Evaluation in education has been defined as
“ judging the worth of experience, idea or
- to what extent and how well have the
organization objectives been accomplished?
Did the pupils increase their competency in reading?
Did the principals and the supervisors increase their
competency in supervising the teaching of reading?
Evaluation is the systematic
assessment of the worth or merit of
This definition is hardly perfect. There are many
types of evaluations that do not necessarily result in
an assessment of worth or merit -- descriptive
studies, implementation analyses, and formative
evaluations, to name a few. Better perhaps is a
definition that emphasizes the information-
processing and feedback functions of evaluation.
Evaluation is the systematic acquisition and
assessment of information to provide useful
feedback about some object
It emphasizes acquiring and assessing information
rather than assessing worth or merit because all
evaluation work involves collecting and sifting through
data, making judgements about the validity of the
information and of inferences we derive from it,
whether or not an assessment of worth or merit
• Evaluation can be considered the
ultimate major function of supervision.
The purpose of evaluation is to appraise
the outcomes and factors conditioning
the outcomes of instruction and to
improve the products and processes of
Educational administration in action must
Evaluating as a function of school
administration, is simply determining how
well educational purposes have been
Significant objectives ofSignificant objectives of
1. Evaluation discovers the needs of
individuals being evaluated and
familiarizes the teachers with the pupil’s
needs and possibilities.
2. Evaluation relates measurement to the
goals of the instructional program.
3. Evaluation serves as guide for the selection
of supervisory techniques.
4. Evaluation appraises the educational
growth of pupils which is the end-product of
5. Evaluation appraises the quality of
supervisory processes and supervisor’s
6. Evaluation appraises the quality of
teaching processes and teacher’s
7. Evaluation aids pupil-teacher planning.
8. Evaluation serves as a means of
improving school-community relations.
9. Evaluation improves the selection
and use of guiding principles in
10. Evaluation appraises the success
of the instructional program in
particular and of the supervisory
program in general.
Evaluation ProcessesEvaluation Processes
Some of the essential elements of the
process of evaluation are:
1.Clarity of purpose and questions
2.Dialogue and reflection strategies
3.Data gathering strategies
4.Data collation and analysis
1. Clarity of purpose and questions
Having a clear purpose is an essential ingredient
of a good evaluation for it will:
•Help identify the users of the evaluation
•Help identify relevant questions for the
evaluation to address
•Help identify the extent of the evaluation
•Help identify what an answer for the evaluation
would look like
•Help focus the evaluation on using the answer
2. Dialogue and reflection strategies to give
Dialogue and reflection is a core part of
any human service evaluation process.
Dialogue and reflections should be
embedded in all phases of the evaluation
process from the initial description of
the purpose and questions through to
the data gathering and analysis and the
asking of the big questions
3. Data gathering
Some ways of gathering data are:
Being a participant observer is often a
useful evaluation strategy. Keep your eyes
and ears open. Reflect on what you see
b. Listening and dialogue
Formal and informal interviews are a important
way of gaining information for use in evaluation
processes. Different groups can be interviewed
Case studies provide the richness of what is
happening in the lives of people and what the
service has meant to them.
4. Data collation and analysis
The distinction between qualitative and
quantitative data is not as clear cut as is
Quantitative data is often also qualitative
data and qualitative data can be quantitative
data. However it is still a useful ‘common
sense’ distinction when thinking about how
to collate, analyze and report on data.
The first step in an evaluation process
is identifying the purpose of the evaluation. The
report needs to be useful for this purpose.
•There are many different kinds of evaluation
reports. For example:
•• a memo to a manager
•• a report to the staff
•• a report to clients and other stakeholders
•• a report to a funding body
•• a final report
• Evaluation Process Considerations
1. Supervisees (students), instructors (if part of
practicum or internship), and supervisors should discuss
grading and evaluation from the outset. The rationale
for evaluation, criteria, and methods should be explicit.
2. Evaluation should focus on the supervisees’ professional
work, not personal issues.
3. The supervisee and supervisor should share the
responsibility for evaluation. Supervisors and supervisees
could each complete evaluations separately, and then bring
them together to compare impressions.
5. Supervisees should communicate with their supervisors
about any concerns they may have or ideas for improving
- Is an on-going process that allows for feedback to
be implemented during a program cycle. (Boulmetis &
•Concentrate on examining and changing processes
as they occur
•Provide timely feedback about program services
- Strengthen or improve the object being evaluated
-- they help form it by examining the delivery of the
program or technology, the quality of its implementation,
and the assessment of the organizational context,
personnel, procedures, inputs
2. Summative evaluation
- Occurs at the end of a program cycle and
provides an overall description of program
- Summative evaluation examines program
outcomes to determine overall program effectiveness.
Summative evaluation is a method for answering some of
the following questions:
•• Were your program objectives met?
•• Will you need to improve and modify the overall
structure of the program?
•• What is the overall impact of the program?
•• What resources will you need to address the
• Summative evaluation will enable you to make
decisions regarding specific services and the
future direction of the program that cannot be
made during the middle of a program cycle.
• It examine the effects or outcomes of some
object -- they summarize it by describing what
happens subsequent to delivery of the program or
technology; assessing whether the object can be
said to have caused the outcome; determining the
overall impact of the causal factor beyond only
the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating
the relative costs associated with the object.