1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />Jo...
2<br />Chapter 2<br />Diagnosis and Assessment<br />
3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />Diagnosis and Assessment: The Issues<br />Methods of Assessment<br />Cultural Bias in Asse...
4<br />Diagnosis and Assessment<br />Psychological Assessment:<br />The collection, organization, and interpretation of in...
5<br />Why Assessment?<br />Description:<br />The rendering of an accurate portrait of personality, cognitive functioning,...
6<br />Diagnosis of Mental Disorders<br />Diagnosis:<br />The person’s problem is classified within one of a set of recogn...
7<br />Diagnosis of Mental Disorders<br />The Classification of Abnormal Behavior<br />The Practice of Diagnosis<br />Prog...
8<br />Diagnosis of Mental Disorders<br />Categorical Classification:<br />Sorting of patients into diagnostic categories<...
9<br />The DSM-IV System<br />Specific Diagnostic Criteria:<br />Essential features<br />Associated features<br />Diagnost...
10<br />The DSM-IV System<br />DSM Five Axes of Diagnosis<br />Axis I - Clinical syndrome<br />Axis II - Personality disor...
11<br />The DSM-IV System<br />
12<br />The DSM-IV System<br />Unspecified Cause:<br />Avoids any suggestion as to the cause of a disorder unless the caus...
13<br />Reliability<br />Reliability:<br />The degree to which findings can stand the test of repeated measurements<br />C...
14<br />Validity<br />Validity:<br />Extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure<br />Descriptive Valid...
15<br />Validity<br />Predictive Validity:<br />Degree to which an assessment answers questions about cause, prognosis, an...
16<br />Problems in Assessment<br />Problems in Assessment:<br />Manner in which assessor conducts interview<br />Manner i...
17<br />The Interview<br />The Interview:<br />A face-to-face conversation between subject and examiner<br />Mental Status...
18<br />Psychological Tests<br />Psychological Test:<br />A standard procedure in which persons are presented with a serie...
19<br />Psychological Tests<br />Intelligence Testing:<br />Concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)<br />WAIS-R, Stanford-Bi...
20<br />Psychological Tests: Intelligence<br />(questions similar to Wechsler)<br />General Information<br />- How many wi...
21<br />Psychological Tests: Projective<br />
22<br />Psychological Tests<br />Self-report Personality Inventories:<br />Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (...
23<br />
24<br />Psychological Tests for Organicity<br />The Bender-Gestalt Test for Organic Screening<br />
25<br /> Laboratory Tests<br />Electroencephalogram (EEG)<br />Polygraph Examination<br />Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)<br ...
26<br />Observation in Natural Settings<br />Situational Variables:<br />Environmental stimuli that precede and follow any...
27<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />Diagnosis and Assessment: The Issues<br />Methods of Assessment<br />Cultural Bias ...
28<br />End of Chapter 2<br />Diagnosis and Assessment<br />
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PSY285 Chapter 2

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PSY285 Chapter 2

  1. 1. 1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />John H. Riskind, Ph.D.<br />Margaret B. Manos<br />Developed by Joseph A. Davis, Ph.D.<br />McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2005. This McGraw-Hill multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Chapter 2<br />Diagnosis and Assessment<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />Diagnosis and Assessment: The Issues<br />Methods of Assessment<br />Cultural Bias in Assessment<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Diagnosis and Assessment<br />Psychological Assessment:<br />The collection, organization, and interpretation of information about a person and his or her situation<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Why Assessment?<br />Description:<br />The rendering of an accurate portrait of personality, cognitive functioning, mood, and behavior<br />Prediction:<br />Predict future behavior based on present functioning<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Diagnosis of Mental Disorders<br />Diagnosis:<br />The person’s problem is classified within one of a set of recognized categories of abnormal behavior and is labeled accordingly<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Diagnosis of Mental Disorders<br />The Classification of Abnormal Behavior<br />The Practice of Diagnosis<br />Prognosis<br />Criticisms of Diagnosis<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Diagnosis of Mental Disorders<br />Categorical Classification:<br />Sorting of patients into diagnostic categories<br />Dimensional Classification:<br />Based on dimensions of pathology<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />The DSM-IV System<br />Specific Diagnostic Criteria:<br />Essential features<br />Associated features<br />Diagnostic criteria<br />Differential diagnosis<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />The DSM-IV System<br />DSM Five Axes of Diagnosis<br />Axis I - Clinical syndrome<br />Axis II - Personality disorders<br />Axis III - General medical disorders<br />Axis IV - Psychosocial/environmental problems<br />Axis V - Global assessment of functioning<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />The DSM-IV System<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />The DSM-IV System<br />Unspecified Cause:<br />Avoids any suggestion as to the cause of a disorder unless the cause has been definitely established<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Reliability<br />Reliability:<br />The degree to which findings can stand the test of repeated measurements<br />Criteria for Reliability:<br />Internal consistency<br />Test-retest reliability<br />Interjudge (interrater) reliability<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Validity<br />Validity:<br />Extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure<br />Descriptive Validity:<br />Degree to which an assessment device provides significant information about the current behavior of the people being assessed<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Validity<br />Predictive Validity:<br />Degree to which an assessment answers questions about cause, prognosis, and treatment <br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Problems in Assessment<br />Problems in Assessment:<br />Manner in which assessor conducts interview<br />Manner in which assessor interprets the evidence<br />Pragmatic considerations that interfere with accurate evaluation<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />The Interview<br />The Interview:<br />A face-to-face conversation between subject and examiner<br />Mental Status Exam (MSE):<br />a very broad examination aimed at turning up any sign of disorder<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Psychological Tests<br />Psychological Test:<br />A standard procedure in which persons are presented with a series of stimuli to which they are asked to respond<br />Psychometric Approach:<br />Psychometrists attempt to locate stable underlying characteristics, or traits, that presumably exist in differing degrees in everyone<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Psychological Tests<br />Intelligence Testing:<br />Concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)<br />WAIS-R, Stanford-Binet, K-ABC, Other<br />Projective Personality Testing:<br />Rorschach Psychodiagnostic Inkblot Test<br />Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)<br />Sentence Completion Test<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Psychological Tests: Intelligence<br />(questions similar to Wechsler)<br />General Information<br />- How many wings does a bird have?<br />General Comprehension<br />- What is the advantage of keeping money in a bank?<br />Arithmetic <br />- If an apple costs $0.10, how much should a dozen apples cost?<br />Similarities <br />- In what ways are a lion and a tiger alike?<br />Vocabulary <br />- What does ______ mean? (wide range of difficulty)<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Psychological Tests: Projective<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Psychological Tests<br />Self-report Personality Inventories:<br />Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)<br />The L (Lie) Scale<br />The K (Subtle Defensiveness) Scale<br />The F (infrequency) Scale<br />Test Response Sets<br />Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III)<br />Millon Personality Scales<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Psychological Tests for Organicity<br />The Bender-Gestalt Test for Organic Screening<br />
  25. 25. 25<br /> Laboratory Tests<br />Electroencephalogram (EEG)<br />Polygraph Examination<br />Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)<br />Electromyogram (EMG)<br />Polysomnography<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Observation in Natural Settings<br />Situational Variables:<br />Environmental stimuli that precede and follow any given action<br />Person Variables:<br />The person’s stable traits<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />Diagnosis and Assessment: The Issues<br />Methods of Assessment<br />Cultural Bias in Assessment<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />End of Chapter 2<br />Diagnosis and Assessment<br />

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