A foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure
divided into two categories:
•shallow foundations and
• deep foundations.
Shallow foundations of a house versus the deep foundations of a Skyscraper
o Shallow foundations, often called footings, are
usually embedded about a metre or so into soil.
Spread footing which consists of strips or pads of concrete,
transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil
Slab-on-grade foundation where the weight of the building is
transferred to the soil through a concrete slab placed at the
• reinforced mat slabs, which range from 25 cm to several metres
thick, depending on the size of the building
o Deep foundation is used to transfer the load down
through the upper weak layer of topsoil to the stronger layer
of subsoil below.
o Deep footings including impact driven piles, drilled shafts,
caissons, helical piles, geo-piers and earth stabilized
o Historically, piles were wood, later steel, reinforced
concrete, and pre-tensioned concrete
o A monopile foundation is a type of deep
o Which uses a single, generally large-diameter,
structural element embedded into the earth to support
all the loads (weight, wind, etc.) of a large above-
o A large number of monopile foundations have been
utilized in recent years for economical construction
o The primary design concerns are settlement and bearing
o When considering settlement, total settlement and
differential settlement is normally considered.
o Differential settlement is when one part of a foundation
settles more than another part.
o This can cause problems to the structure the foundation
o A pile driver is a mechanical device
o Used to drive piles (poles) into soil to
provide foundation support for buildings or other
o One traditional type of pile driver includes a heavy
weight placed between guides so that it is able to
freely slide up and down in a single line.
o The weight is raised, which may involve the use
of hydraulics, steam, diesel, or manual labour.
o When the weight reaches its highest point it is
then released and smashes into the ground.
Ancient pile driving equipment used manual or
animal labor to lift heavy weights, usually by
means of pulleys, to drop the weight onto the
end of the pile.
Modern pile driving equipment uses various
methods to raise the weight and guide the pile
A Diesel hammers impact compression, impact and
explosion energy to the pile
1) Raise the piston to start
2) Injection of diesel fuel and compression
3)Impact and explosion
4)Exhaust ports exposed and gases escape.
5)Draws fresh air through the exhaust ports.
o Developed in response to the fundamental limitations of either a fixed
lead or swinging lead system.
o The fixed lead system is well suited to level job sites with few
obstructions and has the advantage of faster positioning of the lead.
o The hanging lead is very adaptable to different elevations and batter
piles but takes much longer to position.
o The Vertical Travel Lead was developed to combine the fast and
accurate positioning of fixed leads, with the ability to adjust the height
of the lead base up or down.
o The VTL is connected to the boom by a sliding connection, which
allows the lead to be elevated or lowered below grade.
oVertical Travel Leads come in two main forms: Spud and Box
Vertical Travel Leads
To furnish the energy required to drive a pile. Pile driving
hammers are designated by type and size
The hammer types commonly used include the following:
o Single-acting stream or compressed air
o Double-acting stream or compressed air
o Differential-acting stream or compressed air
o Vibratory drivers
o Modern type of piling hammer
o Used in place of diesel and air hammers for driving steel
pipe, precast concrete, and timber piles.
o More environmentally acceptable than the older, less
efficient hammers as they generate less noise and
o Dominant noise is caused by the impact of the hammer
on the pile
o Specialty equipment which installs piles using hydraulic rams to press
piles into the ground.
o Preferred where vibration is a concern.
o There are press attachments that can adapt to conventional pile
driving rigs to press 2 pairs of sheet piles at a time.
o Additional types of press equipment sit on top of existing sheet piles
and grip onto previously driven piles.
o Allows for greater press-in and extraction force to be used since
more reaction force is developed.
o The reaction based machines operate at only 69dB at 23 ft
allowing for installation and extraction of piles.
o Designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while
vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile.
o The pile driving machine is lifted and positioned over the pile by means
of an excavator or crane
o Vibratory hammers can either drive in or extract a pile
o Hydraulic fluid is typically supplied to the driver by a diesel engine
powered pump mounted in a trailer or van and connected to the driver
head through a set of long hoses.
o Hammers are available with several different vibration rates, ranging
from about 1200 vibrations per minute to about 2400 VPM
vibratory pile driver powered by a diesel engine
o Piling rig is a construction machine for piling in foundation
o Mainly applied to drill in sandy soil, clay, silty clay, etc.
o widely used cast-in-place piles, diaphragm walls, foundation
reinforcement and other foundation projects.
o power of engine is around 108–450 kW
o output torque 60–400 KNm
o maximum pile diameter 1.5–4 m
o maximum pile depth 60–90 m.
oeasy and comfortable to control.
omainly used in foundation engineering of municipal construction,
expressway, bridge, industrial and civil buildings, diaphragm wall, water
conservancy project, Slope protection, etc.
1) middle-sized – torque is around 120–180 kN.m, engine
power 125–200 kW, drilling diameter 0.8–1.8m, drilling
depth 60m, total quality 42–65t.
2) large-sized - torque is around 240 kN.m, engine power
300 kW, drilling diameter 1–2.5m, drilling depth 80m, total
3) small-sized – torque is around 60–100 kN.m, engine power
108 kW, drilling diameter 0.5–1.2m, drilling depth 40m, total