Methods of interpreting test scores by Dr.Shazia Zamir


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Grade Norms

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Methods of interpreting test scores by Dr.Shazia Zamir

  1. 1. Methods of Interpreting Test Scores (Grade Norms ) By DR.SHAZIA ZAMIR
  2. 2. Grading, like testing, is necessary procedure; the progress and achievement of students must be reported to parents and other, and grading serves this purpose. Definition and Purpose  A grade is an alphabetical and numerical symbol, or mark, that indicates the degree to which intended outcomes have been achieved.  The major purpose of grades is to communicate how well a student is doing in the various subject areas.
  3. 3.  Another purpose often attributed grades is that they serve as a motivator for student’s performance.  Grades also serve as an indication of achievement to be expected in the future; past performance is the best single predictor of future performance.  The major objection is that there is considerable variability in the meaning of a given grade; further, there are so many different methods of grading and diversity of symbols that is difficult to interpret exactly what a given set of grades means.
  4. 4.  A second serious charge made by opponents of grading is that it is basically an inhuman process with many negative effects; some parents and teacher use them negatively and the pressures on students can produce negative behaviors as a result.  As for the pressure grades place on students, it can be argued that a reasonable amount of pressure leads to increase the achievement.
  5. 5. General principles of grading  Grades should be based on a sufficient amount of valid data systematically collected over a period of time.  Any given test represents a sampling of behavior; thus, a grade based on a combination of a number of test score is more likely accurately reflect a student’s achievement level than a grade based on a single test score.
  6. 6.  Students should know in advance which grades “count” and which do not, and should be informed concerning how final grades will be determined and on what basis.  A final grade may be based on a combination of any number of factors such as written tests and various procedures and products.
  7. 7.  Grading is usually done on relative basis; that is, achievement is labeled as “good” or “poor” in relation to the performance of the total group.  Grading represents a complex combination of achievement and effort; achievement is assessed partly in relation to objective standards and partly in relation to performance of other students.
  8. 8. Methods of grading  Users of grades, such as admission personnel and employers, invariably prefer norm-referenced, relative grading systems. Percent Grading  Percent grading involves averaging scores and converting them to a percent.  The percent itself may be reported as the grade, e.g., History, 84%, or the percent may be translated into a letter grade equivalent (e.g., A=94-100%).
  9. 9. Grade Norms  Norms provide a useful frame of reference for interpreting test scores. Determining whether a candidate's score is high or low is made possible by comparing his or her score to the scores obtained by other examinees in a relevant group. This comparison can be "built-in" by converting raw scores to percentile scores.
  10. 10. Norm-referenced grading  Norm-referenced grading involves rank ordering students and expressing a given student’s in relation to the achievement of the rest of the class; in essence, the rest of the class; in essence, the rest of the class serves as the norm group.  A norm-referenced grade does not communicate what a student has actually achieved but rather how a student’s achievement compared to the achievement of others in the class.
  11. 11. Criterion-referenced grading  Criterion-referenced grading involves expressing a student’s achievement in relation to pre-specified rather than the achievement of others in the class.
  12. 12. Pass-Fail Grading  Available evidence indicates that a pass- fail system usually results in a reduction of achievement levels; quite naturally, students are less motivated to do well in such courses and devote most of their energies to those courses in which they will receive a letter grade.  Pass-fail grading does not fulfill any of the purposes of grading— communication, motivation, and prediction.
  13. 13. Types of grading symbols  The most commonly used alphabetical norm- referenced symbols are the letter grades A, B, C, D, and E (or F) and P and F (for pass and fail); the most commonly used numerical symbols are percents (e.g., 80%, 90%, 100%). Alternative to grading  Grades are sometimes supplemented by checklists, rankings, and reports of objectives achieved.  The two frequently suggested substitutes for grades are letters, or written reports, and parent-teacher conferences.