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DEPARTMENT OF PEDODONTICS
INTRODUCTION
 GENERAL BODY REFLEXES
 FACIAL REFLEX
 ORAL REFLEXES


 REFERENCE
A REFLEX is defined as
an involuntary, or
automatic, action that your
body does in response to
something, without even
hav...





Any sudden movement of
the neck initiates this reflex.
A way of eliciting the reflex
is to pull the baby half-way
...
Its nature gives an indication of the
muscle tone.

• The responses may be asymmetrical
if muscle tone is unequal on two s...
STARTLE
REFLEX

• It is similar to moro reflex, but it is initiated by
sudden noise or any other stimulus
• In this, the e...
• When the sole of the foot is
WALKING/ pressed against couch, the
STEPPING baby tries to walk.
REFLEX • It persists as vo...
 When

the baby’s palm
is stimulated, the hand
closes.
 There is also a
corresponding planter
reflex.
 Both normally
di...
An exceptionally strong grasp reflex may be
found in the spastic form of cerebral palsy
and in kernicterus.
 It may be as...
LIMB PLACEMENT REFLEX
• When the front of the leg below the
knee, or arm below the elbow is
brought into contact with edge...
When the baby is at rest and
not crying, he lies at intervals
with his head on one side, the
arm extended to the same
side...
It appears at
about 6-9
months and
persists
thereafter.

The reflex is elicited
by holding the child in
ventral suspension...
It is seen in vertical
suspension, with the
head, spine and legs
extended.
 If the head is flexed, the
hips, knees and th...






Stimulation of the face or nasal
cavity with water or local irritants
produce apnea in neonates.
Breathing stops ...
CORNEAL
REFLEX
• Consists of blinking
when cornea is
touched

PUPIL REFLEX
• Pupil reacts to light, but in
preterm baby an...
When the infant’s cheek
contacts the mother’s breast,
the baby’s mouth results in
vigorous sucking movements
resulting in ...
Onset is 28
weeks IU

Wellestablised
by 32-34
weeks IU

Disappears
by 3-4
months
Onset~ 28
weeks iu

Wellestablised~
32-34
weeks iu

Disappear~
around 12
months

Elicited by~
introducing
a finger into
th...
Begins around 12 and half
weeks IU life.
 Full swallowing and
sucking is established by
32-36 weeks of IU life.
 Their a...
INFANTILE
SWALLOW

•ACQUIRED
CONGENITAL REFLEX

•Until primary molars erupt,
infant swallows with jaws
separated and the t...
Seen at 18 and half
weeks of IU life.

In buccal cavity and
pharynx, the
ectoderm/endoderm zone
is towards the posterior
t...
It is a nonconditioned
reflex which
accounts for its
lack of individual
character and is
of sporadic
nature.

Starts as ea...
It is a conditioned reflex,
learned initially by irregular
and poorely coordinated,
chewing movements.

The proprioceptive...


SHOBHA TONDON (FOR PEDIATRICS
DENTISTRY) 2nd EDITION.
Reflexes present at birth
Reflexes present at birth
Reflexes present at birth
Reflexes present at birth
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Reflexes present at birth

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Reflexes present at birth

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF PEDODONTICS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  GENERAL BODY REFLEXES  FACIAL REFLEX  ORAL REFLEXES   REFERENCE
  3. 3. A REFLEX is defined as an involuntary, or automatic, action that your body does in response to something, without even having to think about it.  Types of reflexes present at birth: 1. General body reflexes 2. Facial reflexes 3. Oral reflexes 
  4. 4.    Any sudden movement of the neck initiates this reflex. A way of eliciting the reflex is to pull the baby half-way to sitting position from supine and suddenly let head fall back to a short distance. Reflex consists of rapid abduction and extension of arms with opening of hands.
  5. 5. Its nature gives an indication of the muscle tone. • The responses may be asymmetrical if muscle tone is unequal on two sides or there is a weakness of an arm or injury to humerous or clavicle This reflex disappears in 2-3 months.
  6. 6. STARTLE REFLEX • It is similar to moro reflex, but it is initiated by sudden noise or any other stimulus • In this, the elbows are flexed and the hands remain closed, there is less of embrace, outward and inward movement of arms.
  7. 7. • When the sole of the foot is WALKING/ pressed against couch, the STEPPING baby tries to walk. REFLEX • It persists as voluntary standing.
  8. 8.  When the baby’s palm is stimulated, the hand closes.  There is also a corresponding planter reflex.  Both normally disappear by 24 months.
  9. 9. An exceptionally strong grasp reflex may be found in the spastic form of cerebral palsy and in kernicterus.  It may be asymmetrical in hemiplegia and in cases of cerebral damage.  It should have disappeared in 2-3 months and persistence may indicate the spastic form of cerebral palsy. 
  10. 10. LIMB PLACEMENT REFLEX • When the front of the leg below the knee, or arm below the elbow is brought into contact with edge of the table, the child lifts the limb over the edge. BABINSKI’S REFLEX • Stroking of the lateral surface of the planter surface of the foot from the heel to the toe results in flexion of the toe.
  11. 11. When the baby is at rest and not crying, he lies at intervals with his head on one side, the arm extended to the same side, and often with a flexion of the contra lateral knee.  This reflex normally disappears after 2 or 3 months, but may persist in spastic children. 
  12. 12. It appears at about 6-9 months and persists thereafter. The reflex is elicited by holding the child in ventral suspension and suddenly lowering him to couch. The arms extend as defensive a defensive reaction. In children with cerebral palsy, the reflex may be absent or abnormal. It would be asymmetrical in spastic hemiplegia.
  13. 13. It is seen in vertical suspension, with the head, spine and legs extended.  If the head is flexed, the hips, knees and the elbows also flex.  It is normally present from 3 months and is difficult to elicit after 1 year.  Absence of reflex occurs in hypotonia, hypertonia or 
  14. 14.    Stimulation of the face or nasal cavity with water or local irritants produce apnea in neonates. Breathing stops in expiration with laryngeal closure and infants exhibit bradycardia and lowering of cardiac output. Blood flow to skin, splanchic areas, muscles and kidney decreases, whereas the flow to the heart and brain is protected.
  15. 15. CORNEAL REFLEX • Consists of blinking when cornea is touched PUPIL REFLEX • Pupil reacts to light, but in preterm baby and some full term babies the duration of exposure to the light may have to be prolonged to elicit the reflex.
  16. 16. When the infant’s cheek contacts the mother’s breast, the baby’s mouth results in vigorous sucking movements resulting in baby rooting for milk.  When the corner of mouth is touched, the lower lip is lowered, the tongue moves towards the point stimulated.  When the finger slides away, the head turns to follow it. 
  17. 17. Onset is 28 weeks IU Wellestablised by 32-34 weeks IU Disappears by 3-4 months
  18. 18. Onset~ 28 weeks iu Wellestablised~ 32-34 weeks iu Disappear~ around 12 months Elicited by~ introducing a finger into the mouth
  19. 19. Begins around 12 and half weeks IU life.  Full swallowing and sucking is established by 32-36 weeks of IU life.  Their absence in full-term baby would suggest a developmental defect. 
  20. 20. INFANTILE SWALLOW •ACQUIRED CONGENITAL REFLEX •Until primary molars erupt, infant swallows with jaws separated and the tongue thrust forward using facial muscles. •This is non-conditional congenital reflex. •After eruption of posterior primary teeth, from18 months of age onwards, the child tends to swallow with teeth brought together by masticatory muscle action, without a tongue thrust.
  21. 21. Seen at 18 and half weeks of IU life. In buccal cavity and pharynx, the ectoderm/endoderm zone is towards the posterior third of tongue. Touching here elicits a gag reflex, a protective reflex.
  22. 22. It is a nonconditioned reflex which accounts for its lack of individual character and is of sporadic nature. Starts as early as 21-29 weeks IU life.
  23. 23. It is a conditioned reflex, learned initially by irregular and poorely coordinated, chewing movements. The proprioceptive responses of TMJ and PDL of erupting dentition establishes a stabilized chewing pattern, aligned to the individual dental intercuspation.
  24. 24.  SHOBHA TONDON (FOR PEDIATRICS DENTISTRY) 2nd EDITION.
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