Lifelong learning and Educational Systems


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Lifelong learning and Educational Systems

  1. 1. And Educational Systems prepared & presented by: sharonfgeroquia
  2. 2. ∗ Wikipedia defines lifelong learning this way: ∗ Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning“ ∗ The World Bank Group states that . . . ∗ A lifelong learning framework encompasses learning throughout the life cycle, from birth to grave and in different learning environments, formal, non-formal or informal. What is Lifelong Learning?
  3. 3. ∗ Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning", a philosophy that has taken root in a whole host of different organizations. Lifelong learning is attitudinal; that one can and should be open to new ideas, decisions, skills or behaviors. Lifelong learning throws the axiom "You can't teach an old dog new tricks" out the door. Lifelong learning sees citizens provided with learning opportunities at all ages and in numerous contexts: at work, at home and through leisure activities, not just through formal channels such as school and higher education. What is Lifelong Learning?
  4. 4. ∗ According to the definition, life long learning is “the activity of seeking out new knowledge or developing a skill, and participating in educational activities over the course of a person’s entire life” (Anon March 9, 2004, ∗ In other words, life long learning is the process of one educating itself from his/her early childhood till his/her late senior years. What is Lifelong Learning?
  5. 5. ∗ Lifelong learning has been defined as “the systematic acquisition, renewal, upgrading and completion of knowledge, skills and attitudes made necessary by the constantly changing conditions in which people now live” (Candy et al., 1994) ∗ The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded (Pitman & Broomhall, 2009) Lifelong Learning
  6. 6. ∗ Our net conclusion is that life is development, and that developing, growing, is life. Translated into its educational equivalents, that means ∗ that the educational process has no end beyond itself; it is its own end; and ∗ that the educational process is one of continual reorganizing, reconstructing, transforming (Dewey 1916, as cited in Hall, 2010). Education
  7. 7. Why Education is a lifelong process? Learning is education. Learning is a natural and continuous process of brain, actively or passively. So for the life time, brain keeps on learning, till it is functioning. When brain stops functioning (brain death), the process of learning or education stops.
  8. 8. ∗ Lifelong education is a form of pedagogy often accomplished through distance learning or e-learning, continuing education, homeschooling or correspondence courses. It also includes postgraduate programs for those who want to improve their qualifications, bring their skills up to date or retrain for a new line of work. Internal corporate training has similar goals, with the concept of lifelong learning used by organizations to promote a more dynamic employee base, better able to react in an agile manner to a rapidly changing climate. In later life, especially in retirement, continued learning takes diverse forms, crossing traditional academic bounds and including recreational activities. LLL Education
  9. 9. LLL Education Ongoing learning can influence income, job satisfaction, political participation and health and well being. It can also enhance economic productivity and competiveness. Wikipedia explains that Lifelong Learning, also known as LLL, it is the "lifelong, voluntary, and self- motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. Easy access to education through standard methods as well as new methods such as e-learning makes it convenient to continue learning throughout the different stages of our lives.
  10. 10. ∗ More international organizations embrace concept, i.e. European Council, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, World Bank, International Labor Office ∗ Main and common principle: education and organized learning should no longer be limited to a person’s youth, nor should education be exclusive domain of educational institutions. LLL Education
  11. 11. ∗ Idea of Lifelong Learning re-emerges in 1990s ∗ Propagated by international organizations ∗ Different rationale: emphasis on it as human capital ∗ Espoused both by governments of Western industrialized countries and industry LLL
  12. 12. ∗ There are many approaches that are implemented by people to make their life and organizations better. One of those successful approaches is Lifelong learning (LLL). Lifelong Learning is absolutely compulsory for everyone and it becomes a guider in leading to success for both family and work life. Related to this, different points of views about lifelong learning have been appeared. For example, lifelong learning is defined as the continuous building of skills and knowledge throughout the life of an individual, and it occurs through experiences that are encountered in the course of a lifetime. These experiences could be (1) Formal learning that is always conducted at schools or arranged places, and these are included: training, counseling, tutoring, mentorship, apprenticeship, or higher education and (2) Informal learning that is related to what we learn from outside class or society, and these are included: experiences or situations.
  13. 13. ∗ Lifelong learning encompasses learning at all ages and subsumes formal, non-formal and informal learning. Two ground-breaking reports on lifelong learning by UNESCO (Faure Report, 1972; Delors Report, 1996) articulated fundamental principles of lifelong learning. UNESCO
  14. 14. ∗ The UNESCO Medium-Term Strategy 2008-2013 has, as one of its overarching objectives for the Education Sector, “attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning”. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, which UNESCO coordinates, has similarly stressed the importance of lifelong learning as a key to the 21st century. The Belém Framework for Action now also affirms the role of lifelong learning in addressing global educational issues and development challenges. ∗ In recent decades the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UNESCO Institute for Education, UIE, until 2006) has organized a wide range of activities along strategic areas of action on advocacy, research, capacity-building and partnership. UNESCO
  15. 15. ∗ Education conceived as being related to personal development, democracy and the need of the society ∗ In Delors Report principles as ‘learning to be’ and ‘learning to live together’ central in discussions on lifelong learning ∗ International conference on adult education emphasizes social dimension of education, mentioning a right to education throughout life UNESCO
  16. 16. ∗ LLL is lifelong, voluntary, and self-motivated in pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons and this does not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship and personal development, but also competitiveness and employability. ∗ According to Jacques Delors, four pillars of education for lifelong learning and its future have been conducted:
  17. 17. Four Pillars of Education
  18. 18. PILLARS OF EDUCATION ∗ It is about Learning to know: It is related to mastering learning tools rather than acquisition of structured knowledge. ∗ It is about Learning to do: It concerns with equipping people for the types of work needed now and in the future including innovation and adaptation of learning to future work environments. ∗ It is about Learning to live together and with others: It is about peacefully resolving conflict, discovering other people and their cultures, fostering community capability, individual competence and capacity, economic resilience, and social inclusion. ∗ It is about Learning to be: It is a kind of education contributing to a person’s complete development included mind and body, intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic appreciation and spirituality.
  19. 19. ∗ Knowing about: It means knowing the news, events, basics of a field, or introductory concepts. ∗ Knowing to do: It means knowing how to drive a car, solve a math problem, code a program, or conduct research. ∗ Knowing to be: It means knowing how to embody knowledge with humanity, to be a doctor or psychologist, to be an ethical person, to be compassionate, to relate, or to feel. ∗ Knowing where: It means knowing how to find knowledge when needed, web search, library, database, an organization, or knowing who to approach for assistance. ∗ Knowing to transform: It means knowing how to tweak, to adjust, to recombine, to align with reality, or to innovate. Lifelong learning is also related to knowledge, and this knowledge consists of five K’s
  20. 20. “In the 21st century, the need to embed the principles of lifelong learning in education and broader development policies takes on a more urgent tone than ever before Lifelong learning principles, if systematically implemented, will be able to contribute to more just and equitable societies”
  21. 21. ∗ European Union launched activities in LLL in early 1990s ∗ An economic agenda followed, beginning by green and white papers in the 1990s, later by the European Employment Strategy and the Lisbon Strategy ∗ Placed lifelong learning and the importance of updating skills close to the target of becoming a competitive knowledge economy, in line with a neoliberal approach to education (Borg & Mayo, 2005) European Union
  22. 22. ∗ One of the reasons why lifelong education has become so important is the acceleration of scientific and technological progress. Despite the increased duration of primary, secondary and university education (14-18 years depending on the country), the knowledge and skills acquired there are usually not sufficient for a professional career spanning three or four decades. The European Union adopted a Communication in October 2006 entitled "It's never too late to learn". This document suggests lifelong learning to be the core of the ambitious Lisbon 2010-process, in which the whole of the European Union should become a learning area. ∗ It is never too late to start learning. The benefits are endless so there is nothing to lose by putting that brain to work. European Union
  23. 23. ∗ Initially included social aspects like personal development, in line with organization’s emphasis on social objectives in 1970s ∗ Influenced by Sweden, develops concept further, by suggesting that education beyond compulsory schooling should be organized in recurrent pattern, alternating with phases of work and other social activities. ∗ ‘Recurrent Education’ is seen as a strategy for making Lifelong Learning a reality (OECD, 1973) ∗ Since 1980s, emphasis towards economic concerns ∗ Based on meeting on ‘Lifelong Learning for All’ in 1996, works on specific elements of lifelong learning, like financing or qualification frameworks ∗ Mainly conceives lifelong learning as important economic cornerns stone for knowledge economies (OECD, 1996) The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  24. 24. ∗ Underlines importance of lifelong learning for development, ∗ favors private educational investments and provision beyond ∗ basic education and restricts the state to a coordinating role. World Bank
  25. 25. ∗ Still pursues a more social democratic agenda, conceiving lifelong learning as an important means for the development of worker’s skills, even if its current approach also acknowledges not only governmental, but also private and individual responsibility for continuing learning. ∗ Paid educational leave introduced--Mechanism to permit workers engage in LLL activities, without losing jobs and getting paid ∗ ILO passes a convention on paid educational leave in 1974 (Schuetze, 1992) International Labor Office
  26. 26. International Labor Office ∗ Lifelong and recurrent education concepts imply extensive changes in entire education system, but also in enterprises, labor markets, social insurance and income transfer policies.
  27. 27. ∗ developing a culture of lifelong learning must be motivated by more than the economic rationale that currently dominates policy thinking ∗ despite persistent efforts at bridging the differences between general education and vocational education and training, the gap remains. ∗ the level of employer involvement in lifelong learning programs clearly remains inadequate, and ∗ new resources are needed if implementation of policies for lifelong learning is to become affordable International Labor Office
  28. 28. ∗ Need for restructuring the learning process ∗ Active student participation in learning ∗ Learning experiences building a lifelong habit of library use ∗ Critical use of available information resources ∗ Problem solving and association with real life situations ∗ More specifically: -knowing when there is a need for information -identifying information needed to address a given problem or issue finding needed information and evaluating the information, organizing the information -using the information effectively to address the problem or issue at hand How can Lifelong Learning become lasting experience?
  29. 29. Both concepts: ∗ Largely self-motivated and self-directed ∗ Self-empowering ∗ Self-actuating (UNESCO Understanding Information Literacy, 2007) How are Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning inter-related?
  30. 30. ∗ Within today's information society, the most important learning outcome for all students is their being able to function as independent lifelong learners. The essential enabler to reaching that goal is information literacy (Breivik, 2000) Lifelong Learning: The Bottom Line
  31. 31. ∗ The days of obtaining education only until you become an independent adult are in the past. Technology has an enormous impact on how we learn and we need to regularly update our skills and stay current. With technology like e-learning / distance learning, Cloud Storage (such as Google Drive), network file sharing, family technology, and of course the internet in general, it’s never been easier to maintain and update our knowledge and skills. Education is a continuing endeavor as people can freely choose learning opportunities beyond continuing education and at any time during their lives.
  32. 32. ∗ “Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning” (ACRL, 2000) Information Literacy
  33. 33. Information-literate individual able to: ∗determine the nature and extent of the information needed ∗access needed information effectively and efficiently ∗evaluate information and its sources critically ∗incorporate selected information into their knowledge base ∗use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose ∗understand the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and ∗use information ethically and legally (ACRL, 2000) Information Literacy
  34. 34. Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn ∗They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them ∗They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand (American Library Association, 1989) Information Literacy
  35. 35. ∗ Undergraduate education potential link in lifelong learning experiences for each individual ∗ Development of capacity for lifelong learning should be core for all programs in every discipline for coping with various learning opportunities ∗ Access to and critical use of information absolutely vital to lifelong learning; no person regarded educated unless “information literate” ∗ Many practices militate against development for lifelong learning attributes in graduates LLL Undergraduate Education
  36. 36. Courses enhancing lifelong learning have following characteristics: ∗provide systematic framework for viewing field of study ∗offer comparative framework for viewing field of study ∗seek to broaden the student and provide generic skills ∗offer freedom of choice and flexibility in structure ∗provide for incremental development of self-directed learning LLL Undergraduate Education
  37. 37. Teaching methods have following characteristics: ∗make use of peer-assisted and self-directed learning ∗include experiential and real world learning ∗make use of resource based and problem based teaching ∗encourage development of reflective practice and critical self-awareness ∗make use of open learning and alternative delivery mechanisms Assessment evaluates “what” has been learnt LLL Undergraduate Education
  38. 38. ∗ Today, more than ever before in the history of economics, the world is becoming more and more globalized. Also the growth of the knowledge-based economy in all developed and developing societies, pose some very serious economic and technological challenges to the education systems worldwide. The economic importance of knowledge and innovation is increasing, along with reliance on technology and demand for both, traditional skills and new competencies. People therefore need access to learning on an on-going, continuous, and lifelong basis, which in turn requires a stronger and better harmonization of educational institutions and policies to create high performance, and learner-driven systems. How developing countries respond to these challenges will greatly affect their economic growth, human capital development, and social unity. The Economic Implications of Lifelong Learning
  39. 39. ∗ It is very important to identify policies needed for education and training systems to respond to the needs of a knowledge economy, and create the essential requirements, and to promote lifelong learning in as many of today’s societies as possible. The knowledge economy relies primarily on the use of ideas instead of physical abilities, and on the application of technologies available. Lifelong learning covers learning over the entire life of individuals, from their early childhood trough retirement on to their older senior years. It also covers all learning systems, that is, formal, non-formal, and informal. Lifelong learning is increasingly important in the globally changing economy. Economic Implications
  40. 40. ∗ the more people apply LLL philosophy the larger portion of the societal population will prosper, making the society to increase in wealth as a whole. We also know that people, who have a secure financial status, usually tend to be more tolerant and giving, further decreasing the number of the poor in the society. The Advantages of Life-Long Learning for the Society
  41. 41. ∗ The reason why it is important to conduct studies throughout one’s life is that usually the better educated a person is, the more civilized way he/she behaves and talks and in a manner that is much more acceptable to the society and the members of that group. This is because he/she usually knows the ethics, and what is polite better. Psychological Impacts of Life-Long Learning on Members of the Society
  42. 42. There are many issues of the ecological impacts that are affected by a LLL ∗First of all, the absence of knowledge about what is good and bad for the ecology and the environment often results in the unintentional destruction of it, or part of it. For instance, let us suppose that we are given a forest. A man wants to help the environment and expand the forest. He/she starts to plant some trees at the edge of the forest. Although his intentions were good, he planted trees that actually took away some minerals from the soil, thus hurting and in extreme cases, he/she might also have destroyed the trees surrounding his/her new plantations. The reason why this is life long learning is that these knowledge and skills could be mastered at any stage of life. Ecological Impacts of Life-Long Learning
  43. 43. ∗ In education, discrimination, and non-equal opportunity treatment of the individuals, besides the mere humane side of the issue, is also bad for how the society as a whole gets along and progresses. People, who have been closed out of the educational system, often do not work or carry out very lowly jobs only. There are primarily two basic reason for why they do not do any work; their free will, or because they are unable to find any jobs. These people are obviously very expensive for the society as a whole and the members of the society who do some work of some kind. The governments have to pay aids to these non-working members of the society, which comes from taxes of the working people. Another drawback of this type of dealing with the education system is that. LLL Equal Opportunity in Educational Systems
  44. 44. ∗ There are many distinct advantages to adopting this system. Unlike years ago when a person continued to perform the same tasks in the same or at least similar position of employment their entire life, the future will require us to adapt to constant change as the demands of a job can change continuously. Life Long learning will be critical in order to meet the demands of these fast paced careers. ∗ In the technology sector especially, change and advancement of invention is rapid. To be a competitive contributor as an employee in this line of work certifications, upgrade training, research and dedication to keeping up-to-date is already necessary. With the trends of new positions being created and other jobs becoming obsolete, a commitment to lifelong learning can help to ensure better job security within technology driven companies and the IT sector as a whole. Why Should We Participate in Lifelong Learning?
  45. 45. ∗ A wider participation in lifelong learning can be expected to enable people to become more aware and knowledgeable about environmental issues and the ways in which they might lead a more sustainable lifestyle. Increased levels of knowledge and skills are the means of developing innovative solutions to the problems of sustainable development. In particular, this strategy is relevant to sustainable development indicator on people as a resource in the workplace. Why Should We Participate in Lifelong Learning?
  46. 46. ∗ Investment in quality-assured learning offers benefits to the individual, to the economy and to wider society as a whole. The knowledge, skills, competencies and other attributes people acquire through learning, contribute to economic activity prosperity, and growth. Their economic behavior, especially in the way their accumulation of knowledge and skills enables them to improve their position in the labor market, increases productivity and earnings, and collectively enhances the society in which they live. Investment in knowledge skills and education at any stage of one’s life cycle, brings direct economic returns to individuals and collective economic returns to the whole of the society as well. The Importance of Investing in Life-Long Learning
  47. 47. ∗ But people are not solely and only interested in their potential for earning. We live in a society where diversity of background, culture, knowledge and skills should be valued and nurtured, and acknowledged. We want a society where people actively engage in their communities, both on a local and a national level, and learning can enable people to do that. Lifelong learning contributes to the development of society through the achievement of other social goals such as civic participation, sustainable development, improved health and wellbeing, reduced crime and greater social cohesion. We need to ensure that whatever learning a person takes is of the highest quality, relevant to their needs and abilities and offers value for money. The risk otherwise is de-motivation and a waste of the individuals' and the organizations' time and money.
  48. 48. ∗ The issue of financing life long learning is of great importance, as an educational system that integrates learning into all ages of individuals is a very expensive one both to create and to maintain it in a proper manner. There can be three major ways in which life long learning could be financed, publicly, privately, and a combination of the previous two. There are, again, three types of public financing of such a type of educational system could be paid for. The first way is a centralized way of funding, where the government deals with all types of educational institutions. This is a bit extreme, because it is usually the strictest totalitarian governments that choose and apply this method, such as communist ones, who does not permit private ownership. Financing Life-Long Learning
  49. 49. ∗ The second type of public financing is through local authorities. Here the central government distributes the pool of fund that town councils require and the councils spread them among the individual institutions, according to their needs. Some public funding systems are a mixture of the previous, above two. For instance, the financial matters of large institutions, such as universities and colleges are dealt with by the central governments, whereas the network of the smaller, lower level institutions are left for the local authorities. The third major type of educational system financing involves the private sector only. Within this method there are also subsystems, in this case too, three, profit and non-profit oriented organizational funding, and a combination of these two. Financing LLL
  50. 50. ∗ Sometimes a combination of profit- and non-profit oriented organizations are the maintainers of the life long learning educational system. This is done when profit oriented businesses operate institutions and educational service providers at the better located sites, and at sites, institutions disfunction for any other reason, are maintained by non-profit organizations, for profit oriented businesses would not deal with loss making institutions. Financing LLL
  51. 51. ∗ In spite of this wide range of choices for financing life long learning educational systems, however, the most popular form is the involvement of both the public and the private sector. Usually major universities are financed by the central governments. Elementary-, middle-, and high schools most often are financed by local authorities. Along with these are some privately owned colleges, elementary-, middle-, and high schools that are maintained either by profit, or non- profit oriented businesses. There are also some course providers who specialized in a few, limited number of areas, selling their services at a certain profit. Financing LLL
  52. 52. As it could be seen lifelong learning has a very important role in our societies today, as it has an effect on all the largest aspects impacting modern countries and nations and the communities making them up. Policy makers should all turn their attentions to it and decide what would be the ideal means to have it integrated in the societies, both on a national and on an international basis. A better educational system that involves all age groups and all types of people of their different background should be implemented in order to not only improve, but also the mere maintenance of societal growth, prosperity, and maturity.
  53. 53. Highly Effective Habits of Successful Lifelong Learners
  54. 54. 1. Lifelong Learning is Essential ∗ People who are successful lifelong learners start with a belief that their participation in lifelong learning is an essential ingredient to living a fulfilled life.
  55. 55. 2. Begin with the End in Mind ∗ Successful lifelong learners know where they are going. They have a goal and plan steps for how to achieve the goal.
  56. 56. 3. Accept Responsibility for Learning ∗ Successful lifelong learners accept that they are responsible for their own learning. They do not expect or wait for others to provide learning experiences. They seek out learning.
  57. 57. 4. View Problems as Challenges ∗ Successful lifelong learners expect that there will be hurdles and problems to face. They see these problems as challenges and opportunities for growth.
  58. 58. 5. Confidence in Oneself as a Learner ∗ Successful lifelong learners know that they can learn and be effective, competent learners. The realization that the key to learning comes from within themselves fosters this confidence.
  59. 59. 6. Create a Learning Toolbox ∗ Successful lifelong learners know that they will need many tools to help them with their learning. These learners organize and categorize tools for easy retrieval when needed.
  60. 60. 7. Keep a Sense of Humor ∗ Laughter enables us to reframe our worries and it has great capacity to help us reestablish a positive and healthy perspective. Successful lifelong learners know how to laugh at themselves.
  61. 61. 8. Accept Failure As A Way To Learn ∗ Successful lifelong learners are not afraid to fail. They realize that failure’s role is to teach us. We learn more from our failures than we do our successes.
  62. 62. 9. Use Technology to an Advantage ∗ Successful lifelong learners realize they can leverage technology tools to help them stay in touch with a personal learning network that will help them grow by both giving and receiving information and ideas.
  63. 63. 10. Teach/Mentor Others ∗ Some common education statistics discuss the fact that we retain 90% of what we teach to others. Successful lifelong learners mentor/teach others and, in turn, learn more deeply the concepts taught.
  64. 64. 11. Play ∗ Successful lifelong learners are not afraid to take risks and revel in the opportunity to play with a new concept or tool.
  65. 65. ∗ Adult education and development ∗ Adult education quarterly ∗ Adult learning ∗ International journal of lifelong education ∗ International review of education ∗ Journal of continuing higher education ∗ New directions for adult & continuing education ∗ Studies in continuing education Journals-Lifelong Learning
  66. 66. “The goal of education is to enrich the lives of students while producing articulate, expressive thinkers and lifelong learners that are socially responsible, resilient, and active citizens of the world. Education is about teaching students, not subjects.” – Dave Truss
  67. 67. Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school” – Albert Einstein
  68. 68. “Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young.” ― Henry Ford
  69. 69. MAED- Educational Management Current Trends and Innovations in Education Olivarez College Graduate School Sharon F. Geroquia