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MOVE FAST AND FIX TESTS
Shauvik Roy Choudhary
@shauvik http://shauvik.com
GOING FROM
MANUAL TO AUTOMATED:
MOVE FAST AND FIX TESTS
Shauvik Roy Choudhary
@shauvik http://shauvik.com
GOING FROM
MANUAL TO AUTOMATED:
MOVE FAST AND FIX TESTS
Shauvik Roy Choudhary
@shauvik http://shauvik.com
GOING FROM
MANUAL TO AUTOMATED:
Checks
ABOUT ME
• PhD Thesis:

Cross-platformTesting & Maintenance of
Web & Mobile Apps
• Industry:

Google,Yahoo!, FullStory, Fujitsu Labs, IBM
Research, HSBC, Goldman Sachs
• Entrepreneurship:

GeorgiaTechTI:GER program,VentureLab,
ATDC,TechSquare Labs
Shauvik Roy Choudhary
PhD, GeorgiaTech
Founder, CheckDroid
OUTLINE
• MOTIVATION: Why Automate ?
• MOVE FAST: How to Automate Quickly?
• FIX TESTS: How to Resolve Automation Issues?
• SCENARIO: Android UITesting
• DISCUSSION
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
PLATFORMS
Web Tester
Mobile Tester
Lollipop
Android 5.0
9
HOWTO AUTOMATE?
HOWTO AUTOMATE?
WHAT
Parts of your App
HOWTO AUTOMATE?
HOW
Infrastructure
Tool Support
WHAT
Parts of your App
WHAT:TOTEST
• Functional Tests

Positive and negative scenarios
• Non-Functional Tests

Performance, Security, Compatibility…
• Previous Issues (identified Manually)

Never to occur in Regressions
HOW: INFRASTRUCTURE
• Unit Tests

xUnit for different programming languages
• UI Tests

Selenium/WebDriver for Web Apps

Appium for Mobile (iOS,Android)

Espresso for Android
IDEALTESTING PYRAMID
by Mike Cohn
ICE-CREAM CONE
HOUR GLASS
source: just-about.net
TESTING DIAMOND
Source: toddlittleweb.com
CHRISTMASTREE
source: just-about.net
UITESTS
CLOSESTTO
END-USERTESTING
MOVE FAST
How to automate quickly?
RELIABLE INFRASTRUCTURE
VISUALTEST RECORDING
FIX TESTS
How to fix broken tests?
UITESTING ISSUES
UITESTING ISSUES
• FRAGILITY
UITESTING ISSUES
• FRAGILITY
• SPEED
UITESTING ISSUES
• FRAGILITY
• SPEED
• FLAKINESS
1. FRAGILETESTS
REDUCING FRAGILITY
• Use durable selectors
• IDs over XPath
• Relative XPaths over Absolute XPaths
• Other durable labels (class, content-desc..)
2. SLOWTESTS
MAKINGTESTS FAST
• Don’t use Sleeps
• If absolutely necessary, sleep while polling
• Replace slow resources with stubs
doSomething()
Thread.sleep(1000)
checkSomething()
doSomething()
do{
Thread.sleep(1000)
}while(!loaded)
checkSomething()
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
click
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
click
Motion
down
Motion
up
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
click
Motion
down
Motion
up
assert
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
click
Motion
down
Motion
up
assert
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
click
Motion
down
Motion
up
assertsleep
FLAKINESS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in Queue
click
Motion
down
Motion
up
assertsleep
TESTS
3. FLAKYTESTS
Image credits: Google, GTAC talk
REDUCING FLAKINESS
• Have a hermetic test environment
Source: googletesting.blogspot.com
REDUCING FLAKINESS
• Have a hermetic test environment
Source: googletesting.blogspot.com
FIX TESTS
1. FRAGILETESTS
FIX TESTS
1. FRAGILETESTS
2. SLOWTESTS
FIX TESTS
1. FRAGILETESTS
2. SLOWTESTS
3. FLAKYTESTS
Image credits: Google, GTAC talk
FIX TESTS
ANDROID UI TESTING
MOBILETESTING PYRAMID
Source: Daniel Knott,AdventuresInQA
Author: Hand-On Mobile AppTesting
ANDROIDTESTINGTOOLS
Image credits: BitBar
ESPRESSO: HOW IT WORKS
UIThread
TestThread
Work in
Queue
Test Case
Motion
down
Motion
up
Espresso
action assert
Blocked
ESPRESSO METHODS
onView(Matcher)
.perform(ViewAction)
.check(ViewAssertion)
EXAMPLES
onView(withId(R.id.greeting))

.perform(click());
onView(withText("Hello Steve!"))

.check(matches(isDisplayed()));
EXAMPLES
onView(withId(R.id.greeting))

.perform(click());
onView(withText("Hello Steve!"))

.check(matches(isDisplayed()));
Find
EXAMPLES
onView(withId(R.id.greeting))

.perform(click());
onView(withText("Hello Steve!"))

.check(matches(isDisplayed()));
Find
Do Stuff
EXAMPLES
onView(withId(R.id.greeting))

.perform(click());
onView(withText("Hello Steve!"))

.check(matches(isDisplayed()));
Find
Do Stuff
Check
onView(Matcher<View>)
●  withId
●  withText
●  withContentDescription
●  isDisplayed
●  hasFocus
●  hasSibling
●  ...
●  mySpecialMatcher
perform(ViewAction)
●  click
●  longClick
●  doubleClick
●  typeText
●  scrollTo
●  ...
●  myCustomAction
check(ViewAssertion)
●  matches(...)
●  doesNotExist
●  myCustomAssertion
HIERARCHY
withParent(Matcher)
withChild(Matcher)
hasDescendant(Matcher)
isDescendantOfA(Matcher)
hasSibling(Matcher)
isRoot()
UI PROPERTIES
isDisplayed()
isCompletelyDisplayed()
isEnabled()
hasFocus()
isClickable()
isChecked()
isNotChecked()
withEffectiveVisibility(…)
isSelected()
ROOT MATCHERS
isFocusable()
isTouchable()
isDialog()
withDecorView(…)
isPlatformPopup()
COMMON HAMCREST
MATCHERS
allOf(Matchers)
anyOf(Matchers)
is(...)
not(...)
endsWith(String)
startsWith(String)
SEE ALSO
Preference matchers
Cursor matchers
USER PROPERTIES
withId(…)
withText(…)
withTagKey(…)
withTagValue(…)
hasContentDescription(…)
withContentDescription(…)
withHint(…)
withSpinnerText(…)
hasLinks()
hasEllipsizedText()
hasMultilineText()
INPUT
supportsInputMethods(…)
hasImeAction(…)
CLASS
isAssignableFrom(…)
withClassName(…)
Matchers
CLICK/PRESS
click()
doubleClick()
longClick()
pressBack()
pressImeActionButton()
pressKey([int/EspressoKey])
pressMenuKey()
closeSoftKeyboard()
openLink(…)
GESTURES
scrollTo()
swipeLeft()
swipeRight()
swipeUp()
swipeDown()
TEXT
clearText()
typeText(String)
typeTextIntoFocusedView(String)
replaceText(String)
POSITION ASSERTIONS
isLeftOf(Matcher)
isRightOf(Matcher)
isLeftAlignedWith(Matcher)
isRightAlignedWith(Matcher)
isAbove(Matcher)
isBelow(Matcher)
isBottomAlignedWith(Matcher)
isTopAlignedWith(Matcher)
LAYOUT ASSERTIONS
noEllipsizedText(Matcher)
noMultilineButtons()
noOverlaps([Matcher])
View Actions
matches(Matcher)
doesNotExist()
selectedDescendantsMatch(…)
View Assertions
onView(Matcher)
.perform(ViewAction)
.check(ViewAssertion)
CHEAT SHEET
2.0
BARISTA
EspressoTest Generation
http://checkdroid.com/barista
DEMO
Tests
TEST CLOUD
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
MOVE FAST
How to automate quickly?
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
MOVE FAST
How to automate quickly?
1. FRAGILETESTS
2. SLOWTESTS
3. FLAKYTESTS
Image credits: Google, GTAC talk
FIX TESTS
WHY AUTOMATETESTS?
Software
ManualTesting
MOVE FAST
How to automate quickly?
1. FRAGILETESTS
2. SLOWTESTS
3. FLAKYTESTS
Image credits: Google, GTAC talk
FIX TESTS
ANDROID UI TESTING
DISCUSSION
Are you currently automating tests?
What are some challenges that you see?
THANKS!
Shauvik Roy Choudhary
@shauvik http://shauvik.com

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From Manual to Automated Tests - STAC 2015