55 80 The interval size is K=N/nThe interval size is K=N/n 66 31 56 8131 56 81 100/20=5 K=5100/20=5 K=5 7 32 57 827 32 57 82 Select a random integer from 1 to KSelect a random integer from 1 to K 8 33 58 838 33 58 83 chose 4chose 4 9 34 59 849 34 59 84 10 35 60 8510 35 60 85 select every k th unitselect every k th unit10 35 60 8510 35 60 85 select every k th unitselect every k th unit 11 36 61 8611 36 61 86 12 37 62 8712 37 62 87 13 38 63 8813 38 63 88 14 39 64 8914 39 64 89 15 40 65 9015 40 65 90 16 41 66 9116 41 66 91 17 42 67 9217 42 67 92 18 43 68 9318 43 68 93 19 44 69 9419 44 69 94 20 45 70 9520 45 70 95 21 46 71 9621 46 71 96 22 47 72 9722 47 72 97 23 48 73 9823 48 73 98 24 49 74 9924 49 74 99
  73. 73. b) Stratified random sampling • You subdivide the population into smaller homogeneous groups in order to get a more accurate representation of the population. DistrictDistrict MaleMale FemaleFemale TotalTotal • The 4 groups(20, 30, 25, 15) are strata. Once the 4 groups have been formed, a simple random sample is taken within each group. Each strata represent the population Moshi urbanMoshi urban 2020 3030 5050 Moshi RuralMoshi Rural 2525 1515 4040 TotalTotal 4545 4545 9090
  74. 74. Stratified random sampling List of Clients Asians African-America strata Hispanic –American
  75. 75. C) Cluster/ Area Sampling Cluster sampling is done when: 1. The study population is infinite 2. List of members is not available 3. Geographical distribution is widely scattered e.g.3. Geographical distribution is widely scattered e.g. survey of all nomads in Tanzania. So 1st randomly sample 20 districts with nomads 2nd List all areas nomads were found, randomly pick 5 3rd Random sample of 500 nomads could be drawn
  76. 76. Non probability sample a) Convenience sampling- its like a study for secondary school students in Dodoma municipal, you just pick Ng`ong`ona secondary school, its closer and easy to access b) Quota sampling-its like stratified sampling where youb) Quota sampling-its like stratified sampling where you form strata easy to access c) Purposive sampling its between convenience and quota-where the nearest & available people are studied
  77. 77. Non probability sample cont… d) Snowball sampling 1st a person with best criteria is identified & interviewed 2nd-The 1st person identify other who qualify to be2 -The 1 person identify other who qualify to be included 3rd –the 2nd person calls in the 3rd person & it continue until you have enough sample size.
  78. 78. Sample size What is the minimum adequate sample size? It depends on both the nature of the population and the purpose of the study An ideal study would have a sample large enough to represent the population so generalization mayrepresent the population so generalization may occur, yet small enough to save time, money and complexity of data analysis. Consideration of Sample 1.The larger the sample, the larger the likelihood of representation of the population.
  79. 79. Consideration of sample size cont… 2. The greater the heterogeneity, the larger the necessity for a larger sample 3. If there is no heterogeneity (homogeneity) even a sample of ONE would suffice.sample of ONE would suffice. Sample size How to calculate sample size n= (σ12 +σ22) (Z1-α/2+Z1-β) Δ2
  80. 80. Sample size cont… Where by, n=sample size, ∆=µ1-µ2 for the mean difference of representative groups; σ1and σ2 are respective group variances, respectively. 1.96 is the Z-score at 95% confidence interval. Sampling ErrorSampling Error Sampling error is the degree in which the sample means of repeatedly drawn from random samples differ from one another; and from the population mean. E.g.. A researcher select 50 sec school students from-
  81. 81. Sampling error the population of all students in Dodoma municipal. The average marks of each student will not be the same, although most of them will cluster around population average. Some will be relatively high/low by comparison.Some will be relatively high/low by comparison. This variation in sample means is a result of sampling error, its not a mistake in the sampling process but rather an inevitable variation when a number of randomly selected sample means (marks) are compared.
  82. 82. 4.Area of study and its characteristics • Find a map that shows where your study will be conducted • Explain the main characteristics of the respondents e.g.. The economy, social-economical activities ande.g.. The economy, social-economical activities and cultural values that differ significantly with other people • Why the area and specific group was chosen • What is so unique?
  83. 83. 5. Data collection techniques Quantitative study Qualitative study 1.Questionaires 1. Observation 2.Rating scale 2. Participants 3.Test scores observation 3.Document study3.Test scores observation 3.Document study 4.Computers 5.Indexes 6.Inventories
  84. 84. QUESTIONAIRE Strength Weakness 1.Questionaire can be 1.Don`t have luxury of length Administered in terms of 2.Can't use many items to tap interview or self admini- person's evaluation of target, stered measure. event, objective of fatigue 2.It has capacity to use 3. Its expensive eg.national survey2.It has capacity to use 3. Its expensive eg.national survey both open-ended and close-ended questions.
  85. 85. TYPES OF QUESTIONAIRES questions-these tap persons feelings with greater fidelity/correctness. E.g., What is your favorite meal? However, it's expensive in terms of developing methods of analysis of the free items generated.of analysis of the free items generated. 2.Close-ended questions-you force the respondents to choose among limited set of response options e.g. What is your favorite meal among pasta, rice or banana stew?
  86. 86. Ordering questionnaires • Question ordering-It is important to establish rapport to help ensure the quality of the interaction, truthfulness and completeness of the answers that respondent provide. • Unfortunately, the questions are posed by a more/less anonymous researcher, with little attempt to build relationship with researcher or are on sheet of paper with short introduction of purpose.
  87. 87. Ordering questionnaires cont… 1.The least threatening items be presented first. eg. Name of your school, how old are you? Which class? Which tribe? How many brothers/sisters? 2. The respondent become comfortable with the2. The respondent become comfortable with the research& some what committed by virtue of answering a number of questions 3. Then ask more personal or threatening questions
  88. 88. Ordering questions E.g. .A study on adolescent drug use, it is common that non threatening queries be presented before items assessing use of illegal substances are posed. E.g.. Likewise a study assessing adolescent sexual behaviorbehavior
  89. 89. Drop-out & no-opinion Response Loosing a respondent is something we want to avoid Whether the respondent's loss is due to refusal to initiate the questionnaire or to complete it once itinitiate the questionnaire or to complete it once it began, the loss is a threat to the generalizability of any research study.
  90. 90. Drop-out & no-opinion Response Some drop-outs are caused by the researcher. E.g. When you allow respondent to hold a“ no opinion” Question: Have you ever contracted STDs? While others allow for a neutral position Question: Condoms are expensive YESYES NONO DON`T KNOWDON`T KNOW StronglyStrongly agreeagree AgreeAgree NeutralNeutral DisagreDisagre ee StronglyStrongly disagreedisagree
  91. 91. Drop-out & no-opinion Response Yet other researchers do not allow “middle of the road ”by forcing the respondents to take a stand Answers to their question will require YES/NO or Agree/disagreeAgree/disagree Studies have shown that there pros and cons for such no-opinion response . Most respondent will prefer no-opinion (don't know) option and such altitude encourage respondents to maintain interest in the question.
  92. 92. Drop-out & no-opinion Response As such neutral responses are difficult to infer Advantages of having a middle option outweigh theAdvantages of having a middle option outweigh the negative possibilities. However have a clear understanding of what neutral or no-response felling about an item means.
  93. 93. RATING SCALE Construction of rating scale: These are formalized versions of questionnaires designed to measure specific attitude, value or personality disposition.personality disposition. E.g. Renesis Likert scale (1932), Louis Thurstone`s scale(1927)
  94. 94. Renesis Likert scale(1932) ItemItem 11 22 33 44 55 I would use condom if one isI would use condom if one is availableavailable stronglystrongly agreeagree agreeagree NeutralNeutral disagreedisagree StronglyStrongly disagreedisagree Condoms are not easilyCondoms are not easily availableavailable StronglyStrongly agreeagree NeutralNeutral disagreedisagree StronglyStrongly disagreedisagree Condoms are not necessarilyCondoms are not necessarily stronglystrongly agreeagree agreeagree NeutralNeutral disagreedisagree StronglyStrongly disagreedisagreeWhen you plan to marry theWhen you plan to marry the partnerpartner agreeagree disagreedisagree I would be embarrassed toI would be embarrassed to buy a condombuy a condom stronglystrongly agreeagree agreeagree NeutralNeutral disagreedisagree StronglyStrongly disagreedisagree I am prepared to be testedI am prepared to be tested HIVHIV stronglystrongly agreeagree agreeagree NeutralNeutral disagreedisagree StronglyStrongly disagreedisagree
  95. 95. Likert scale • Items are presented in multiple choice format • Respondents will pick one out of 5 choices, for a +ve wording like: The TTU has been a +ve force to change teachers` lifeteachers` life +1 strongly agree to +5 strongly disagree For a -ve wording like: The TTU has had a –ve effects on teachers` life +5 strongly agree to +1 strongly disagree
  96. 96. Likert scale • Likert scale proves more efficient in terms of time, resources expenditure, and effective in developing scale of high reliability, internal consistency and temporal stability.
  97. 97. Purpose of Observation • Three purposes of Observation 1.To provide description of behavior 2. To record situational behavior 3. To study a topic that leads to this method3. To study a topic that leads to this method a) By providing description of behavior patterns under real and accurate circumstances b) Behavior can be recorded as it actually occur 4. This is the only method for studying infants, toddlers, people with terminal cancer who can't be interviewed or given questionnaires to complete.
  98. 98. Louis Thurstone`s scale Thurstone scale. 1st step generate many potential items 2nd step judges are asked to rate their favorability of the items of interest (the government)items of interest (the government) 3rd, judges independently estimate the degree of favorability and find the mean for each item 4th the researcher determine the means and SD 5th The 15-25 items with higher rate are included in the study. Higher values represent more –ve attitude
  99. 99. Louis Thurstone`s scale Attitudes towards government ItemItem ## ItemItem ScaleScale valuevalue 11 I think the teaching of the government is too superficialI think the teaching of the government is too superficial 8.38.3 22 I feel the government is petty always quarreling over matter of noI feel the government is petty always quarreling over matter of no significancesignificance 8.68.6 significancesignificance 33 I respect any member's political party affiliation & beliefI respect any member's political party affiliation & belief 9.19.1 44 The government represent shallowness, hypocrisy, prejudiceThe government represent shallowness, hypocrisy, prejudice 10.410.4 55 I think the country would be better if multiparty system is closedI think the country would be better if multiparty system is closed 10.510.5 66 I think the organized political party is a parasite of the governmentI think the organized political party is a parasite of the government 10.710.7 77 I regard the government as staticI regard the government as static 11.011.0
  100. 100. Observation method Observation methods is a scientific method if carried under proper circumstances. Criteria: 1.Must serve the research purpose1.Must serve the research purpose 2.Be planned systematically 3.Be recorded systematically 4.Be subject to checks and controls on validity & reliability
  101. 101. Values of observation • The study is conducted in naturalistic environment i.e. manipulation or controls • Its discovery approach carried out in the field where the researcher understand better the context within which the behavior occurwhich the behavior occur • It enables the respondents to understand the aims of the study through interaction with researcher • The first-hand experience enable the researcher to use inductive approach
  102. 102. Values of observation cont.. • The researcher can observe behaviors that are routine to those in the study interest • The researcher can learn behavior that can not be revealed in an interview or questionnaire • The researcher is able to present a comprehensive• The researcher is able to present a comprehensive view of the behavior because s/he can move beyond the perceptions of the respondents • The researcher use his/her knowledge, experience In terms of feelings, reflections, introspection
  103. 103. Methods of Observation Two methods: 1.Unstructured method of observation-the researcher is involved as participant observer, filming, videotaping an occurrence 2.Structured method-the researcher select activities2.Structured method-the researcher select activities to be observed before they occur and plan a systematic recording of the observations (duration, continuous, frequency count & interval) NB; Prepare observation form to record each time
  104. 104. Methods of Observation Observation form for staff meeting Each time a H/teacher asks a question, place a check next to one of the following categories that best describes the questiondescribes the question Qns Frequency Total a. Asks personnel for direct input xxx 3 b. Asks personnel to answer specific qns xxxx 4 c. Asks for general questions xxxxx 5 d. Other xxxxxxx 7
  105. 105. Ethnomethodology Ethnomethodology-an organizational study of a person's knowledge of his/her affairs, enterprises Advantage of Ethnomethodology 1.It study both verbal & nonverbal behavior1.It study both verbal & nonverbal behavior 2. Its longitudinal because it is ongoing & changes of behavior can be viewed over time 3. It gives insight onto what & people think about common place activities & behaviors why
  106. 106. Ethnometh…….. • Disadvantages 1.It investigate the process of how behavior occur rather than the product of that occurrence 2.You can not investigate large scale studies but smaller2.You can not investigate large scale studies but smaller investigations
  107. 107. Document study Is reading documents of the institution you are studying, eg. Factors for effective guidance & counseling services in secondary schools in Tanzania 1.Routine client records 2.Correspondence from and to staff2.Correspondence from and to staff 3.Financial charts 4. Official & unofficial documents generated by or for the program
  108. 108. Document study • The above documents provide the researcher with basic sources of information regarding activities and processes of the schools, and can view other questions not previously considered to follow up on observations participantsobservations participants observation or ethnomethodological research.
  109. 109. Types of Documents 1.Internal documents e.g.. Memos-in large institutions like UDOM it's the amount of papers that flow from top to bottom. Of course some flow in the opposite direction as well 2.External communication-the materials that circulate outside the organizationoutside the organization 3.Personal records-about hiring & firing practices, promotion & rewards NB: A good qualitative study will most likely put to use most of these methods as they are all beneficial.
  110. 110. 6. Validity and Reliability • Validity-in research is how sound your research is. You can consider validity in 4 four types, these are: a) Internal Validity-is attained when the researcher managed to control all the extraneous variables.managed to control all the extraneous variables. e.g.. In a study of the effectiveness of teaching method, lets say mediated learning experience (MLE). One group will be taught using MLE while the other will not.
  111. 111. Validity cont… After sometime give the same test to both groups. If you managed to control all extraneous variables, then you will attain internal validity. Internal validity is very difficulty to achieve.very difficulty to achieve. As you try to control extraneous variables, external validity is threatened So, you must compromise because you can not control all threats..
  112. 112. Threats of internal validity • Maturation-due to time that has elapsed • Test-retest can give a clue of the study • History events that occur simultaneous with the study • Instrumentation- use of different tools can change resultsresults b) External validity- is the researchers` ability to generalize the findings of a study. As a researcher when you control threats of internal validity you create artificial environment which generalization of other settings is impossible.
  113. 113. Threats of external validity • Reactive of testing • The interactive effects of selection of respondents • The reactive effects of experimental arrangement • Multiple treatment interference• Multiple treatment interference c) Statistical Validity-refers to the accuracy of the conclusion drawn from the statistical test. Eg. If your results show that enrolment at UDOM is 70% males and 30% females, then you conclusion that there is equal opportunity at UDOM. Such conclusion is wrong
  114. 114. Validity cont… d) Construct validity address the degree to which the underlying theory of research explains the observed results. E.g.. Theory show that adolescents are sexually active as such they are vulnerable to consequences suchas such they are vulnerable to consequences such as unplanned pregnancies, induced abortion, STDs including HIV/AIDS However, your findings from 1000 students shows that 12-20 years students none is sexually active, then these results are not valid.
  115. 115. Reliability • We often speak of reliable friend • We often speak of reliable machine • News, people speak of reliable source of information • Whatever the case may be, what is reliability? Reliable usually mean dependable or trustworthy In research Reliability has to do with quality of measurement Reliability is the consistency or repeatability of your measures
  116. 116. Reliability • A measure is considered reliability if it would give you the same results over and over again (when you assume what you are measuring is not changing) is a composition of two components: true ability (or true level) of respondent on that item; and random errorlevel) of respondent on that item; and random error Eg..You observed Juma`s score of 85% in SE 301 timed test. However, in reality the ability of Juma might be better than the score indicated eg,89% So the error for Juma is 89%-85%= -4%
  117. 117. Reliability What does this mean? While Juma`s ability is 89% he may have had bad day, like no breakfast, quarreled with someone, some distract while doing the test etcdistract while doing the test etc Measures like these can contribute to errors in measurement that makes the students` observed abilities appear lower than their true or actual abilities.
  118. 118. Reliability cont.. If your measure of 85% is reliable, you should find that if you measure/observe twice on the same persons the score should be pretty much the same Why would they be the same? How do you know? X1 X2 T+e1 T+e2
  119. 119. Reliability The two error scores(e1 and e2) have different values, because you are likely to have different errors in different occasions. However, the true score “T” is the same for both testsHowever, the true score “T” is the same for both tests NB: 1.Sometimes errors will lead Juma to perform better on test than his ability eg. good day for guess work 2.The error is randomly distributed
  120. 120. Types Reliability a) Inter-rater or inter-observer reliability-is used to assess the degree to which different raters or observers give consistent estimates of the same behavior. b) Test-retest reliability-is used to assess theb) Test-retest reliability-is used to assess the consistency of a measure from one time to another. c) Parallel forms reliability-is used to assess the consistency of the results from one test constructed in the same way from the same content domain.
  121. 121. Types cont… d) internal consistency reliability- is used to assess the consistency of results across items within a test. When you are done with validity & reliability you move onto data analysis planonto data analysis plan
  122. 122. 7.Data analysis plan What is data? -Is something known or assumed as fact -A thing given as a basis of reasoning or calculation What is variable? Variable is observed quantity or attribute which varies from one member of the population/sample being studies to another.
  123. 123. Dependent variables Dependent/response variable (s) are those depend upon the values of independent variables. Commonly used symbol is Y E.g..E.g.. 1.Students performance 2.Teachers motivation 3.Knowledge, attitude and practice
  124. 124. Independent variables Independent/explanatory variable-is the one that is manipulated by the researcher; Commonly use X symbol E.g..E.g.. 1.Working hours 2.Age 3.Gender 4.Years of experience 5.Level of education
  125. 125. Classification of variables One way of classifying; Data (information) Quantitative data Qualitative data represented numerically Attributes are measured eg. The body of mass of eg. Gender or eye coloreg. The body of mass of eg. Gender or eye color each member of a group of people
  126. 126. Classification cont.. Quantitative data Discrete Continuous Data can only have known can have any value within fixed values eg. number of a defined rangefixed values eg. number of a defined range Admissions to medical eg. Body mass ward 0, 1, 2, 3. 4 50kg 60kg 70kg
  127. 127. Measurement scales 1.Nominal scale-is mutually exclusive category that varies qualitatively eg. Gender, religion, region For computational purposes, numbers are attached to the categories when using SPSSthe categories when using SPSS E.g. Gender: man=1; woman=0 Eye colour:1=blue, 2=brown, 3=black Note that these doesn't mean the categories are unequal
  128. 128. Scales cont… 2.Ordinal scale-is more informative than nominal and differ from nominal in that the categories are preserved in the analysis. For computation, numbers are attached to reflect their relative order. a) Social economic status: High=3; medium=2;low=1 or 1st, 2nd,3rd etc Note that the difference between medium and high is not equal as between low and medium. Even though numerically 3-2=1and 2-1=1 The numbers just give the rank.
  129. 129. Scales cont… 3.Interval scale-is more informative than nominal and ordinal scales. The difference between adjacent categories are equal, however, there is no true ZERO point. E.g.. Centigrade temperature scales where 40oC is higher than 30oC and the difference between 30oC and 40oC is the same as 10oC and 20oC However 40oC is not twice the temperature of 20oC, since 0oC is not absolute ZERO.
  130. 130. Scales cont… 4.Ratio scale-differ from interval scale that there is true zero point. Ratio scale is more informative that the 3 preceding scales E.g.. Consider the height in meters. A stick 6 meters. AE.g.. Consider the height in meters. A stick 6 meters. A stick 6 meters long is twice as much as 3 meters long stick. Or A baby 12kg weight is twice as much heavier than a 6kg baby.
  131. 131. Measurement scale Types of measurement scale based on Puri BK(1996) statistics for the Health science with permission from WB sources London Property Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Categories mutually exclusive √ √ √ √ Categories logically ordered √ √ √ Distance between adjacent categories √ √Distance between adjacent categories √ √ True zero point √
  132. 132. Data Analysis • Statistics analysis What is statistics? This is the language that can be employed to express concepts and relationships than can not beconcepts and relationships than can not be communicated in other way Statistics is a language to organize, analyze, and interpret numerical data
  133. 133. Data analysis cont… • Statistics-can function to i) Describe data, i.e.. -To explain how the data look -Where the center point of data is-Where the center point of data is -How spread out the data may be -How one aspect of the data may be related to one or more other aspects.
  134. 134. Data analysis cont… Eg. If you want to describe the total number of pregnancies in the adolescent population, you must calculate: • The average age at the time of pregnancy,The average age at the time of pregnancy, • The age range of the group, • The relationship between age at first coital experience and at the time of pregnancy, • And the number of premarital complications.
  135. 135. Data analysis You should describe this group of adolescents (Descriptive statistical analysis) NB: No conclusion can be made beyond this group Any similarities to those outside (adolescents) can not be assumed
  136. 136. Data analysis ii) The second function of statistics is to infer- (Inferential statistical analysis) You observe a sample, conclusions about the population are inferred from the obtained information from the sampleinformation from the sample E.g.. If you were observing the behavior of random sample of adolescent mothers from Moshi Urban. You could make inference of all adolescent mothers of Tanzania. Here generalization can be made from the sample results.
  137. 137. Inferential statistical analysis Inferential statistical analysis-can be used for estimation and predictions. E.g. Graduate Examination Records (GRE) can predict how well a candidate may perform in a graduate studies programstudies program Extrapolation is also a component of inferential statistics. E.g. Estimation of Tanzania population in 2020 with current HIV/AIDS prevalence.
  138. 138. Levels of measurement There are several statistical techniques available to social science researchers who wish to describe the observed research group. 1. Measures of Central Tendency 2. Measures of Dispersion, spread or variation2. Measures of Dispersion, spread or variation 3. Measures of relationship a) Spearman rank order correlation (rs) b) Pearson product-moment correlation (r ) • It is the responsibility of the researcher to select the technique that best fits her/his data
  139. 139. Measures of central tendency • Mode-is the most frequently occurring score E.g. Mode-is 7 Mode is the quickest estimate of central value & show the most studentstudent Score (x)Score (x) 11 99 central value & show the most typical case 11 99 22 88 33 77 44 77 55 77 66 66 77 55 88 44 99 22
  140. 140. Measures of central tendency • Unlike the mean, median is not affected by extreme scores In some instances it can be the more stable measure of central tendency than the arithmetic mean, Our 9 scores with a median of 7 is a good example.scores with a median of 7 is a good example. However, it is reserved when a quick measure of central tendency is required to mark the skew ness of distribution
  141. 141. Measures of central tendency 2.Median-is the measure of position or point above and below which one of the scores fall. Mean=Σx =55=6.11 studentstudent Score (x)Score (x) 11 99 Mean=Σx =55=6.11 n 9 Mean=6.11 Where: x=scores in distribution N=number of students 11 99 22 88 33 77 44 77 55 77 66 66 77 55 88 44 99 22
  142. 142. Measures of central tendency Mean is the fulcrum/balance point of a distribution, and its one of the most useful statistical measures because it provides much information.information. It is affected by all scores in the distribution It serves as basis of further computations such as variability.
  143. 143. Measures of spread/variation • Although measures of central tendency are useful, sometimes we need to know more about the description of the sample or population. E.g. When comparing two groups with the same mean
  144. 144. Measures of spread/variation Group 1Group 1 EnglishEnglish Score (x)Score (x) Group 2Group 2 KiswahiliKiswahili Score (x)Score (x) MargeMarge 1515 KimKim 11 SarahSarah 11 JumaJuma 55 PeterPeter 11 LouiseLouise 55 TeresaTeresa 44 TaramaTarama 66 WendyWendy 44 VanesaVanesa 44 LizLiz 33 FredFred 11 GeorgeGeorge 11 AshaAsha 55 KarenKaren 33 SiliaSilia 55 ΣΣx=32x=32 ΣΣx=32x=32
  145. 145. Measures of spread/variation Group1.ΣX=32; mean is ΣX/n;32/8; mean=4 Group2. ΣX=32; mean is ΣX/n;32/8; mean=4 When you have similar mean like these, you would like to know the spread of the scores whether similarto know the spread of the scores whether similar (homogeneous) or quite different (heterogeneous)
  146. 146. Measures of spread/variation Therefore measures of spread includes: a) Range-basically this is the difference between the highest score and the lowest score in a distribution. It account only the extremes and notdistribution. It account only the extremes and not the bulk of observations. From the table above group 1 range will be 15-1=14 Group 2 range will be 6-1=5
  147. 147. Measures of spread/variation b) Variance Score Results for Kiswahili S2=Σ(X-mean)2 n Score( x)Score( x) XX--meanmean (X(X--mean)mean)22 11 --33 99 55 +1+1 11 S2=(26)2/8=676/8=84.5 ΣX=32=4 Variance=84.5 8 55 +1+1 11 66 +2+2 44 44 00 00 11 --33 99 55 +1+1 11 55 +1+1 11 ΣΣX=X=3232=4=4 ΣΣX=0X=0 ΣΣX=26X=26
  148. 148. Measures of spread or Variation Standard Deviation How to obtain S= √Σ(X-mean)2 standard deviation is n computed by obtaining the square root of variance.square root of variance. Hence from the above example √84.5=9.12 or 9.1 SD=9.1
  149. 149. Measures of relationship Correlation coefficient take the values from -1 to +1 A correlation coefficient of zero “0” indicates no relationship The closer to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationshipThe closer to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship A perfect positive correlation (1.00) specifies that for every unit increase in one variable there is a proportional unit increase in the other variable.
  150. 150. Measures of relationship A perfect negative correlation (-1.00) concomitantly means that for every unit increase in one variable there is a proportional unit decrease in the other variable. Perfect correlation are highly unlikely in dealing with human education.
  151. 151. Measures of Relationship • Scatter gram is the means of presentation of the data in correlations showing variables that correspond to the X and Y axis. • The line that you draw to coordinate the points is called the line of best fit or Regression line. (Refer Correlation scatter plots)
  152. 152. Measures of Relationship .
  153. 153. Measures of Relationship • You must be careful not to fall into the trap of attributing a course-and effect relationship to variables that might be related • E.g.. Kuzma (1984) reported a strong relationshipE.g.. Kuzma (1984) reported a strong relationship between a child's foot size and handwriting ability. This is not a cause and effect relationship although both increase with age.
  154. 154. Spearman Rank Order Correlation Spearman Rank order Correlation is used to determine the relationship between two ranked variables (not interval or ratio data) This is designed for nonparametric data.This is designed for nonparametric data. E.g. “The relationship between type of family and marital status”
  155. 155. Pearson product-Moment Correlation (r) Pearson product-moment correlation (r) is often used for parametric data and is the most precise coefficient of correlation. E.g. The relationship between age and weight forE.g. The relationship between age and weight for infants between age and weight. See the MCH card (clinic card)
  156. 156. Measures of Relationship Early 1990s a statistician named Charles Spearman developed a technique for analyzing ordinal/rank data known as Spearman Rank Order Correlation (rs) which is used to determine the relationship between two ranked variables or ordinal data (not interval or ratio data)data) This is designed for nonparametric data only E.g.. “The relship btn type of family & marital status
  157. 157. Spearman Rank Order Correlation (rs) • 1st step. Replace the observations by rank number in ascending order. If two or more variable are equal, find the average rank. • 2nd step. Record the difference btn the ranks • 3rd Square the differences and• 3rd Square the differences and • 4th step. Sum up the squared differences. See example below. The formula is rs=1- 6Σd2 n(n2-1) E.g.. There is no relationship btn social rank and skill rank among primary school pupils in Ipagala primary school
  158. 158. Spearman rank order correlation There relationship between social rank and skill rank r =1- 6 (18)10(1001) 108/990;10.11; pupilpupil SocialSocial rankrank (x(x Skill rankSkill rank (y)(y) D orD or (X(X--Y)Y) DD22 (X(X--Y)Y) AA 22 11 11 11 BB 44 33 11 11 CC 11 22 --11 11108/990;10.11; rs=0.89DD 88 88 00 00 EE 33 66 --33 99 FF 66 44 22 44 GG 99 1010 --11 11 HH 55 55 00 00 II 1010 99 11 11 JJ 77 77 00 00 ΣΣDD22=18=18
  159. 159. Spearman Rank Order Correlation From the answer above, then we would like to know whether or not the difference between social rank and skill rank is significantly from 0 rs= 0.648 for 10 pupilsrs= 0.648 for 10 pupils There is a rs critical table to compare the answer. See Table C is the answer significantly different from 0 at 0.05 level of significant? a) At 0.05= rs 0.648
  160. 160. Spearman Rank Order Correlation b) Since our rs observed is 0.89>rs 0.648 from the table, we would reject the null hypothesis. We conclude that a correlation coefficient of this size=0.89 did not happen just through sampling error, and we would then state that it is significantlyerror, and we would then state that it is significantly different from 0 at 0.05 level of significant. In terms of the study, we would conclude that “A relationship exist between social rank and skill rank, those pupils with high scores in social had better scores in skill”
  161. 161. Spearman Rank Order Correlation The meaning of rs 1. When there is perfect positive correlation between 2 variables, the pairs of ranks (x,y) for each individual would be identical.individual would be identical. 2. As such all differences D or ( x-y) would be 0; the squared difference D2 or (x-y)2 would be 0; and the fraction 6ΣD2/n(n2-1) would be 0, leaving rs=1-0=1
  162. 162. Spearman Rank Order Correlation rs 3.As the relationship drops, the differences and ΣD2 increase and rs of course gets smaller 4. Finally when there is a negative correlation, the difference and ΣD2 are very large indeed so that thedifference and ΣD are very large indeed so that the fraction to be subtracted from 1 is greater than 1, resulting in a negative rs NB: However, this outcome does not necessarily imply a cause-and-effect relationship.
  163. 163. Pearson product-moment correlation r Karl Pearson (1857-1936) was an English Statistician who derived Pearson product-moment correlation( r) Often used for parametric data (interval or Ratio) and is the most precise coefficient of correlation.the most precise coefficient of correlation. E.g. a) The relationship between height and weight for infants b) There is no significant relationship between SE 301 and SE 300 among UDOM third year students.
  164. 164. Relationship btn Maths & Civics Performances among Makole std 5 pupils PupilPupil Math's (x)Math's (x) Civics yCivics y xx22 YY22 XYXY AA 44 44 1616 1616 1616 BB 66 33 3636 99 1818 CC 77 55 4949 2525 3535CC 77 55 4949 2525 3535 DD 33 11 99 11 33 EE 33 99 99 8181 2727 FF 44 33 1616 99 1212 GG 44 33 1616 99 1212 HH 22 88 44 6464 1616 II 99 77 8181 4949 6363 JJ 88 66 6464 3636 4848 ΣΣx=50x=50 ΣΣy=49y=49 ΣΣxx22=300=300 ΣΣyy22=299=299 ΣΣxy=250xy=250
  165. 165. Pearson product-moment correlation (r) Formulae r= NΣXY-ΣXΣYr= NΣXY-ΣXΣY √NΣX2-(ΣX)2√NΣY2-(ΣY)2
  166. 166. Relationship btn Maths & Civics Performances among Makole std 5 pupils r = 10(250)-(50)(49) √10(300)-(300)√10(299)-299 = 2510-2450= 2510-2450 √(2700)(√2691) 68 r = (51.96)(51.87) =68/2695=0.02 r =0.02
  167. 167. Pearson product-moment correlation r • Meaning of r significance • The r observed is =0.02 we compare it with r critical from table B Our df is N-2; 10-2=8 at significant level of 0.05 r critical is 0.632r critical is 0.632 r observed 0.02<r critical 0.632 at 0.05 significant level Hence, we accept the null hypothesis that “There is no relationship btn Maths & Civics performances among Makole std 5 pupils.
  168. 168. Other standard scores Chi-square-denoted by Greek letter (X2) is a nonparametric test that require independent sample, i.e. observation of one participant is independent of any other observationindependent of any other observation The formulae for X2 is: X 2 =Σ(O-E)2 E
  169. 169. Chi-Square (X2) • Chi-square is a technique that can determine whether or not there is a significant difference between Observed frequencies and Expected (theoretical) frequencies in two or more categories E.g.. Suppose you flip a coin 20 times and record the observation. From law of Probability we should expect 10 heads and 10 tails. But because of sampling error we could come up with 9 heads and 11 tails; or 12 heads, 8 tails
  170. 170. Chi-Square (X2) Table 13.1 Calculating a x2 One way classification ObserveObserve dd ExpecteExpecte dd (O(O--E)E) (O(O--E)E)22 (O(O--E)E)22 EE Heads Tails dd dd EE 1212 88 2020 1010 1010 2020 22 --22 44 44 0.40.4 0.40.4 X2=0.8X2=0.8
  171. 171. Chi-square • What does a chi square of 0.8 mean? The degree of freedom is rows-1 i.e. (2-1=1) Look at Table F we see that a X2 is 3.84 at df 1 or greater is needed to be significant at 0.05 levelgreater is needed to be significant at 0.05 level The X2 of 0.8 in coin flipping experiment happened due to sampling error, • We conclude that the deviations between the observed frequencies and expected frequencies are not significant.
  172. 172. Chi-squareStudents with learning disabilities have large standard deviations. See the example below Table 13.2 Comparing low achieving & learning disabled students on variability StandardStandard deviati.ndeviati.n ObserveObserve dd ExpectedExpected (O(O--E)E) (O(O--E)E)22 (O(O--E)E)22/E/E X2 =(1) =6.36, p>.05 LargerLarger 1515 9.59.5 5.55.5 30.2530.25 3.183.18 SmallerSmaller 44 9.59.5 --5.55.5 30.2530.25 3.183.18 1919 1919 --6.366.36
  173. 173. Chi-square Note that again df is (r-1; 2-1) 1. Table F df 1 indicate X2 must be equal or exceed 3.84 to be significant at 0,05 level. Since our calculated is 6.36>3.84 at p=0.05. WeSince our calculated is 6.36>3.84 at p=0.05. We conclude, there were significant difference btn the low achieving & learning disabled students Lets compare more than just two categories
  174. 174. Chi-square X2 Distribution In SE 301seminar (with 200 students), the leader would like to see the “normal distribution” Using X2 to check “normality” of a grade distribution GradesGrades ObserveObserve dd ExpecteExpecte dd (O(O--E)E) (O(O--E)E)22 (O(O--E)E)22/E/E A(3.5%)A(3.5%) 1515 77 88 6464 64/7=9.1464/7=9.14A(3.5%)A(3.5%) 1515 77 88 6464 64/7=9.1464/7=9.14 B(24%)B(24%) 5353 4848 55 2525 25/48=0.5225/48=0.52 C(45%)C(45%) 8787 9090 --33 99 9/90=0.109/90=0.10 D(24%)D(24%) 3333 4848 1515 225225 225/48=4.6225/48=4.6 99 E(3.5%)E(3.5%) 1212 200200 77 200200 55 2525 25/7=3.5725/7=3.57
  175. 175. Chi-square X2 Distribution X2 (4)=18.02 P>.01 Results show that X2 is 18.02 and the df (r-1 i.e.. 5-1)=4 From Table F a X2 of 18.02 or greater is neededFrom Table F a X2 of 18.02 or greater is needed for X2 to be significant at level 0.01. So we conclude that the leaders` score distribution deviates significantly from a normal distribution.
  176. 176. Other standard scores • Z-score is simply a way of telling how far a score (or individual) is from the mean in standard deviation. • E.g.. If you was calculating the standard• E.g.. If you was calculating the standard deviations of height of standard one pupils (in cm), then the Z-score will be given in cm
  177. 177. How to calculate Z-score • English Test Results Z-score= x-mean SD Variance=Σ(x-mean)2 N SD= √Σ(x-mean)2 N PupilsPupils ScoreScore (x)(x) xx--meanmean (X(X--meanmean))22 ZZ--scorescore AA 11 --33 99 --3/23/2 BB 55 11 11 ½=0.5½=0.5 CC 55 11 11 ½=0.5½=0.5 SD= √42/8=√5.2=2 Z-score= 2 CC 55 11 11 ½=0.5½=0.5 DD 66 22 44 11 EE 44 00 00 00 FF 11 33 99 1.51.5 GG 55 11 99 0.50.5 HH 55 11 99 0.50.5 ΣΣ32/8=32/8= 44 ΣΣ(X(X--mean)mean)22
  178. 178. Inferential analysis Inferential analysis-is when you use data from a sample to make inference to the population. Eg. Results from a study done in Songea Boys Sec students you infer to all secondary schoolSec students you infer to all secondary school students in Tanzania
  179. 179. Testing Statistical significance • When analyzing data using inferential statistics, two procedures can be done. 1. Testing hypothesis which is commonly used oror 2. Estimating parameters (confidence interval- CI), is used when we do not have value of a population characteristics.
  180. 180. Estimating parameters • Constructing a CI around a sample mean establishes a range of values for a population parameter in addition to a certain probability of being correct. • Usually the CI is arbitrary, and researchers used either 95% 0r 99% • This means the researcher allows an error of 5%(0.05) or 1% (0.01) only.
  181. 181. HYPOTHESIS TESTING • Hypothesis testing is a procedure to test whether all observed differences (from the sample) provide enough evidence to believe that there is corresponding difference in thethat there is corresponding difference in the population. It determine: 1. The difference should be attributed to random error. BUT if you find there is difference you reject the null hypothesis.
  182. 182. Hypothesis testing cont… 2. Whether the difference is large enough for us to conclude that the population values are different. If there is large difference you accept the null hypothesisaccept the null hypothesis
  183. 183. Level of significance To accept or reject Null hypothesis Depends on a ProbabiliProbabili ty valuety value InterpretationInterpretation >.05>.05 Results notResults not Significant,Significant,Level of significance (alpha level-α) which is 5% (0.05) 0r 1%(0.01) or 0.01%(0.001) alpha Level. Significant,Significant, Accept HoAccept Ho <.05<.05 Result significant,Result significant, accept Hoaccept Ho <.01<.01 Results is highlyResults is highly significant, rejectsignificant, reject HoHo
  185. 185. Normal Curve Many physiological measurements (height, weight, length of nose, behavioral measurement e.g.. IQ scores, aptitudesmeasurement e.g.. IQ scores, aptitudes tests etc. are normally distributed; The frequency polygon for the distribution is bell-shaped asymmetric curve called Normal curve • Majority of scores are at center.
  186. 186. Skew ness The times when the distribution is concentrated in either side is called Skewness.Skewness. If the scores are concentrated at the UPPER end , so the tail is of the curve skews to the left, we call the curve is NEGATIVELY SKEWED
  187. 187. Skewness But if the scores are concentrated at the LOWER end of the distribution, so thedistribution, so the tail of the curve skews to the right, We say the curve is POSITIVELY SKEWED
  188. 188. Skewness We can compare two frequency distributions with appropriately equal values of N as seen in the figure.figure. It is easy to compare the spread and the concentration and the ability of girls is superior in that test than boys. scores
  189. 189. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Characteristics of Hypothesis 1.It should be clear and precise otherwise your hypothesis will not be taken as reliable. 2. It should be capable of tested for confirmation or2. It should be capable of tested for confirmation or disproved by observation. 3. It should state relationship between variables (i.e. DVs & IVs), if its relational hypothesis. E.g.. Academic performance and birth order.
  190. 190. Cont.. 4.It should be specific and limited in scope. Narrower hypothesis are more testable 5.It should be tested in most simple terms to be understood by all concerned. 6. It should be consistent with facts/theories 7. It should be agreeable/pleasant to testing within a7. It should be agreeable/pleasant to testing within a reasonable time because one can not spend life-time collecting data to test it. 8. Hypothesis must explain the facts that give time to the need for explanation i.e. it should have empirical reference
  191. 191. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS • Alternative hypothesis-this is positive statement and is the one which we wish to prove true,e.g.There is relationship between academic performance and birth order of secondary school students.secondary school students. • Null hypothesis-it's a negative statement and is the one which we wish to disprove (reject). E.g. There is no relationship between academic performance and birth order of secondary school students.
  192. 192. Level of Significance • Level of significance is the power the researcher has to make decisions on whether or not his/her hypothesis (or observed evidence) is true. • Researchers normally take the probability of• Researchers normally take the probability of 5% (0.05) risk of making error and 95% being correct; or 1% (0.01) error and 99%; • As such we say that a researcher is willing to take 0.05 or less risk of reject Ho when it is true.
  193. 193. Level of Significance • Thus 0.05 is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting Ho when it is true, and normally you determine it before testing the hypothesis.the hypothesis. • In case you run statistics and get significant level of 0.06, will you accept or reject the Ho? • In case you run statistics and get significant level of 0.02, will you accept or reject the Ho?
  194. 194. Decision Rule or Testing Hypothesis To accept or reject null hypothesis depends upon a level of significance ProbabilityProbability valuevalue InterpretatioInterpretatio nn >.05>.05 Result notResult not significantsignificant accept Haccept Hoo a level of significance (alpha level or α ) which is 5% (0.05) or 1% (0.02) or 0.01% (0.001) alpha level accept Haccept Hoo <.05<.05 Result isResult is significantsignificant reject Hreject Hoo <.01<.01 Result isResult is highlyhighly significantsignificant reject Hreject Hoo
  195. 195. Type I and Type II Errors • In the process of testing hypothesis, there are same errors we can make • If we reject Ho when Ho is true we have committed type 1 error known as alphacommitted type 1 error known as alpha error=α • But if we accept Ho when in fact Ho is not true we have committed type II error known as beta error=β error
  196. 196. Type I and Type II Errors Decision Accept Ho Reject Ho Correct Type I errorCorrect Type I error Ho(true) Decision α error Ho(false) Type II error Correct β error decision
  197. 197. Type I and Type II Errors • Researchers always try their best to minimize both errors. However, as you try to reduce Type I you are most likely to commit Type II error.error. • You can not control both types simultaneously. • Hence you trade-off between the two types of errors depending on which one is more costly in your results and conclusions
  198. 198. Type I and Type II Errors E.g. There is no relationship between malaria and chloroquine If Type 1 involves the time and funds to conduct the experiment of manufacturing thethe experiment of manufacturing the medicine While Type II error means taking risk of distributing the medicine to patients with uncertainty of treating malaria. Then what would you prefer?
  199. 199. Type I and Type II Errors When testing hypothesis, you must make all possible efforts to strike a balance between committing Type 1 and Type 11 errors. HOW?HOW? By setting a very high level for Type 1 error when testing technique of a certain hypothesis
  200. 200. Interpretation of findings What is interpretation? r observed 0.02<r critical0.632 at 0.05 significant level Hence, we accept the null hypothesis that,Hence, we accept the null hypothesis that, “There is no relationship between Math's & Civics performance among Makole std 5 pupils”
  201. 201. Interpretation of findings We can say that interpretation is: 1.Drawing inference from the collected data after an analysis 2.It is a search for a broader meaning of the2.It is a search for a broader meaning of the research findings
  202. 202. Interpretation of findings Interpretation involves the following aspects: 1. To establish continuity in research through linking your results to those of others. 2. To establish relationship (of DVs and IVs2. To establish relationship (of DVs and IVs within the collected data 3. To extend beyond the data of the study to include theories and hypotheses.
  203. 203. Interpretation of findings In short interpretation is an exercise through which the facts from the study could be explained and understood better. Also interpretation provide a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide to further research.
  204. 204. Cont…. Why do we interpret our findings? 1.Because it is a way the researcher can make his/her abstract findings be understood by society and they can link the study with thosesociety and they can link the study with those of others 2. Because it is a way to open new avenues of intellectuals and stimulates the quest for more knowledge
  205. 205. Cont… 3.Because is the way the researcher can appreciate his/her work, make others understand the significance of the study. 4. Because it serves as a transition from4. Because it serves as a transition from explanatory to experimental research. Explanatory study does not have hypothesis to begin with, but later the interpretation of results lead to experimental research to test the worthiness
  206. 206. Techniques of Interpretation 1.Give reasonable explanation of the relations found in the study-know how generalization is done and concepts being formulated 2. Extra information if collected must be2. Extra information if collected must be considered during final interpretation of results, as this may be key factor in understanding the problem under study.
  207. 207. Techniques of Interpretation 3.Make consultations with genuine expert who will omit errors which does not bring logical argumentation. This person will help make correct interpretation and enhance the utility of the findingsof the findings 4. You must be in no hurry while interpreting results, because the conclusions which appear to be alright at the beginning may not at all be accurate.
  208. 208. Precautions in Interpretation NB: Even when you try hard to minimize errors in sampling the respondents, collecting data and analyzing, making a mistake interpretation would lead to inaccurate conclusions Precautions in interpretation…Precautions in interpretation… Some hints to consider 1.Satisfy yourself that You have appropriate and adequate data for drawing inference
  209. 209. Precautions in Interpretation Data reflect good homogeneity Proper analysis has been done using proper statistical methods 2.Must be cautious about errors e.g. i. Error due to false generalization/wrongi. Error due to false generalization/wrong interpretation e.g. Application of results beyond the range of observation, identify cause and effect etc, ii. Don’t affirm relationship with either Ha or Ho if its not there iii. Be competent with correct statistical measures for drawing inferences in your study
  210. 210. Precautions cont.. 3. You can not separate analysis and interpretation so: a. Take much care of reliability of data b. Computational checks from time to timeb. Computational checks from time to time c. Validation of results and d. Comparison of results
  211. 211. Precautions cont 4.Remember your task is: i. Both to make sensitive observations of relevant occurrences and identify and disengage the factors that are initially notdisengage the factors that are initially not seen by our eyes. ii. Avoid generalization because your sample is restricted to particular time, particular are, and particular conditions Hence frame your results within their limits
  212. 212. Precautions 5.Remember there is constant interaction between initial hypothesis to be tested, theoretical conceptions and empirical observations in the field.observations in the field. This is the opportunity to show creativity and originality of your work. So pay much attention to this interaction while engaged in interpretation
  213. 213. REPORT WRITING • No matter how brilliant your hypotheses are or how well designed and conducted your research is, the most important part of it is to communicate the results to others. • This is the purpose of research, to search knowledge and share with others. • Research report is the last step in research study which requires different skills to accomplish.
  214. 214. Steps in Report writing… 1. Logical analysis of the subject matter a) Either logically from simple to complex structure or b) Chronologically i.e. on the bases of sequence in time or occurrencein time or occurrence 2. Preparation of final outline-this outline is a guide/aid to the logical/chronological organization of the report. The guide is a remind of the important points to be included in the full report.
  215. 215. Steps cont.. 3. Preparation of the rough draft- put down what you have done in your research study Here you rewrite the first 3 chapter by changing the action verbs to past tense.the action verbs to past tense. In chapter one you will put all various limitations faced in the field the techniques adopted for analysis, the presentation of findings, generalization of results, various suggestions and conclusions.
  216. 216. Steps cont 4. Rewriting and polishing of the Rough Draft. This is the most difficult part of the report writing because: i) it requires more time than the rough draft in careful revision, looking atthe rough draft in careful revision, looking at the weakness in logical devt or presentation e.g.>Whether or not the material has unity & consistency (pulling together the information) >The report stand upright, firm & exhibit a definite pattern
  217. 217. Steps >whether or not it resemble an old wall of molding e.g. cement and loose brick >Check also whether in your rough draft you was consistent or not.was consistent or not. >Also check the mechanics of writing e.g. grammar, spelling and usage of correct word phrases
  218. 218. Steps 5. Preparation of the final Bibliography Bibliography which is normally appended to the research report is: i) A list of pertinent books to the research. Iti) A list of pertinent books to the research. It must contain all the works you consulted in the course preparation of proposal and analysis. ii) It should be arranged alphabetically
  219. 219. Steps 6. Writing the Final Draft Your final draft should be written in: i) Concise and objective style ii) In simple language i.e. avoid vague phrases e.g.. “It seems…” “there may be…”e.g.. “It seems…” “there may be…” iii) Avoid also abstract terminologies & technical slang (jargon) iv) Illustrations & examples on common experiences must be incorporated for effective communication of the findings to others
  220. 220. Steps cont.. v) It should enthuse people (not dull) and maintain interests & must show originality NB: Each research is intended to solve some intellectual or societal problem, so:intellectual or societal problem, so: a) It must contribute to the solution of a problem b) Must add to knowledge of both the researcher and readers.
  221. 221. Layout of the research Report Layout is what the report should contain. Unless for an academic research report (dissertation and thesis) others must contain 3 main parts a) Preliminariesa) Preliminaries b) Main text c) End matter
  222. 222. Layout of the Research Report 1. Preliminaries-these include: • Title and date • Acknowledgement or preface or foreword • Table of contents• Table of contents • List of tables, figures, charts, maps etc • Abbreviations
  223. 223. Layout of the Research Report Preliminaries for a Dissertation you have more items like: • Certification-where your supervisors certify that they have read and agree the document it is ready for submission. Their names signature and data appearsubmission. Their names signature and data appear • Declaration & Copyright • Dedication • Acknowledgement • Abstract or Executive summary and the list continue table of contents and the following.
  224. 224. Layout of the Research Report 2.Main text-this provides the main detail of the report • Each main section of the report begin on a new pagenew page • The main text should have the following subsections: i) Chapter I one-Introduction ii) Chapter II-Literature review and conceptual theoretical framework
  225. 225. Layout cont.. iii) Chapter III –Methodology iv) Chapter IV-Presentation of the results and discussion V) Chapter V-Conclusion, suggestion and theV) Chapter V-Conclusion, suggestion and the summary
  226. 226. Layout 3.End matter-these are the appendices attached at the end of research report. These are: i) Bibliographies ii) Technical data e.g. questionnaires, sampleii) Technical data e.g. questionnaires, sample information, mathematical derivations
  227. 227. Types of Reports 1.Technical report- this emphasizes on: i) The methods used in the study ii) The assumptions/hypothesis tested in the course of studycourse of study iii) Detailed presentation of results including supporting data.
  228. 228. Types of Reports 2. Popular report-this emphasize on simplicity and attractiveness of reporting the results through i) Clear writingi) Clear writing ii) Minimization of technical e.g mathematical iii) Details and liberal use of charts & diagrams
  229. 229. Types cont iv) Attractiveness layout with large print, many subheadings, charts even cartoons are characteristics of popular report. v) Much emphasis also is given on the practicalv) Much emphasis also is given on the practical aspects and policy implications.
  230. 230. Oral presentation Sometimes you will be required to present your results orally. This is effective particularly when policy recommendations are demanded by projectrecommendations are demanded by project results
  231. 231. Oral presentation Pros-It provides opportunity of give-and take decisions, better understanding of results and their implications Cons- i) It lack permanent record concerning thei) It lack permanent record concerning the research details ii) Its possible the findings may fade away from peoples memory even before the action is taken
  232. 232. Oral present….. Hence, in order to overcome this ,a written report may be circulated before the oral presentation and allow participants to refer to during the discussionduring the discussion -Oral presentation is effective when supplemented by various devices eg. Slides, wall charts, tables, use of black board/white board as it reduce boredom
  233. 233. Precautions for writing Research Report Research report is a channel of communication between the researcher and the reader, thus this task must be done efficiently and effectively. To note of these 1. It should be long enough to cover the subject but short enough to maintain interest 1. It should be long enough to cover the subject but short enough to maintain interest 2. It shouldn't be dull, but sustain readers interest 3. Avoid abstract terminologies and technical language. The report should convey the results as simple as possible
  234. 234. Precautions 4. Readers are often interested to acquire a quick knowledge of the main results 5. Report should be appropriate and accordance to the objective of the studyto the objective of the study 6. Report should be free from grammatical errors 7. Present the report with logical analysis
  235. 235. Precautions 8.Show originality of the results and attempt to solve a problem & must add new knowledge 9.At the end show policy implications related to the problem. Also forecast on the probable future research on the same field.research on the same field. 10.Appendices must be enlisted appropriately 11.Bibliographies must be of good quality (not more than 10 years) 12.Report must be attractive in appearance, neat, clean, whether typed or printed.
  236. 236. Precautions 13.Calculated confidence limits must be mentioned in advance, and various constraints, challenges/limitations experienced in conducting the study should also be listedalso be listed 14.Lastly, forget not to clearly state the objectives of the study, nature of the problem, methods employed and data analysis techniques.
  237. 237. Ethical Issues • Since the subject matter of the social scientist is human behavior, it is inevitable that scientific interests will conflict at times with values placed on the right of individuals to privacy and self determinationdetermination • American psychological Association's Committee on Ethical standards stress the “informed consent” i.e. Participants volunteer to participate in the study.
  238. 238. Ethical issues • In universities, there are institutional Review Board expected to review proposals for ethical consideration • At national level, there is national Board• At national level, there is national Board
  239. 239. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1.DR.KISANGA Sipora (UDOM-Coed) 2.MR.TARIMO P (UDOM-Coed) 3.MS MSIGWA Albina (UDOM-Coed) By; NGAPONDA, Elenzian C (2010/2011) BED MAD 3rd year The University of Dodoma-Coed