Food and Cancer: What is the story?

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This is a keynote lecture delivered in the 3rd American Society for Nutrition Middle East Congress, Dubai, UAE, Feb 2014.
The lecture was mainly focused on the effect of different bioactive food compounds on cancer, promoting diet therapy as a key component of cancer treatment.

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  • Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death.
  • Deregulation or loss of normal controls in any of these pathways is thought to be present in all human tumors When activated aberrantly, this signaling pathway can induce tumorigenesis and has been associated with various malignancies.The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-theronine protein kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B (PKB))/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)
  • Pathways of Apoptosis activation
  • Pathways of Apoptosis activation
  • Pathways of Apoptosis activation
  • is found in natural foods and food products such as grapes, peanuts, berries, and redwine. In recent years, resveratrol has gained considerable attention for its anticanceractivities across multiple cancers.
  • Effect of resveratrol on intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis [adapted from Kundu and Surh (11)].AP-1, activator protein-1;HIF-1α, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; IKK, IκB kinase; MAPKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKC,protein kinase C; STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.
  • Flavonoids are widely presentin diet such as fruits and vegetables, they have been demonstrated a broad spectrumof biological activities for human health. They have been found to interfere withcancer development at different stage by targeting on various signaling molecules,onions, broccoli, apples, grapes
  • Proposed mechanism of flavonoids from fruits and vegetables on cancer chemopreventionand chemotherapy
  • The researchers calculated that almost 10% of total deaths could be prevented if individuals reduce their red meat consumption to less than half a serving, or 42 grams, a day.The research, led by Dr An Pan of the Harvard School of Public Health, involved the analysis of two large prospective studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, which involved 51,529 men aged 40-75 years, and the Nurses’ Health Study, which involved 121,700 women.
  • It comes down to this: Plants have less fat, more fiber, and more cancer-fighting nutrients. These three elements work together to support your immune system and help your body fight off cancer.
  • First, meat lacks fiber and other nutrients that have been shown to have cancer-protective properties. What it does have in abundance, however, is fat—often very high levels of saturated fat. High-fat diets have been linked to higher rates of cancer. And saturated fat is particularly dangerous. Finally, depending on how it is prepared, meat can develop carcinogenic compounds.
  • Another benefit of eating plant-based foods is that it will also increase your fiber intake. Fiber, also called roughage or bulk, is the part of plants (grains, fruits, and vegetables) that your body can’t digest. Fiber plays a key role in keeping your digestive system clean and healthy. It helps keep food moving through your digestive tract, and it also moves cancer-causing compounds out before they can create harm.
  • Boost your antioxidants. Antioxidants are powerful vitamins that protect against cancer and help the cells in your body function optimally. Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium.Eat a wide range of brightly colored fruits and vegetables. Colorful fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals, a potent disease–fighting and immune–boosting nutrient. The greater the variety of colors that you include, the more you will benefit, since different colors are rich in different phytochemicals.Flavor with immune-boosting spices and foods. Garlic, ginger, and curry powder not only add flavor, but they add a cancer-fighting punch of valuable nutrients. Other good choices include turmeric, basil, rosemary, and coriander. Use them in soups, salads, casseroles, or any other dish.Drink plenty of water. Water is essentially to all bodily processes. It stimulates the immune system, removes waste and toxins, and transports nutrients to all of your organs.
  • Food and Cancer: What is the story?

    1. 1. Abnormal signal transduction Loss of apoptosis Angiogenesis Metastasis
    2. 2. EGF EGFR VEGF IGF1 EGFR EGFR EGFR EGFR EGFR VEGFR IGF1R RTK EGFR EGFR EG FR
    3. 3. Signal transduction pathways: PI3K/Akt/mTOR MAPK
    4. 4. Activation of TNF receptor family DNA damage Extrinsic pathway (Death receptor) Intrinsic pathway (Mitochondrial) Caspases enzymes
    5. 5. Caspases enzymes Apoptosis Activated IAP proteins Bcl-2 family
    6. 6. Caspases enzymes Apoptosis Inhibited IAP proteins Bcl-2 family Over expression of NFkB
    7. 7. So the Heroes?
    8. 8. Less angiogenesis Common Drugs Cancer Drugs Dietary factors William Li, TED 2010
    9. 9. M.-H Pan et al, Cancer prevention by diet therapy, 2013
    10. 10. Hazard ratio for CRC NIH-AARP Diet and Health study: Folate intake and CRC risk n=567,000 Gibson et al, AJCN, 2011 Total folate (µg)
    11. 11. Pan et al, Harvard School of Public Health, 2012
    12. 12. www.en.omegart.org/MeatlessMonday
    13. 13. #1: Focus on plant based foods
    14. 14. #2: Reduce meat intake
    15. 15. #3: Bulk up on fiber
    16. 16. #4: Know cancer fighting foods
    17. 17. #5: Prepare your food in healthy ways
    18. 18. Final words…
    19. 19. www.omegart.org Shayan.m.moradi@omegart.org

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