1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />Jo...
2<br />Chapter 4<br />The Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sociocultural Perspectives<br />
3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />The Behavioral Perspective<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />The Sociocultural Perspecti...
4<br />Behavioral Perspectives<br />Behavioral Perspective:<br />Views behavior as the result of environmental experience<...
5<br />Background of Behaviorism<br />Pavlov: Conditioned Reflex<br />If a neutral stimulus is paired with a non-neutral s...
6<br />Background of Behaviorism<br />E.L. Thorndike: Law of Effect<br />Responses that lead to “satisfying” consequences ...
7<br />Assumptions of Behavioral Psychology<br />The task of psychology is the study of behavior<br />Behavior can and mus...
8<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Respondent Conditioning (Classical Conditioning)<br />Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS...
9<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Operant Conditioning:<br />The likelihood of a response is increased or decreased...
10<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Operant Conditioning:<br />Reinforcement:<br />The process by which events in th...
11<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Operant conditioning<br />Positive reinforcement<br />response followed by a con...
12<br />Other Mechanisms Associated with Learning<br />Extinction:<br />The elimination of a response by withdrawing whate...
13<br />Other Mechanisms Associated with Learning<br />Discrimination Learning:<br />Learning to distinguish among similar...
14<br />Behavioral Approach to Therapy<br />Respondent Conditioning and Extinction:<br />Systematic Desensitization <br />...
15<br />Evaluating Behaviorism<br />Criticisms of Behaviorism:<br />Oversimplification<br />Determinism<br />The issue of ...
16<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Cognitive Perspective:<br />Views abnormal behavior as the product of mental functi...
17<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Cognitive-Behaviorism:<br />Albert Ellis, Ph.D. - irrational belief’s<br />Aaron T....
18<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Cognitive Variables Affecting Behavior:<br />competence<br />encoding strategies<br...
19<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Self-reinforcement<br />Information Processing<br />Attention<br />Organizing Struc...
20<br />The Cognitive Perspective: Approach to Therapy<br />Cognitive Restructuring<br />Self-instructional Training<br />...
21<br />The Sociocultural Perspective<br />Sociocultural Perspective:<br />Views abnormal behavior as the product of broad...
22<br />The Sociocultural Perspective<br />Mental illness and social ills<br />Mental illness and labeling<br />Class, rac...
23<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />The Behavioral Perspective<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />The Sociocultural Pe...
24<br />End of Chapter 4<br />The Behavioral, Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspectives<br />
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PSY285 Chapter 4

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PSY285 Chapter 4

  1. 1. 1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />John H. Riskind, Ph.D.<br />Margaret B. Manos<br />Developed by Joseph A. Davis, Ph.D.<br />McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2005. This McGraw-Hill multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Chapter 4<br />The Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sociocultural Perspectives<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />The Behavioral Perspective<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />The Sociocultural Perspective<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Behavioral Perspectives<br />Behavioral Perspective:<br />Views behavior as the result of environmental experience<br />Learning:<br />The process whereby behavior changes in response to the environment<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Background of Behaviorism<br />Pavlov: Conditioned Reflex<br />If a neutral stimulus is paired with a non-neutral stimulus, the organism will eventually respond to the neutral stimulus as it does to the non-neutral stimulus<br />Watson: Began the Foundation of American Behaviorism<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Background of Behaviorism<br />E.L. Thorndike: Law of Effect<br />Responses that lead to “satisfying” consequences are more likely to be repeated than responses that lead to “unsatisfying” consequences<br />B.F. Skinner: Radical Behaviorism<br />Everything a person does, says, and feels constitutes behavior and can be subject to experimental analysis<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Assumptions of Behavioral Psychology<br />The task of psychology is the study of behavior<br />Behavior can and must be both observable and measurable<br />The goal of psychology is the prediction and control of behavior<br />The real causes of behavior may be found outside rather than inside the organism<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Respondent Conditioning (Classical Conditioning)<br />Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)<br />Unconditioned Response (UCR)<br />Unconditioned Stimulus (CS)<br />Conditioned Response (CR)<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Operant Conditioning:<br />The likelihood of a response is increased or decreased by virtue of its consequences<br />Contingency:<br />The association between action and consequences<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Operant Conditioning:<br />Reinforcement:<br />The process by which events in the environment increase the probability of the behavior that precede it<br />Primary reinforcers<br />Conditioned reinforcers<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Basic Mechanisms of Learning<br />Operant conditioning<br />Positive reinforcement<br />response followed by a consequence in the environment <br />Negative reinforcement<br />avoidance or removal of an aversive stimulus<br />Punishment<br />suppression of behavior by introduction of aversive consequences<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Other Mechanisms Associated with Learning<br />Extinction:<br />The elimination of a response by withdrawing whatever reinforcer was maintaining it<br />Generalization:<br />An organism responds to stimuli that are similar to a previously learned stimulus<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Other Mechanisms Associated with Learning<br />Discrimination Learning:<br />Learning to distinguish among similar stimuli and to respond only to the appropriate one<br />Shaping:<br />The reinforcement of “successive approximations” of a desired response<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Behavioral Approach to Therapy<br />Respondent Conditioning and Extinction:<br />Systematic Desensitization <br />Exposure Therapy<br />Operant Conditioning:<br />contingency management<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Evaluating Behaviorism<br />Criticisms of Behaviorism:<br />Oversimplification<br />Determinism<br />The issue of “control”<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Cognitive Perspective:<br />Views abnormal behavior as the product of mental functioning<br />Cognition:<br />The mental processing of stimuli<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Cognitive-Behaviorism:<br />Albert Ellis, Ph.D. - irrational belief’s<br />Aaron T. Beck, M.D. - cognitive distortions<br />Cognitive Appraisal:<br />Attributions<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Cognitive Variables Affecting Behavior:<br />competence<br />encoding strategies<br />expectancies<br />values<br />plans and goals<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />Self-reinforcement<br />Information Processing<br />Attention<br />Organizing Structures:<br />schemas<br />beliefs<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />The Cognitive Perspective: Approach to Therapy<br />Cognitive Restructuring<br />Self-instructional Training<br />Rational-emotive therapy (RET)<br />Strategies:<br />Hypothesis testing<br />Reattribution training<br />Decatastrophizing<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />The Sociocultural Perspective<br />Sociocultural Perspective:<br />Views abnormal behavior as the product of broad social forces<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />The Sociocultural Perspective<br />Mental illness and social ills<br />Mental illness and labeling<br />Class, race, and diagnosis<br />Prevention as a social issue<br />Primary prevention<br />Secondary prevention<br />Tertiary prevention<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />The Behavioral Perspective<br />The Cognitive Perspective<br />The Sociocultural Perspective<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />End of Chapter 4<br />The Behavioral, Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspectives<br />

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