Adrenergic agents


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Adrenergic agents

  1. 1. Final Exam
  2. 2. Adrenergic Agents• Adrenergic nervous system stimulated by 2 classes of drugs: – Catecholamines – Noncatecholamines• Neurotransmitter catecholamines – Norepinephrine—secreted at nerve terminals – Epinephrine—adrenal medulla – Dopamine—brain, kidney, GI tract• Non-catecholamines – Selective – Not quite fast acting – Longer duration of action
  3. 3. Adrenergic Agents• Assess VS—HR & BP• Adverse effects are dose related• Adverse effects resolve when dose is reduce or discontinued• Client sensitive are:• Impaired liver function• Thyroid disease• HTN• Heart disease• DM have increase episodes of Hyperglycemia
  4. 4. Adrenergic Agents• Common Adverse Effects – Palpitations – Tachycardia – Dizziness – Tremors – Orthostatic hypotension• Serious Adverse Effects—w/cardiac d/c immediately & notify provider – Dysrhythmias – Chest pain – Severe hypotension – HTN – Angina pain – N/V—notify providers• Interactions: MAOI, TCA, atropine & halothane, OTC meds
  5. 5. Cholinergic Agents• Parasympathomimic• Produce effects of acetylcholine• Other can inhibit acetyl cholinesterase (metabolize ACH)-- indirect-acting cholinergic agent• PNS can be directly stimulated by some agents• Actions: – Slow heartbeat – Increase GI motility – Increase GI secretions – Increased contraction of urinary bladder w/relaxation of muscle sphincter – Increase contractility of bronchial smooth muscle – Sweating – Miosis of eye which decrease intaocular pressure – Increased force of contraction of skeletal muscle – Sometimes decrease blood pressure
  6. 6. Cholinergic Agents• VS: HR & BP• The higher the doses the greater the likelihood for adverse effects• CAE:• N/V/D/AC• Dizziness• Hypotension (monitor orthostatic pressures)• Bronchospasm & wheezing• Bradycardia (withhold the next dose)• Interactions: atropine, antihistamines