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Everthing To Know About The Environment

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  1. 1. Presentation: Environment Hope You Enjoy !!! By Mohammad Hassanally Year 9 20/04/06
  2. 2. Environment ________ Do You Know What It Is ? __
  3. 3. There are four laws of environment, they are as follows: The Laws Of Environment <ul><li>Law of Interdependence. </li></ul>2) Everything has a Role. 3) Limiting Factors. 4) Nature Knows Best.
  4. 4. The First Law, Interdependence Law of Interdependence: Everything is linked to everything else. If there is a slight change in one place it will affect somewhere else. First Law: Food Web
  5. 5. The Second Law, Everything Has a Role Second Law: EG Plants produce energy with the help of photosynthesis. carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen chlorophyll light
  6. 6. The Third Law, Limiting Factors Limiting Factors: All plants and animals live in an optimal condition, if the condition is beyond the optimal rate plants animals may not live. Third Law: Optimal Condition Beyond Optimal Condition
  7. 7. The Fourth Law, Nature Knows Best Fourth Law: Nature Knows Best: If there is any environmental problem let nature take its course, in time it will eventually be cured. Polluted sky Clear sky Leave It To Nature Leave it to nature, find out what is causing the disturbance in the environment, and try to stop it completely or minimize it as much as possible.
  8. 8. 1) Living Environment: Plants And Animals. 2) Non-Living Environment: Rocks Providing Soil In The Process Of Weathering. Living And Non-Living Environment
  9. 9. A living environment includes the roles of living things. There are two types of living environment and they are follows. Living Environment 1) Photosynthesis . 2) Respiration.
  10. 10. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis : Is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants. Plants need only light energy, CO 2 , and H 2 O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the Chloroplast , specifically using Chlorophyll , the green pigment. <ul><li>Chlorophyll looks green because it absorbs red and blue light, making these colours unavailable to be seen by our eyes. It is the green light which is NOT absorbed that reaches our eyes, making chlorophyll appear green. However, it is the energy from the red and blue light that are absorbed, that is, thereby, able to be used to cause photosynthesis. The green light that we see cannot be absorbed by plants, and thus cannot be used to cause photosynthesis. </li></ul>The chemical reaction involved in photosynthesis is: 6Co 2 + 6H 2 o (+ light energy) -> C6H 12 O 6 +6o 2 This is the source of the O2 we breathe.
  11. 11. Respiration There are two main types of respiration, Aerobic and Anaerobic Aerobic: In Aerobic respiration glucose reacts with oxygen in the mitochondria of the cells to release energy. Carbon dioxide and water are by-products of the reaction. Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy Anaerobic: Anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is not available. In anaerobic respiration the glucose is only partially broken down, and lactic acid is produced - together with a much smaller amount of energy. Glucose -> Lactic Acid + Energy Mitochondria: The mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell. Mitochondria convert nutrients into energy as well as doing many other specialized tasks. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy (2900Kj) C 6 H 12 O 6 -> C 3 H 6 O 3 + Energy (120Kj)
  12. 12. Non-Living Environment 1) Weathering. Weathering is classified as a Non Living Environment.
  13. 13. Weathering Types of weathering Physical Chemical Biological
  14. 14. Physical Weathering Exfoliation: Frost Shattering: Exfoliation: Frost shattering Definition: Mechanical disintegration of rocks is physical weathering. Physical Due to heating & Cooling of rocks It weakens and breaks layer by layer. Water which enters The rock during The day may Freeze at nigh. It will Cause the rocks To expand. This Will apply pressure On the rock & Causing It to Break.
  15. 15. Chemical Weathering Definition: Chemical weathering involves decomposition of rocks. Carbonation: Oxidation: Hydration: Hydrolysis: The breaking of water molecule. Carbonation: Oxidation: Hydration : Hydrolysis: Chemical Chemical change in which carbon is added to the rock. Chemical change In which oxygen Is added to the Rock. Force of water Which breaks The rock.
  16. 16. Biological weathering Definition: Human plants and animals cause biological weathering. Animals which live inside the earth breaks the rock. Also decomposition of animal waste also leads to weathering. Mining: Decomposition: Human: Plants: Animals: Biological Human activity such as mining, quarrying breaks down the rock. Penetration of roots breaks The rocks. leaf Litter, during decomposition the leaf will release Carbon which adds with water to make carbonic acid.
  17. 17. Acid Rain Types of Acid Rain Carbonic Sulphuric Nitric
  18. 18. What Is Acid Rain ? Definition: Rain that has become acidic after contact with certain atmospheric gases (primarily sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides). Normal rain has a pH of about 5.6. It is slightly acidic because naturally present carbon dioxide from the Earth's atmosphere dissolves in the rain drops to form carbonic acid. What is the pH of normal rain? What is the average pH of acid rain? The average pH of acidic rain which is more common is 4 to 5 on the pH scale.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Acid Rain Can Cause Health Problems Air pollution like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause respiratory diseases, or can make these diseases worse. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory diseases like asthma or chronic bronchitis make it hard for people to breathe. </li></ul><ul><li>This ground-level ozone causes respiratory problems, like pneumonia and bronchitis , and can even cause permanent lung damage. </li></ul>Some Quick Facts: Bronchitis : A respiratory illness, similar to asthma, that makes breathing very difficult. Bronchitis is usually only a temporary illness. Pneumonia: A very serious health condition where a person's lungs are filled with fluid. This makes it very hard for oxygen in the lungs to reach the blood stream. <ul><li>Acid rain also causes aluminium to be released into the soil, which makes it difficult for trees to take up water. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminium that is released into the soil eventually ends up in lakes and streams. Unfortunately, this increase in acidity and aluminium levels can be deadly to aquatic wildlife, including phytoplankton , mayflies, rainbow trout, small mouth bass, frogs, spotted salamanders and other creatures that are part of the food web. </li></ul>Phytoplankton : A very small plant species that usually lives on the surface of bodies of water, such as lakes.
  20. 20. Carbonic Carbonic: when carbon mixes with water at ordinary temperatures. Will form very weak acid. EG: Car exhaust
  21. 21. Sulphuric: When sulphur mixes with water, at normal temperatures. Will form strong acid. Sulphuric EG: From industries. Sulphur being released from an industry
  22. 22. Nitric Nitric: At the time of lightning Nitrogen mixes with water, at high temperatures to form nitric acid. Will form very strong acid. Lightning
  23. 23. What you can do to help reduce acid rain ? Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the main pollutants that cause acid rain. These pollutants are emitted largely by fossil fuels. Reducing the use of fossil fuels therefore, including the use of electricity generated by coal- and oil-fired power plants, will help reduce acid rain. At Home: 1. Buy energy-efficient appliances. 3. Turn off the lights in empty rooms and when away from home. 4. Consider installing compact fluorescent bulbs instead of high-wattage incandescent bulbs. 5. Turn off the hot water tank when going away for extended periods of time. 2. Install additional insulation on the hot water tank and pipes. Some suggestions that we could try at home.
  24. 24. What you can do to help reduce acid rain ? <ul><li>Look for products bearing the Eco Logo. They minimize the use of </li></ul><ul><li>environmentally hazardous substances and maximize energy efficiency and the use of recycled materials. </li></ul>2. Buy locally produced or grown items from local stores and businesses. They don't require the transportation energy of imported products. While shopping: Transportation: 1. Walk, ride your bike or take a bus to school. CFC: Chlorofluorocarbon, a chemical compound found in many aerosol products or manufacturing processes and believed to be responsible for depleting the Earth’s ozone layer. 3. Go CFC -Free. 2. Take the train or bus on long trips.
  25. 25. The End By Mohammad Hassanally Year 9 Presentation: Environment