Give an example of a situation in which informed consent is necessary and communicate the information to a child.
Discuss the importance of verifying ID bracelets on the child and the parent/guardian. Discuss safety measures while applying the bands and for discharge.
Give an example of a potentially dangerous situation if a child is not identified by an ID bracelet. Audience Response Question #1 The mother of a 2-month-old patient is changing his diaper with the crib rail in the down position. The nurse observes the mother walk away from the crib without raising the rail. The nurse should: 1. Realize the mother feels comfortable regarding the safety of her child. 2. Instruct the mother that crib rails must be returned to the upward position any time the child is unattended in the crib. 3. Notify social services and the pediatrician. 4. Document the occurrence in the medical record.
Give examples of how to minimize unsafe conditions within the hospital. What is an example of a cross-infection situation? Discuss precautions that should be instituted when administering oxygen.
Discuss these safety measures.
Discuss when it is and is not appropriate for a parent or caregiver to assist in a medical/nursing procedure.
What are some improper methods of transporting an infant?
Discuss Figure 22-4, A-D, on page 490.
Discuss why these organizational steps are important in the infant assessment process.
Give examples of situations in which the nurse must assess and observe growth and development.
Give an example of information gained during the history in which the nurse can teach the parents injury prevention. What is the rationale for the nurse obtaining eating, toileting, sleeping, and activity patterns?
Tachycardia is often the first sign of shock or body stress in infants and children. Hypotension could be a late sign of shock because of a compensatory mechanism that is activated early—this is an emergency! Mottled skin on the extremities is not unusual. Infants have a large body surface area and high metabolic rate that are prone to fluid loss and hypothermia as well as cold stress. Hydration status: Sunken fontanel could indicate dehydration. Bulging fontanels could indicate increased intracranial pressure (ICP). In an older child and adult, increased ICP is manifested by increased systolic BP, widening pulse pressure, irregular respirations, and bradycardia. In an infant, increased ICP might only be manifested by a decreased level of consciousness. Audience Response Question #2 A child's weight is 57 pounds upon admission. The nurse converts this to ________ kilograms. 1. 23 2. 26 3. 28.5 4. 114
Discuss the importance of obtaining an apical pulse for one full minute.
What methods are used to obtain a BP of the brachial, popliteal, or femoral arteries? Discuss the reason for inaccurate BP readings of children who are crying.
Discuss the pathophysiology regarding increased metabolic rate and fever and the increased demand on the heart and lungs.
Discuss the difference between fever and hyperthermia.
Discuss Skills 22-3 and 22-4 on page 496.
Describe where these temperatures are measured on the body. Audience Response Question #3 The nurse assesses the tympanic temperature of a 4-week-old as 95.9 º F. The nurse should: 1. document the temperature. 2. notify the physician. 3. have another nurse reassess. 4. take an axillary temperature.
Refer to Chapter 12 for pain in the newborn and Chapter 21 for pain in the child/adolescent.
Review techniques to use based on the age of the infant or child.
Discuss proper procedures to measure height of infants and children.
What is the importance of head circumference measurement?
What is the importance of proper documentation when obtaining and sending a specimen to the lab?
Review the techniques for obtaining specimens listed.
How might medications be absorbed differently when administered by these various routes? What factors need to be considered in the pediatric patient prior to administering any medications?
Discuss the pathophysiology regarding excretion of medications via the renal system.
Give an example of toxic symptoms the nurse might assess in a child. What are some examples of negative responses to medications?
Review the various techniques and safety measures for each method and for each age group.
Provide measurements and allow students to calculate medication using the dimensional analysis method.
Discuss why this is important to follow.
Give an example of a child’s situation that requires TPN. Discuss the pathophysiology regarding hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and electrolyte imbalances.
Discuss the importance of monitoring the child every hour.
Review nursing guidelines for IV therapy at various stages of development in Table 22-5, pages 510-514.
What is the proper technique when administering a gavage feeding?
Give examples of isotonic solutions. What is a potential complication when administering a tap-water enema? Fluid overload
Discuss Figure 22-18 on page 521.
Review the technique for correctly performing suctioning.
Discuss Figure 22-20 on page 524. Review safety considerations when administering oxygen.
Discuss the proper procedure for treating a child/infant with an airway obstruction.
Chapter 22 Power Point
Chapter 22Chapter 22
Health Care Adaptations for theHealth Care Adaptations for the
Child and FamilyChild and Family