Practice and challenges from building IaaS

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It is an invited presentation for NCSC2012 (China National Conference on Social Computing) on cloud computing from industry.
It summarized what we learn on developing and operating an Infrastructure as a Service in a highly scalable manner. The service described inside the corporation is kind of dogfood that engineers work with in their daily work.

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Practice and challenges from building IaaS

  1. 1. Practice and Challenges fromBuilding Infrastracture-as-a-Service 朱可 zhukecdl@cn.ibm.com
  2. 2. Disclaimer● Representing personal opinion only
  3. 3. IaaS in Our Development Lab● Virtual machine● Block storage● Virtual machine template● VLAN● Static ip address● Virtual Desktop $ ./iaas-deploy-vms -i centos63 -n 100 $ ./iaas-deploy-vms -i centos63 -n 100
  4. 4. The Machinery Node: 16 Cores 192GB RAM 1,6TBRack: 20+ nodes, 2 rack switches
  5. 5. Quick Stats● 5,800 VMs provisioned in 2 months● 700+ individual visitors per month● 50,000+ requests to web services per single day – Less than 40% requests are sent by human
  6. 6. Design for Failure● “Failure is not an option, its a requirement.”● Things will crash – Linux kernel panic – Defunct process – File system becomes read only suddenly● HW just doesnt work in every week – Broken disk – Flaws in CPU – Network adapter varies among 10/100/1000 Mbps
  7. 7. Event In Red: Failure
  8. 8. FlakinessNov 14 00:39:27 r007x072 kernel: bonding: bond1: link status definitely down for interface eth3, disabling itNov 14 00:39:35 r007x072 kernel: e1000e: eth3 NIC Link is Up 100 Mbps Full Duplex, Flow Control: RX/TXNov 14 00:39:35 r007x072 kernel: e1000e 0000:1a:00.1: eth3: 10/100 speed: disabling TSONov 14 00:39:35 r007x072 kernel: bonding: bond1: link status definitely up for interface eth3.Nov 14 00:39:36 r007x072 kernel: e1000e: eth3 NIC Link is DownNov 14 00:39:36 r007x072 kernel: bonding: bond1: link status definitely down for interface eth3, disabling it Analysis Analysis Unqualified Network Cables Unqualified Network Cables
  9. 9. [root@r007x072 ~]# cat /proc/net/bonding/bond1Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.6.0 (September 26, 2009)Bonding Mode: adaptive load balancingPrimary Slave: NoneCurrently Active Slave: eth2MII Status: upMII Polling Interval (ms): 100Up Delay (ms): 0Down Delay (ms): 0Slave Interface: eth2MII Status: upLink Failure Count: 0Permanent HW addr: 00:1b:21:98:2a:4cSlave queue ID: 0Slave Interface: eth3MII Status: upLink Failure Count: 1627Permanent HW addr: 00:1b:21:98:2a:4dSlave queue ID: 0
  10. 10. Keep Simple and Robust● “I have 4 letters for you: KISS (Keep it simple and stupid)”● Complex system === hazardous system● Just enough fault-tolerance – Reboot machine if it goes wrong – Logout iSCSI session and login again – Mini toolkit to fix broken DM (device mapper) table
  11. 11. Example: Stateless OS ● Mount root partition in RAM – Think about how you install Ubuntu or Fedora ● Fix problem by reboot only[root@r009x090 ~]# df -hFilesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on/dev/mapper/live-rw 7,9G 1,5G 6,4G 19% /tmpfs 71G 4,0K 71G 1% /dev/shm/dev/sda2 7,9G 1,4G 6,2G 18% /var/log/dev/sda4 1,6T 183G 1,4T 12% /iaas/local-storage
  12. 12. P2P based Socialized Communication● Bots “talk” to each other● Anyone can be re-run in seconds when things go wrong
  13. 13. Robust Application ● A number of roles in distributed system do there own jobs – Bot, manager, watch dog, zookeeper, agent, hbase, hadoop, etc (http://zookeeper.apache.org/images/zookeeper_small.gif) HBase Region Region Region Server Server Server zookeeper Data Data Data node node node HDFSRegular bot Watch dog Manager bot
  14. 14. Dedicated Network-accessible Services● NTP (controversial in VM but good enough)● ZooKeeper – Node presence – Configuration data – Leader election● HBase: store schema-less data● Rsyslog: centralize logs● Web Service: accept HTTP requests only
  15. 15. Scale-out Architecture For Growth● Single namespace for global infrastructure – v525400ffffff.region-a.cloud.xx.ibm.com/service-foo● Multi-region for Geo-distribution● Use cache when possible● Share nothing by autonomy● Leader election (elect new manager if former dies)● Collect metrics
  16. 16. Requirement grows/decreases faster than purchasing HW● “I need 200 large VMs this afternoon and will terminate all of them tomorrow.”
  17. 17. Storage is Always Not Enough● Walk-around: recycle unused files – Move low hit virtual images out of hot zone – Setup SLA to limit availability (provide redundancy only when necessary)
  18. 18. Metrics Collection is Critical● “Gathering, storing, and displaying metrics should be considered a mission-critical part of your infrastructure.”*● Measurement for performance boost (or downgrade) (* comes from chapter 3 of the book “web operations”)
  19. 19. Example #1: Fix Side Effect of the Leap Second ● The latest leap second occurred on the end of June 2012/var/log/messages grows too much It take 10 times long in job distribution between botstgtd: work_timer_evt_handler(89) failed to read from timerfd,Resource temporarily unavailable # service ntpd stop; date -s “`date`”; service ntpd start
  20. 20. Example #2: Recycle Unused Resources@zhukecdl Our analysis of your VM instance(s) shows thatCPU utilization and network traffic in the past 48 hourshave dropped below 2% and 10 MB.Instance ID CPU Time (s) CPU Rate (%) TX (MB)r007.x072.17897.u51393 337.3 0.20 0We would strongly urge you to consider recycling yourinstance(s) so that others can make use of these resources.If you didnt contact the administrator before 2011-08-1617:00+8000, the instance r007.x072.17897.u51393 will be recycledRegards,
  21. 21. Automated Operation (and More)● Goals – Daily upgrade all components – One administrator for 1k systems – No working overtime● Tool – Ruby chef – SmartCloud portfolio● Process – Run benchmark to the system every week – Stay in office until build break is fixed
  22. 22. Run Benchmark to the System Often● Measurement to your performance tweaks● Tools – Netperf – Apache JMeter Benchmarking network infrastructure # netserver # netperf -H 10.10.1.97 -l 43200 TCP_CRR & # netperf -H 9.123.127.227 -l 43200 TCP_CRR &
  23. 23. Infrastructure as Code● Building network accessible services● Integration these services [root@beijing-mn03 ~]# virsh list Id Name State ---------------------------------- 1 hbm1 running 2 bj-jenkins running 3 hjt running 4 webservice-1 running 5 hnn2 running 6 bugzilla running 8 hslave07 running 9 hslave08 running 10 hslave09 running 11 hslave10 running 12 hslave11 running 13 ScannerSlackware running
  24. 24. Real time Feedback by Tracing Logs● Manager X: “I need daily success rate report on deploy VM from department Y today.”
  25. 25. Visualize Traces Via Timeline
  26. 26. Summary● Keep it simple and robust● Scale-out architecture● Automated operation

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