PSY285 Chapter 15

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PSY285 Chapter 15

  1. 1. 1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />John H. Riskind, Ph.D.<br />Margaret B. Manos<br />Developed by Joseph A. Davis, Ph.D.<br />McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2005. This McGraw-Hill multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Chapter 15<br />Neuropsychological Disorders<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />Problems in Diagnosis<br />Types of Acquired Brain Disorders<br />The Epilepsies<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Problems in Diagnosis: Specifying the Type of Injury<br />Delirium:<br />A transient, global disorder of cognition and attention<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Problems in Diagnosis: Specifying the Type of Injury<br />Specific Cognitive Impairments:<br />Impairment of attention and arousal<br />Impairment of language function<br />Impairment of learning and memory<br />Impairment of visual-perception function<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Problems in Diagnosis: Specifying the Type of Injury<br />Specific Cognitive Impairments:<br />Impairment of motor skills<br />Impairment of executive function<br />Impairment of higher-order intellectual function<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Problems in Diagnosis: Specifying the Type of Injury<br />Dementia:<br />The impairment of at least two cognitive functions, resulting in a decline from a higher level of performance that compromises a person’s occupational or social functioning<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Cerebral Infection<br />Cerebral Abscess:<br />An infection that becomes encapsulated by connective tissue<br />Encephalitis:<br />Inflammation of the brain<br />“Mad Cow” Disease:<br />A fatal infectious disease that attacks the brain in both animals and humans<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Cerebral Infection<br />Meningitis:<br />An acute inflammation of the meninges<br />Neurosyphilis:<br />Deterioration of brain tissue as a result of syphilis<br />AIDS-related Dementia:<br />Diffuse brain damage as a result of the HIV virus<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Brain Trauma<br />Brain Trauma:<br />Injury to brain tissue as a result of jarring, bruising, or cutting<br />Concussion:<br />A blow to the head that jars the brain, momentarily disrupting its functioning<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Brain Trauma<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Brain Trauma<br />Contusion:<br />Trauma is severe enough that the brain is not just jarred; it is actually bruised<br />Laceration:<br />A foreign object enters the skull and directly ruptures and destroys brain tissue<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: the Case of Phineas Gage<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Cerebrovascular Accidents<br />Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA): Stroke<br />Blockage or breaking of the blood vessels in the brain results in injury to brain tissue<br />Infarction (e.g., due to heart attack)<br />Supply of blood to the brain is somehow cut off, resulting in the death of brain tissue fed by that source<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Cerebrovascular Accidents<br />Hemorrhage<br />A blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing blood to spill out into the brain tissue<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Brain Tumors<br />Metastatic brain tumors<br />Originate in a different part of the body and then metastasize, or spread, to the brain<br />Primary brain tumors<br />Tumors that originate in the brain<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Degenerative Disorders<br />Degenerative Disorders:<br />General deterioration of intellectual, emotional, and motor functioning as a result of progressive pathological change in the brain<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Degenerative Disorders<br />Alzheimer’s Disease:<br />Cognitive deficits as a result of neurofibrillary tangles (twisted and distorted nerve fibers) and senile plaques (microscopic lesions in the neurons)<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Degenerative Disorders<br />Lewy Body Disease:<br />Symptoms are similar to Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease<br />Day-to-day fluctuations in the patient’s mental state<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Degenerative Disorders<br />Vascular Dementia:<br />The cumulative effect of a number of small strokes, eventually impairing many of the brain’s faculties<br />Huntington’s Chorea:<br />Genetically transmitted disorder that is a result of damage to the basal ganglia<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Degenerative Disorders<br />Parkinson’s Disease:<br />Damage to the basal ganglia, particularly in the region known as the substantia nigra<br />Primary Symptoms:<br />Tremors<br />Expressionless, masklike countenance<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Nutritional Deficiency<br />Korsakoff’s Psychosis:<br />Most common among alcoholics<br />Anterograde Amnesia:<br />The inability to incorporate new memories<br />Confabulation:<br />The tendency to fill in memory gaps with invented stories<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Endocrine Disorders<br />Thyroid Syndromes:<br />Hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease)<br />Hypothyroidism (Myxedema)<br />Adrenal Syndromes:<br />Addison’s disease<br />Cushing’s syndrome<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Types of Acquired Brain Injuries: Toxic Disorders<br />Lead Encephalopathy:<br />Excessive ingestion of lead results in fluid accumulating in the brain, causing extreme pressure<br />Other heavy-metal toxins<br />Psychoactive drugs<br />Carbon monoxide poisoning<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />The Epilepsies<br />Epilepsy:<br />Primary symptom is spontaneous seizures caused by a disruption of the electrical and physiological activity of the brain cells<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Causes of Epilepsy<br />Symptomatic Epilepsy:<br />Cases in which the origin of the seizures can be identified<br />Idiopathic Epilepsy:<br />Epilepsy in which the origin of the seizures is unknown<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Types of Seizures<br />Partial Seizures:<br />Originate in one part of the brain rather than in the brain as a whole<br />Simple Partial Seizures:<br />Cognitive functioning remains intact<br />Complex Partial Seizure:<br />Interrupts cognitive functioning<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Types of Seizures<br />Generalized Seizures:<br />Either involve the entire brain at the outset or soon spread from one part of the whole brain<br />Absence Seizures (“petit mal” type)<br />Tonic-clonic Seizures (“grand mal” type)<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />Problems in Diagnosis<br />Types of Acquired Brain Disorders<br />The Epilepsies<br />
  30. 30. 30<br />End of Chapter 15<br />Neuropsychological Disorders<br />

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