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  1. 1. Wonders of Ultrasound Shazia Akhtar 3/28/2008
  2. 2. Amazing!!!! <ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS ULTRASOUND (U/S) <ul><li>Breif History </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioeffects or Safety Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapeutic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Misuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By Medical professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By People </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>Although, SONAR was used in detecting moving object under water in early 1900s, the first application of sonic detector for medical diagnosis was carried out in 1940. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Technique and Ultrasound Instrumentation <ul><li>PROBES and U/S MACHINE </li></ul>                                                                                          
  6. 6. HOW IT WORKS <ul><li>The U/S Physics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound waves- mechanical waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic- above 20,000 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inaudible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The U/S Mechanics </li></ul><ul><li> Probe with crystal arrays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scan converter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images on screen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Safety issues <ul><li>No evidence of hazardous effects in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Studies conducted on small animals as mouse and rabbit have shown some bio-effects. </li></ul><ul><li>AIUM (American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine) limits the use of ultrasound to “ALARA” meaning; as low as reasonanbly acquired </li></ul>
  8. 8. Uses of U/S <ul><li>Diagnostic Use: </li></ul><ul><li>To diagnose a disease process. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>To rule out a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the stage of disease by u/s guided biopsies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fields of use <ul><ul><li>2D, 3D and DopplerUltrasound is performed on adults, children and fetus for diagnosis of various medical conditions involving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal organs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venous and Arterial System, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Uses of U/S cont’ <ul><li>Therapeutic Uses </li></ul><ul><li>High intensity sound waves are used to treat some diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Ablation: Therapy used for treatment gallbladder and kidney stones by breaking them into small pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Burn: This technique is used to burn some tumors to decrease there mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Insonation: as in Cataract surgery. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mis-uses of U/S <ul><li>Entertainment Fetal U/S </li></ul><ul><li>3D & 4D fetal U/S </li></ul><ul><li>Use by non professional personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Food and Drug Administration says they represent a misuse of ultrasound technology, which is approved for diagnostic medical purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been no long-term studies of children exposed to ultrasound and several small studies indicate a possible link between ultrasound exposure and neurological problems . </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Hidden gendercide of girls in China and India <ul><li>According to Times of India 5 million girls were eliminated between 1986 to 2001,in India, by fetal sex determination by unethical medical professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>According to 2000 census in China, 1 million girls were being eliminated annually, by innapprprite use of u/s for sex determination. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Should U/S Be used as Tool of Entertainment???
  14. 14. <ul><li>“DON’T GET FOOLED”BY THESE CUTE ADDS. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Hagen Ansert, Sandra;Text Book of Ultrasonography, sixth edi. 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1735074.cms </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1554501 </li></ul>