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Copter Race Rules


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This training document is dedicated in Copter’s memory. Copter’s Race Rules represents professional responsibilities and standards of operation for Personal Water Craft competitors, teams and mentors professional development on the race track. Personal Water Craft competition is a high risk activity. This will require of competitors their full attention to ‘Wake No Harm’. It requires of competitors to study and evaluate track conditions, their equipment and to continually strive to control their powerful water craft and to develop the mindset and professional maturity to make effective decisions in a split moment’s notice. - Never Forget T99

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Copter Race Rules

  1. 1. PWC RACING LESSON #1 1 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved COPTERS RACE RULES Chantouch Chanthasuntitham 2001 - 2015 Chantouch Chanthasuntitham earned the 2015 IJSBA World Champion Novice Ski Stock at 14 years of age in Lake Havasu City, Arizona USA. Chantouch known by his nickname; ’Copter’ or his race #T99, was a student at Heathfield International School, Bangkok, Thailand. He was from the Pathum Thani’s Thanyaburi district. He passed away on June 5, 2016 while practicing on a race track with a fellow racer. Chantouch fell into the water while negotiating a left handed turn next to his race boat some distance ahead of the second rider. The following rider negotiated the turn not noticing the T99 boat with Chantouch’s location and struck Chantouch in the head while he was in the water. Copter died instantly from a traumatic head injury on site. He leaves behind a loving mother and father, many family members, friends and schoolmates. His death sends a strong message of safety as a proactive responsibility to all of us rather than a reactive sadness to the racing community. His death serves as a reminder that racing is dangerous, therefore preparation is essential to the sanctity and preservation of life. Every racer’s life depends on the racer to their left, right, ahead or behind. This lesson plan will serve to prepare you, your team rider or your family for the realities and fundamental responsibilities of this sport. Copter’s message after his untimely death is a sober reality of this risk. In his spirit for the passion of the sport he loved, this document is presented insomuch that no parent, brother, sister or race team will experience the death of a loved one without the benefits of guidance, mentorship, training and responsibility of actions; Safety – Education - Enforcement (S.E.E.) This training document is dedicated in Copter’s memory. Copter’s Race Rules represents professional responsibilities and standards of operation for Personal Water Craft competitors, teams and mentors professional development on the race track. Personal Water Craft competition is a high risk activity. This will require of competitors their full attention to ‘Wake No Harm’. It requires of competitors to study and evaluate track conditions, their equipment and to continually strive to control their powerful water craft and to develop the mindset and professional maturity to make effective decisions in a split moment’s notice. - Never Forget T99
  2. 2. PWC RACING LESSON #1 2 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved WAKE NO HARM What you will need: 1. Ability to want to learn 2. Ability to listen 3. Notebook 4. Pen 5. Dedication 6. Ability to inventory progress What does ‘Wake No Harm’ mean? It means that a personal watercraft operator (PWC) is 100% responsible for their actions and choices underway. In my training courses we always start our class with the ‘worst case scenario’. We must prepare our psychological mind and our physical body to undertake the tasks ahead. This requires the reality of risk and liability. Take a few minutes to prepare a hypothetical situation in your mind and visualize this scenario in a first person perspective: You just struck a rider with your personal water craft you were on the track with. Your location is far from shore. The scene is chaotic. Your thoughts are trapped in a place of absolute shock and terror. You wonder if this is a dream or it this really happening? You hear things that you are having difficulty accepting, sounds that are not normal. You see blood in the water and it is not yours. There is nobody there to help you and you start to panic! You leave your PWC and jump into the water to help them. Now your Personal Water Craft is out of your reach and floating away, you are drifting and screaming for help, but nobody can hear you. Will somebody see something is not right and come to you? Your lifejacket doesn’t hold both you and them up in the water to breathe well, you start gasping water. You don’t know what to do or how to get their face turned up to the sky, you are struggling in the water. Everything in these moments have become an emotional overload. It comes down to three things for you in those desperate moments when it suddenly gets real: 1. Your spirit 2. Your emotions 3. Your physical response. But that is only in those moments. You will have to live with the results of this accident for the rest of your life! You will relive this incident over and over in your mind wondering what you could have done different? The threat of lawsuit, the guilt, the sadness are real fears you will have to face. But what about this person? Can you connect to their distress, and their trauma? What about their loss, their family and loved ones? It is hard to see from the opposite perspective. Now armed with this crushing awareness, knowing that life can be taken or somebodies well-being can be compromised, in one second of action, life will change forever. What are you willing to invest in your training to strengthen safety areas that you may not realize are weak? Do not forget with Copters Race Rules, the life you are talking about, it could be your life you lose. It could be your parent’s tears and broken hearts, your team, your friends. This is a real situation. It has happened many times. It happened to Chantouch and his fellow rider. People always say after an accident ‘I never thought this would happen to me, or to them, or to us’, but it does. Are you convinced yet? Our first lesson in Copters Race Rules are to create a plan of action to motivate you to take 100% responsibility. There is nothing wrong with that. Knowledge is power and you are driving a power craft, you have a lot to learn beyond wanting to race and burn tanks of fuel. Let’s begin on this empowering journey! It is important that we have comprehension of the physics involved of our activity. We will spend some time to grasp a fundamental understanding of what this means. You are responsible for your boat. You are legally responsible for your boat when you put it into motion. The person who owns the boat also is responsible. If that is you, or your parents, a friend or a sponsor. You are not riding or racing alone, you are representing them as much as yourself. You ride for
  3. 3. PWC RACING LESSON #1 3 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved many, you may be riding for a club, your race region, or your country’s national pride. This is a significant burden, it is manageable when you attach an emotional maturity to representing not only your own desires but those who are supporting you. This will require of you professional development: EFFORT. You must consider a few things before we start. Get to know your personal water craft. Understand the motion regarding the body of water you will be operating on. Study and inspect the race track. Look at the weather patterns. Inspect your competitor’s race equipment. Take into account an assessment of the risks. You will not be able to determine your fellow racers capability. There is no scale rating or testing methods applied in the Personal Water Craft competition arena. It is built on trust. When you are on the race starting line and you look down that line, each of you desires the same result, you want to be the first to cross the finish line, but only one of you will succeed. What happens from the time you cross the starting line to the finish is a lot of pressure, hopes, expectation, expense and emotional adrenaline fueled energy. Now go back to studying the track design we talked about. Give the track a rating. Below is a degree of difficulty for you to make an honest assessment with. You can practice this by drawing in your workbook your own race tracks and evaluating the designs by considering physics and the lesson plan modules further in Copters Race Rules.
  4. 4. PWC RACING LESSON #1 4 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved How old are you? Are you twelve or forty five years of age? It may be easier to train younger people than older people. Younger people still have a hunger to learn. Older people tend to get comfortable. No matter what age you are, be very uncomfortable so you can continue to learn. Look at other power sports! What are they doing or not doing to increase the level of professional capability. What is professionalism, how would you define that? What is our sport doing for track safety, racer education, training and knowledge, what are you doing? Too many riders run laps and burn gas but they don’t know how to train professionally. It’s really up to you and nobody else, get excited about increasing capability!
  5. 5. PWC RACING LESSON #1 5 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved I want you to start to evaluate your training properly, with effective results. Run your training experiences the same as laps run in an actual race. Take a break in between your ‘mottos’. Step back and think what you are actually trying to achieve. Where are you struggling on the track? What is your boat doing, what are you thinking? Many of you will not have the ability to train on the level you desire, so your mental preparation will be exceptionally important. Learn to teach yourself.
  6. 6. PWC RACING LESSON #1 6 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved The internet is an amazing tool of functional capability. You can research, connect and evaluate without expense. Let’s consider the obvious. How tall you are and how much you weigh. Good, write it down in your notebook. Now, take an honest inventory of your muscle mass with your height to weight ratio. How would you rate yourself? High, medium or low muscle mass? It is time to write it in your notebook. Look at your PWC. What kind do you have? 1. Make of company 2. Model (type) 3. Year of Production Ask yourself this: What kind of bottom hull does it have? Why is this important? When you couple this with the pump and your height and weight you will discover how this hull likes to move or displace water when you draw on the throttle. BUOY TRACK DESIGN – DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY – RATE IT! 1. Novice 2. Intermediate 3. Advanced a. Level 1 (easy) b. Level 2 (beginner) c. Level 3 (novice) d. Level 4 (expert) e. Level 5 (PRO - ramp jumps and log jumps)
  7. 7. PWC RACING LESSON #1 7 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved WEIGHT AND HEIGHT Select the type of race boat you have. Standup, Sport, or Runabout. Notice the length, width, height and weight. Look at where your centered body position for riding will be. Put in your age, height, weight and muscle mass. Combine that with the total speed and thrust capability of your PWC. Stand-up: 7’ 5”/ 2.24 m Runabout: 11’ 6” YELLOW - Height of the Operator is 5’ 8” Weight of the Operators if 165 lbs. RED - Length of the Standup is 7’5” RED - Length of the Runabout is 11’ 6” BLUE - Center of balance (body position) ORANGE - Width
  8. 8. PWC RACING LESSON #1 8 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Instructor Notes: Shawn Alladio “If you cannot define it, you cannot own it. If you are not determining how to succeed, you will bumble along gaining lessons through failure rather than lessons through education that lead to operational and race success. You can shorten that gap. In my training programs I emphasize 100% responsibility of operators at all times. We do not blame the boat, the water or the area of operation. As students your value is to focus on physics, speed and thrust, with a host of other elements. In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time”. Motion is typically described in terms of the following:  Displacement  Distance (scalar)  Velocity  Acceleration  Time  Speed Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame. Distance traveled, distance lost? How can you be more efficient in economy of range, throttle, fuel consumption and traction? (Now do that 10 x) KEY: Direction of Travel Swell/throttle Distane to Buoy Stern tunnel Traction/turn Head/chest/pelvis trim Centerline of craft/low handlepole
  9. 9. PWC RACING LESSON #1 9 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Operational Personal Water Craft Standards 1. Trim (body/vessel) A. Perspective 2. Helm/Throttle Control B. Selection 3. Read the Water C. Situational Awareness Note: Each much be effective and each work in unison A Personal Water Craft moving over the surface of calm waters sets up waves which will emanate from bow to stern (forward to aft). These waves consist of divergent and transverse waves. The divergent waves are observed as the wake of the PWC with a series of diagonal or oblique crests moving outward from the point of disturbance. These waves will change depending upon the Make, Year and Model of PWC production and its width/length and weight displacement. The potential flow generated by the PWC will be determined by its velocity or rate of speed, and will be adjusted depending up on the degree of turn and throttle application to the next target turn point, from buoy to buoy. Wind can also play a determining factor in surface waves. Also depth of water. Once the first turn on a race track has been initiated OR a Course Marshal boat crosses the track area (or outside boating traffic) Kelvin Wakes will be viewed, which consist of a plane progressive wave group propagating in the direction of travel. These potential cross wakes make a race track sloppy, choppy and creates different frequencies and directions from other progressive waves coming from the amount or number of race boats on a race track, their location and directional changes. Compute into the formula: swells, wakes and water depth with directional changes and you start to get the idea! As racers fewer are properly trained professionally. In this lesson plan we will focus on the speed of the energy density-wave ampitude rather than the crest of wave or swells, but will note the height and directional changes. If you have a wake you are crossing that is higher than your freeboard or gunwale you will have to apply additional techniques to maintain your trackline and pump efficiency. Techniques must be adjusted depending upon water type: Ocean, inshore surf zones, near shore lakes, open water such as offshore or endurance events. TRACTION IS THE WINNING RESULT If you cannot keep your hull and pump in the water with effective throttle modulation applied with body trim (transitioning in air and on water) and water knowledge to the type of hull you are competing with, you will not engage in effective traction management. You will have slip, slop and lost traction. The heavier the boat is loaded to the surface of the water, the pump can do some of the work for you. Your engine cannot perform if you do not allow your pump to create flow. And you can create engine damage with a disengaged pump! Protect your engine by fully loading the pump in the when water throttle is used. One foot or meter lost on the track loses a race. Where did you lose your last meter, ten feet, or where did you optimize your gains? You must know: 1. Your pump type 2. Vessel type 3. Water Conditions with changing phases of direction (buoy placement and depth of water)
  10. 10. PWC RACING LESSON #1 10 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Pump selection is defined by a few key specifications, including flow rate, head, power, efficiency, and nozzle velocity ratio. Impeller Design Impeller design determines the type of flow and is the main variable in pump design affecting a pump's performance (namely its capacity and pressure), construction may be of aluminum or stainless steel. Viscous flow A type of fluid flow in which there is a continuous steady motion of the particles, the motion at a fixed point always remaining constant. Laminar consisting of or like thin plates or layers; of or relating to a fluid, streamlined flow. Combustion engine (gasoline) pumps are powered using a gasoline engine Axial flow pumps are characterized by high flow and low pressure. They lift liquid in a direction parallel to the impeller shaft, operating essentially the same as a boat propeller. Pressure is developed wholly by the propelling action of the impeller vanes. 3 varied pumps are: Axial, Radial and Mixed. The value of the specific speed of a specific pump gives a good indication of its type: typical axial flow pumps have a specific speed above 2.4, whereas radial flow pumps have low values of the specific speed (typically below 1.0). Mixed-flow pumps have intermediate values for the specific speed
  11. 11. PWC RACING LESSON #1 11 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Pressure is a measure of the force per unit area of resistance the pump can handle or overcome, expressed in bar or psi (pounds per square inch). As in all centrifugal pumps, the pressure in axial flow pumps varies based on the pumped fluid's specific gravity. For this reason, head is more commonly used to define pump energy in this way.  Output power, also called water horsepower, is the power actually delivered to the fluid by the pump, measured in horsepower (hp)  Input power, also called brake horsepower, is the power that must be supplied to the pump, measured in horsepower (hp)  Efficiency is the ratio between the input power and output power. It accounts for energy losses in the pump (friction and slip) describes how much of the input power does useful work Water that is drawn into the water jet intake through the particular water intake device, which can deliver or direct water from the hulls boundary layer. The mass averaged velocity of the water drawn is lower than the PWC speed due to this boundary layer. The velocity deficit is expressed as the momentum wake fraction. The given volume flow rate through the jet pump can be calculated once the velocity distribution in the boundary layer is known. The pump is where our success or failure lies in forward propulsion! Frictional drag creates a lot of problems for jet pump efficiency, this can be from hull damage or internal pump damage such as cavitation from boil lines created from damaged hot spots. For water rescue frictional drag is offset exponentially using a towable rescue board device. Pump efficiency is not only defined by how you as the pilot continually load the pump to continue surface water contact, but is also defined as the ratio between the flow rate, pressure rise, and shaft power generating the hydraulic power. Cavitation is not our friend but we meet often! To reduce cavitation free pump operation it requires a certain pressure available to the water inlet or suction side where your water intake is located. Yes you can still operate with cavitation, but specific offset forces are applied and we should be able to define those effects. More throttle draw when cavitation is experienced, fuel consumption increases and driveline stress is exerted to engine use. Water flow rate can be attributed to the speed of the impeller, if you ‘lose the pump’ (lose water contact) the last thing you want to do is ‘red line’ your RPM, which can result in engine damage. Back off throttle momentarily when the pump has lost surface contact. Pump efficiency decrease can be caused by many contributing factors, but how decisive are you to curtail repetitive instances that perhaps you could modify by your actions at the helm? You may gain a few extra feet on the race track and help your engine and driveline! Yes, thrust is your friend!
  12. 12. PWC RACING LESSON #1 12 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Again we come back to our basics, helm, throttle, trim, and read the water, it really is as simple as that! Not really. It’s actually physics. You must THINK and REACT at SPEED HULL CONFIGURATION As noted in our earlier training modules regarding hull design and configuration there are a variety of hull types covering: SUV, Runabout, Sport and Stand Up types of Personal Water Craft. The chines, keel and water tunnel tell the story of your vessel. Can you identify and effectively translate the hull configurations below and the features and functions? (The bow cleats extending from the hull can be a threat to another boat/person, you can get hung up on them briefly) Construction materials  SMC Plastic (sheet molded compound)  Fiberglas  NanoXcel  Carbon Fiber YOU ARE DRIVING YOUR RACE BOAT ASTERN!
  13. 13. PWC RACING LESSON #1 13 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Stop focusing on the helm as an absolute for operations: Divide and focus on the water intake, pump and steering nozzle output. Starting line and tracking problems: Following or crossing a stern trailing wake. RED ALERT! On the starts drafting into the tunnel of a forward race boat can create disastrous results. Starting from an initial condition and continuing until a steady result is obtained, this can lead to a slow formation of the steady wave pattern, persistent time dependence, reflection of waves at artificial boundaries, and contact line problems. I have witnessed hundreds of starting line accidents and injuries due to a lack of effective racer knowledge and instruction on the physics and forces applied at this red zone. Think of it this way: An aircraft pilot has 2 alert positions, landings and takeoffs. It is the same for PWC racing, the start line and crossing the finish line can be 2 of the most hazardous times during a race. One from traffic, trailing wakes/drafting and the other from fatigue and non-attentive racers. Negotiating a starboard side (right) turn Turns are variable quotents, they are reliable in terms of your race pace, mindset and preparation leading into the race, meaning how you train. Are you burning gas or training? There is a big difference! It takes almost 3,000 reptitions to perfect a skill. As a K38 qualified racer you are supposed to maintain a training log. In this log you should not the variables occuring during training and a diagram of each buoy track you train on and race on for that matter! How many starboard side turns have you made so far? Give a number. If you don’t know, it is time to start tracking your training now! The methodology for top tier level pros may be more instictive than reactionary. A true professional seeks advice from other professionals. This is where they glean that extra tenth of a second gain that was eluding them. Having an unbiased unobjective review is sound to professional development. Critques and criticism are to be embraced for growth not emotional exchanges. Training is not to be a disadvantage it will require of you to take a hard look at the criteria and determinations you have achived and allow them to evolve. Even top tier level professionals can increase their efficient quotas on race dates! Watch and observe race behaviors of professionals, what are they doing so well you cannot achieve? The answer is simple. They have ‘FLOW’. Think and visualize your responses. First you must know who you are. Define your strengths and weakness, focus on both. Know the avenues of the track you are strong in. Learn to dominate in the weak areas by giving yourself permission to train effectively. Pay attention to your trim (body) elements, throttle (power), helm (steerage) and the most important part: Your decision making process. You must breathe. Effective breathing is leading out front. It allows you to remain calm, fixated on the goals, flowing, allowance for your physical stamina to endure and to be more inclined to tactical decisions at a 1/10 of a second margin.
  14. 14. PWC RACING LESSON #1 14 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved Your body trim is utilized in terms of the centerline of your craft, keel lineup, water height movement from your freeboard, how much pitch you draw on your helm turn, the velocity of your pump efficiency in concert with throttle changes, your centered head, plevic and chest positioning, foot pressure in the foot well, physical fitness level, experience, decisions you enact, displacement of hull, and competitor interference or tracking in the jet thrust of a forward racer. In earlier courses we discussed the values of directional changes. First you must know and understand the race track. Don’t focus on the drawing, focus on the physics involved in the layout and design. Study the track like a detective. Run the terrain in your mind, then match it on the track as needed. How and where can you expect ‘off throttle steering’ to engage on a race track? How will you compensate or factor that into your operations and risk management? Look for the hard zones, open areas, pile up potentials, strike zones, shallow water hazards, buoy integrity and fasteners. Then look at the water! Ask yourself these questions: 1. What kind of buoys 2. How are they anchored 3. Are the set in line or floating and shifting 4. What kinds of wind, current and tide may you experience 5. How many boats are in your race 6. What is the caliber of competency of your competitors 7. What is the weight of the race boats 8. Where are the course marshals staging 9. Where is the first turn buoy 10. Where is the finish buoy 11. How many buoys on the track 12. Split? 13. Penalty Buoy? 14. How many right hand buoys 15. How many left hand buoys 16. Which side do you favor right or left turns 17. How much fuel will you carry and is that an advantage or disadvantage depending upon water/weather 18. Who is your holder and how good are they in this role 19. What PPE should you wear during this race 20. Secure all straps/hoods/seats/PPE/other
  15. 15. PWC RACING LESSON #1 15 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved 21. Direction of sun 22. Direction of wind 23. Any hazards on the track 24. Any debris potential on the track 25. Is the shoreline rock, sand or mud 26. Am I truly read for this race………YES! The slack in these lines afford for a rotational spin or up and down movement depending upon wave or swell height. When you see the slack of an buoy that is not properly set such as these examples above, the blue section should be set under the surface, you should see 1/20th of this buoy sitting in an upright position in the water. Counter weights and lines should not be seen near the surface. When you set your practice buoys, remember that a moving target (buoy) the race boats will chase it, so do not change this scale by one foot, because that increases your liability for contact with another boat or the buoy. These buoys can rotate off those free lines in a circumference you see in these diagrams, allow yourself a safety barrier and be careful of other racers who will not notice or take a proper course of action, they could ‘take you out’. Do not drive between slack lines! Serious risk of injury or pump damage can occur. Floating Buoy Lines-Pump Hazard, Physical Injury entrapment risk-helm/throttle risk. These buoys are not secured for tide or wave movement and create a risk to racers. Especially noteworthy for standup watercraft that are low to the waterline and can bow submerge rapidly causing the morring line or counter weight to come above the bond line up the handlepole and pin the throttle lever in an open position.
  16. 16. PWC RACING LESSON #1 16 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved I have seen many a race boat handlebar stuck in these lines and a few resultant sunk skis as well. History Lesson: Pro racer Jeff Prieur in a Florida race caught a floating line/counter weight in a race turn and suffered serious groin injury which could have resulted in a catastrophic physical injury. SAFE RACE DISTANCE Is it deep enough for your pump and is it safe enough to race in? If not you need to consider your operational options. This is also the responsibility of the race promoter and their track designer and safety team. Say something to the promoter and safety team. Document your concerns and follow up with a professional letter of concern. Promoters cannot hold races without the support of racers. This means you deserve a safe race track that has your best interests as well as the promoters and insurance company first and foremost. Your voice matters and you are the customer! An injury accident can take you out of the season or racing if the track is not designed in favor of you experiencing a race that allows you to focus on your techincal ability and not race track buoy slack or floating lines, or shallow water zones. Buoys that are consistently producing accidents need to be addressed as a safety violation of racer’s trust. Racing is inherently dangerous and risky, we know this. It is important for you to continually evaluate the changes of the track. Sometimes promoters cannot help this for many factors so you must adjust. We can lose our lives as a competitor or staff member by unsafe operations, accidents, mechanical failures, environmental factors and human error, safety is priority #1. Unfortuantely for most people ‘safety’ is a word, it is not an operational behavior. Shallow Water Unsafe Operation Potential: Grounding. Loss of PWC Control. Competitor and Crowd Physical Injury. Pump and Hull damage The speeds of a runabout race craft vary from the stock manufacturer stopping distance due to enhancements to the race vessel for increase of speed. From the Yamaha Owner’s Manual (Yamaha FX SHO Cruiser) you can review a baseline for a safe stopping distance. Question: Does the image above reflect safety?
  17. 17. PWC RACING LESSON #1 17 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved ‘The watercraft is not equipped with a separate braking system. It is stopped by water resistance when the throttle lever is released. From full speed, the watercraft comes to a complete stop in approximately 100m (330 ft) after the throttle lever is released or the engine is stopped. Race boats are known to go ‘into the crowd’ and have seriously injured spectators and competitors over the years. Racers have found themselves aground and out of their race. A grounding ends all your preparation, money, training and hopes for competing. This can also result in serious pump damage or failure. If you continually ground or apply throttle your can also clog up your water cooling intake lines. Inshore areas seasonally and with current or recent swells can migrate sand and create inshore holes, shoals (sandbars) and rip currents. Operating a PWC with the water action coming alongside port or starboard of your hull creates additional operational techniques to adjust for the ‘push and draw’. Ideally you do not want to get airborne! The longer in the air, the higher risk of contact injury and you can jump on top of another competitor who is operating on surface contact traction. You lose forward movement everytime your pump is not efficiently engaged. Back off the throttle and keep your RPM’s down when airborne.
  18. 18. PWC RACING LESSON #1 18 | K38 Copyright 2016 – All Rights Reserved LESSON PLAN #1 REVIEW Now we have completed our first COPTERS RACE RULES Lesson Plan #1. It is time for you to test and evaluate your knowledge level. But please, do not stop there! Remember your ultimate goal is to surpass the status quo and strive for the pursuit of excellence in knowledge. This will allow our capabiltiy to progress. In your training book, write down the answers to the following: 1. What type of pump does your PWC have? 2. Define the forces of action as applied to wide open throttle? 3. Define the effects of directional change? 4. What is your particular make, model and year of production PWC stopping distance? 5. What is your starting and engine stopping water depth for pump efficiency? 6. What is a safe buoy marker for race track navigation? 7. What type of construction material is your PWC hull made of? 8. What is the weight capacity of your vessel? 9. What is the width and length of your vessel? 10. Where would Off Throttle Steering affect you on a race track? Thank you for completing your first lesson plan! If you have learned one important item from this lesson plan we are making progress. If you have learned ten important lessons, then we are exceptionaly thankful that you are willing to learn! It is important to get feedback. If you have any questions or comments please contact me at Stay tuned for our next lesson plan. About Your Instructor: Shawn Alladio began operating Personal Watercraft (PWC) in 1979. Since 1989, she began outreach training programs. K38 has become the world’s leading authority regarding Personal Water Craft (PWC) and Rescue Water Craft (RWC) education and use for occupational, competitive, event management needs. She is considered a leading subject matter expert (SME). K38 is a proud partner of the National Safe Boating Council (NSBC), the National Water Safety Congress (NWSC), the California Boating Safety Officers Association (CBSOA), and the American Watercraft Association (AWA). Shawn is an inductee of the IJSBA Hall of Fame and the National Safe Boating Council Hall of Fame. She has received numerous awards and citations for her rescue work and educational programs. K38 is proud to maintain a maritime heritage of safe boating practices and educational outreach programs to prevent PWC accidents or injuries. Contact Shawn: