Presentation tahir

942 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
942
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
86
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation tahir

  1. 1. <ul><li>An Introduction to </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Energy Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Engr. Tahir Saleem </li></ul><ul><li>CEO, United Engineering Services </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman IEEEP </li></ul><ul><li>2-C Mezzanine Floor 15 th Commercial Street </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II Ext. DHA Karachi Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Ph: +9221-35805163-36010208 Fax: +9221-35313968 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: info@ues-electrical.com, ieeepkhi@yahoo.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.ues-electrical.com </li></ul>Korangi Association of Trade & Industry
  2. 2. Electrical Energy Conservation
  3. 3. <ul><li>Technical Awareness </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pakistan has paid very little attention to the efficient use of energy in industrial sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Present energy crises has forced us for use of efficient use of energy particularly electrical energy to reduce operating cost and improve profitability and help to reduce impact of load shedding. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of electrical energy is extremely important for the country 30 to 40% can be saved in this regard. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness to identify the energy conservation opportunities provide a basic frame work for implementation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Total Energy Management Requires. </li></ul><ul><li>Management commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum use of resource </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of projects </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of operational criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and targeting </li></ul>
  6. 6. Energy Saving Management Commitment Implementation of Energy Saving Project Energy Accounting Monitoring & evaluation
  7. 7. <ul><li>Nation progress and development is measured by use of energy rather than reducing energy consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution to the present crises is not to cut short the use of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The present energy crises necessitated for optimization of energy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. General Requirements <ul><li>Technology improvement increase energy efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers are commonly poor informed of the savings of energy efficient products. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional electricity generation is 30% efficient where as combine cycle upto 90%. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Electric motors. </li></ul><ul><li>VFD can save energy from 3 to 60%. </li></ul><ul><li>HEMS can save energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage optimization can save energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of energy can reduce world energy needs in 2050 by one third. </li></ul><ul><li>There are abandoned opportunities to save upto 70 to 90% of the energy in lighting, 50% in motors. </li></ul><ul><li>In general the global research organization predict 75% saving. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1) Optimum supply voltage. 2) Improve power quality. These device have saved upto 13% energy in Europe over the last 5 years. Consider to be a front line energy saving measure. 3) Over voltage increased energy consumption. A 230V linear appliance used on 240V supply will take 4.3% more current and will consume almost 9% more energy. 4) Substaintional energy savings can be made in motors by reaching voltage with respect to variety of loading condition. Voltage optimization.
  11. 11. <ul><li>5) As a result of European harmonization the tolerance limit is ±10%. </li></ul><ul><li>6) By efficiently bringing the supply voltage to the lower end of the statutory voltage range, voltage optimization can save energy upto 13%. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Harmonic and transient and voltage unbalance cause waste of energy consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>8) Operating the induction motors other than rated voltage and frequency can result in reduced motors efficiency and adverse effects on power factor, break away torque, starting current etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>9) Unbalance voltage can result in large negative sequence current in the motor, cause large increase in motor losses. </li></ul><ul><li>10) For same Horse Power rating motors with higher speed have higher efficiency at rated loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Duty cycle plays an important role in reducing in energy wastage. </li></ul><ul><li>12) High efficiency motor with 20 to 30 % of more cost will reduce energy losses. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Energy Audit </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Basic Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Energy Survey for Future Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Detail Technical Assessment and Financial Feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Audit </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Working Strategy For Energy Efficient Program (Basic Components of Energy efficient Program) Energy Audit Phase 1 Analysis of Historical Energy Consumption & Cost Data Phase 2 Walk Through Survey of major Plant & process. Preliminary screening of areas for future investigation. Phase 3 Detail assessment of technical & economic feasibility for energy Efficiency measures. Data Gathering Presentation of Option Data Analysis Major Energy Consumption Plant Priority area for Future Investigation Obvious Energy Waste & Inefficiency Energy Consumption Equipment Feasibility Survey Capital Cost
  16. 16. <ul><li>Lighting System </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Lighting System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental of Lightings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting Level Needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Lamps / Lighting Fixture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation & Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting Design </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Most commercial buildings have 100s or 1000s of lamps – for many users the total potential savings are large. Techniques for achieving a safe, comfortable lighting system, with minimal energy waste include: </li></ul><ul><li>Matching lighting levels to the visual requirements of the tasks undertaken in the space. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the most efficient lamp(s) for the application. </li></ul>  Cont. . .
  19. 19. <ul><li>Using efficient light fixtures (reflectors, shielding, housings). </li></ul><ul><li>Installing and maintaining the systems properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Using natural daylight to the fullest extent possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Installing devices to automatically control switching. </li></ul><ul><li>Both new and existing buildings offer large potential for cost savings in lighting. </li></ul>  Cont. . .
  20. 20. <ul><li>15% TO 20% is used in artificial lighting system. </li></ul><ul><li>75% of this energy can be saved with modern application. </li></ul><ul><li>500 LUX is generally required in developed countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost for providing 500 LUX will not be more than a cup of tea per day. </li></ul><ul><li>Bio medical research shows that up to 10% loss in productivity and efficiency if the lighting level is cut down from 500 LUX to 250 LUX. </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage increase in error will be 10%. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Electric Motor </li></ul>
  22. 22. Electric Motor <ul><li>Motor Sizing </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Speed Drives </li></ul>
  23. 23. Motor Sizing Motor can be correctly sized to match the load they are expected to drive. Motor Selection High efficiency motors, with improved efficiency ratings of up to 10% can be substituted for standard construction motors. Motor Controls Where the driven equipment does not have to meet a constant demand, controls can be used to reduce capacity and improve system efficiency.
  24. 24. Motor Over Sizing In many applications motors will be oversized for the load they are serving due to a number of factors. Designers add safety factors as insurance against failure in critical building systems, and calculated design load are usually conservative relative to actual operating loads. Designers equipment such as fans, pumps or chillers, at the same time in the future.
  25. 25. The existing load is less than the initial design load due to energy management activities and changes in use. Large motors can override load fluctuations without dropping out. Voltage imbalances in three phase power supplies can cause increases in motor losses and so a larger motor is required to reduced the production losses.
  26. 26. Motor is under loaded if less then 60% of its rated capacity is utilized. Motor is over loaded if load is more than 100% of the rated capacity. Motor temperature rise is in excess of the rating difference in motion and ambient temperature is 80°C (144°F).
  27. 27. Voltage imbalance should not be more than 4% make further checks to see whether the imbalance is in the supply or due to the motor it self. Current imbalance of more than 4% suggests investigations of the causes of unbalance, i.e. poor winding, unbalanced voltage etc.
  28. 28. About 70% world electrical load is consumed by electrical motors. Over 50% of drive power can be saved as stated by industrial research organization. Motors are generally run about 50% of its capacity. Losses accounts for 40% to 80%. Motors are largest abuser of energy consumption.
  29. 29. NASA in early 70 stated that motors could operate efficiently by effective control. Motors operate at its maximum efficiency at 80% of its full load. At lower load motor efficiency drops resulting in heat vibration noise etc.
  30. 30. Motors can control its input power requirement according to its torque requirement. Generally motors are oversized to miscellaneous reasons. Oversized motors on variable load with fixed speed, led to extremely energy inefficient. Conventional flow control methods are inefficient.
  31. 31. <ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul>
  32. 32. Power Quality <ul><li>Energy losses </li></ul><ul><li>Premature aging of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Production losses </li></ul>
  33. 33. Ideal Power Quality
  34. 34. Poor Power Quality
  35. 35. Harmonics Spectrum
  36. 36. Energy Losses due to Power Quality <ul><li>A rectangular supply voltage provokes 20% increase in losses. </li></ul><ul><li>A supply voltages with THDV =10% result in additional 6%. </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer losses increase 10 to 15%. </li></ul><ul><li>Derating of generator will be 10% where over all load of non linear characteristic is 30%. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in capital cost due to over sizes of equipment. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Effect of Harmonics <ul><li>Thermal Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Harmonic Sequence Component </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion proof motors and voltage distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Effect Of Harmonics On Explosion Proof Motors </li></ul><ul><li>They are designed on pure sine waves, the rotor may overheat due to harmonics resulting hot rotor and damage of seals. Temperature exceed the T class . </li></ul><ul><li>EExd,EExe,EExp,EExN according to EN60034-1 2%voltage distortion is permitted . 3% voltage distortion is permitted for EExN asper EN60034-2o </li></ul><ul><li>Induction Motor </li></ul>
  38. 38. Effects of Harmonics <ul><li>Generators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of Sequence Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage Distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line Notching and Generators </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Transformers </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalance, Distribution, Transformers and Neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Currents. </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer Derating. </li></ul><ul><li>Cables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin & Proximity Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral System in four-wire system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional effect Associated with Harmonic </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Miscellaneous Effects <ul><li>Effects and negative consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor over heating / skin effect depending on frequency, </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitor failure </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty operation of fuse and circuit breaker </li></ul><ul><li>Increased stray losses in transformer resulting increase in iron, </li></ul>
  41. 41. Miscellaneous Effects <ul><li>Copper or eddy current losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased losses in generator / multiple zero crossing affect the timing of the voltage regulator, causing interference and operation instability. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect recording by utility meters. </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty operation of drives. </li></ul><ul><li>Interferences in computer / telephone. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Measuring Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit Breakers </li></ul><ul><li>Fuses </li></ul><ul><li>Relays </li></ul><ul><li>Radio, Television, Audio & Video Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Tariff </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review Tariff Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Find Optimum Tariff </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Maximum Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Power Factor Penalty </li></ul>
  45. 45.
  46. 46. <ul><ul><li>Latest Tariff of KESC 06 th Jan 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>Latest Tariff of KESC 06 th Jan 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><ul><li>Latest Tariff of KESC 06 th Jan 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><ul><li>Latest Tariff of KESC 06 th Jan 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><ul><li>Latest Tariff of KESC 06 th Jan 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Conclusion Tips for electrical energy Conservation <ul><li>General. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Improve power factor will reduce demand charges and line losses. </li></ul><ul><li>2) An improvement of 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5% reduction of peak value and 21.6% reduction in peak losses. This corresponds to 14.5% reduction in average losses for a load factor of 0.8. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Avoid rewinding of motors. In general rewinded motors have an efficiency loss of 5% the rewinded motor on low duty cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Use of variable frequency derives helps in minimizing consumption. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Illumination. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Use of electronic ballasts in place of conventional choke saves energy upto 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Use of CFL lamps in place of GLS lamp can save energy upto 70%. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Regular maintenance can save energy. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Use of 36 or 28w tube light can save. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Use of sodium vapors lamps, for area lighting in place of mercury vapor lamp can save electricity upto 40%. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Questions are Welcomed Thanks

×