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Clariant report

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Clariant report

  1. 1. 1 GUIDANCE MR. PRABHAT TRIVEDI CLARIANT CHEMICALS INDIA ----------------------------------------------------------------- SHASHWAT GUPTA VRUSHALI WARGHE IIIrd Year Fibres and textiles processing technology INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, MUMBAI
  2. 2. 2 INDEX Serial No. Topic Page No. A. Acknowledgement 3 B. Company Profile 4 C. Introduction To Textile Finishing 15 D. Project: Effect Labels For The Apparel Segment 36 1. Moisture Management 37 2. Antimicrobial finishes 48 2.1 Hydry 54 2.2 Mosquito protection 66 3. Resin finishes 71 3.1 Easy wear 75 3.2 Easy care & comfort 82 3.3 Wash & wear(Moist Cure) 90 3.4 Wash & wear(LT Cure) 95 3.5 Premium Eco Care 98 4. Soil Release Finishes 104 4.1 Soil & Stain Release 111 4.2 Easy Clean & Comfort 118 5. UV Protection 123 6. Repellent finishes 128 6.1 Repellence Protection 147 6.2 Care 4 Comfort 159 6.3 Rapid Dry 165
  3. 3. 3 INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY MATUNGA, MUMBAI-400019 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Being a part of “Clariant India Ltd, Kolshet” was just a dream for us but the continuous and indelible effort of the teachers made it really possible. We are thankful to Mr. Prabhat Trivedi Sir (GENERAL MANAGER) who gave us the opportunity for carrying out in-plant training at Clariant chemicals India Ltd, Kolshet Thane. We are very much thankful to Mrs. Pratima Pathak (FINISHING) for her valuable guidance and co-operation throughout the project. Special thanks to, Mr. Rajesh Tendulkar (COATING),Mrs. Dipali Patil (DYEING) Mr. Prashant Nabar (KMO), Mr Neeraj Mishra(Central Region) for constantly answering our various queries and providing us with the necessary information we required. Lastly we are thankful to all the staff of Clariant India Ltd, Kolshet who gave sufficient information and co-operation for fulfilling the project. We are highly thankful to Prof. Dr. R.V. Adivarekar Sir, Head of Department, Division of Fibres and Textiles Processing Technology and Prof. Mr. R.D. Kale Sir for arranging this in-plant training program.
  4. 4. 4 COMPANY PROFILE: OVERVIEW Clariant AG is a global specialty chemicals company, headquartered in Muttenz, Switzerland, that is listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange. As one of the world’s leading specialty chemical companies, Clariant contributes to value creation with innovative and sustainable solutions for customers from many industries. It is designed to meet very specific needs with as much precision as possible. At the same time, Clariant’s research and development is focused on addressing the key trends of the time. These include energy efficiency, renewable raw materials, emission-free mobility, and conserving finite resources. Its business units are divided into six market segments: 1.Consumer Care Lotions and potions: shampoos, gels, creams, cosmetics. Clariant’s got the ingredients, from cleaners to moisturisers to emulsifiers and more, plus massive know-how in formulation, performance and regulations.
  5. 5. 5 2.Industrial Applications Behind the scenes in the world’s farms and factories, Clariant is busy greasing the wheels of production. Its chemicals facilitate the making of life’s staples: food, clothes, buildings, paper and cardboard. Plus, they keep factories running and airports ice-free. 3.Plastics & Coatings
  6. 6. 6 Clariant supplies a large variety of pigments and additives needed for coloring, processing and protecting – either individually or in a combined concentrate called a masterbatch. 4.Energy It’s a long, hard journey from the well to the wheels. Clariant makes it shorter and easier with products that boost productivity in finding, producing and refining oil and its associated petrochemicals. A leader in alternative energy, making electrodes for high-powered batteries that are revolutionizing road transport.
  7. 7. 7 5.Resources As world population goes from peak to peak, so too does demand for two of life’s basics: water and minerals. Clariant chemicals clean water – for drinking, for industrial use, for safe discharge to the environment. In the mining industry, it supplies compounds that: separate minerals from their surrounding ore, suppress dust in and around mines, and allow safe, reliable blasting. 6.Biotech Clariant´s Biotech & Renewables Center (BRC) revolves entirely around industrial biotechnology. Focus is on progress and innovation based on the sustainable use of renewable resources.
  8. 8. 8 It also creates solutions for biocatalysis and biorefining. Our innovative focus is on energy and resource-efficient development and production of bio-based chemicals and fuels.
  9. 9. 9 HISTORY Clariant was formed in 1995 as a spin off from the chemical company Sandoz, which was itself established in Basel in 1886. Clariant expanded through the incorporation of the speciality chemicals business of Hoechst (Germany) in 1997, and the acquisitions of BTP plc (UK) in 2000 and Ciba’s Master batches division in 2006. In 2008, IT acquired the leading U.S. colorant suppliers Rite Systems and Ricon Colors. The latest acquisition, the highly-innovative specialty chemicals company Süd-Chemie (Germany), was completed on 21 April 2011. MISSION CLARIANT’S mission clearly expresses what is important to it and what it stands for – as a brand and as a company. It has leading positions in the businesses and adopts functional
  10. 10. 10 excellence as part of its culture. Clariant creates value through appreciating the needs of:  Customers– by providing competitive and innovative solutions.  Employees– by adhering to our corporate values.  Environment – by acting sustainably.  Shareholders – by achieving above-average returns. STRUCTURE The Clariant organizational structure comprises 11 Business Units, as well as Business Services, Group Technology Services, regional Service Centers, and Corporate Center, where key functions are centralized. The Executive Committee is responsible for the management of the Group. SUSTAINABILITY OVERVIEW 1. PEOPLE
  11. 11. 11 Responsibility for employees is an integral part of Clariant’s corporate culture. This includes observing a globally applicable Code of Conduct and implementing equal rights. As outlined in the Clariant Employment Policy, Clariant acknowledges its responsibility to its employees and is commited to mutual respect, trust and integrity. Clariant recognizes the human rights of all employees and respects their constitutional rights, in particular their human dignity and personal freedom, equality and freedom of opinion. 2. PLANET
  12. 12. 12 Clariant is proactively committed to considering environmental pro tection and safety in all of its activities. Each of its worldwide facilities is required to adhere strictly to the principles of the sustainability and safety code outlined by the Group’s Environment, Safety & Health Department (ESH). It uses clear Key Performance Indicators upon which improvements in terms of resource efficiency, emissions and waste per ton of finished product are measured. In order to achieve a constant improvement of environmental performance it has formulated environmental and sustainability goals for 2020.
  13. 13. 13 3. PERFORMANCE As a global leader in the field of specialty chemicals, Clariant is committed to sustainable corporate growth and management through the use and development of cutting-edge technology. In this respect, it does not limit itself to compliance with legal requirements. It also participates in a number of voluntary sustainability programs that cover all products and processes within the Group.
  14. 14. 14 4. FURTHER ENGAGEMENT  Clariant is member in a wide range of industry associations globally, regionally and nationally.  Being part of Cefic, the European Chemical Industry Council, Clariant plays an active role in policy making and dialogue processes.  Since 2010 Clariant has issued a separate Sustainability Report. In 2012 and 2013, Clariant’s Sustainability Report was rated by GRI with A+, which includes the external assurance of the report submitted to GRI.  Clariant has given its support to the Responsible Care® Global Charter with the signing of the Responsible Care® declaration by CEO Hariolf Kottmann. The Responsible Care® Global Charter is the result of an agreement of the members of the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICAA) to create a global vision and highlight the commitment of the industry to continuous improvement in the environmental, health and safety performance of the chemical producers worldwide.
  15. 15. 15 INTRODUCTION TO TEXTILE FINISHING
  16. 16. 16 1. DEFINITION Textile Finishing is a process used in manufacturing of fibers, fabrics, or clothings, etc in order to impart the required functional properties to them. Forthis,it is customary to subject the material to different type of physical and chemical treatments. For example wash and wear finish for a cottonfabric is necessary to make it crease free or wrinkle free. In a similar way, mercerising, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, water proof, antistatic finish, peach finish etc are some of the important finishes applied to textiles. 2. CLASSIFICATION Broadly it can be classified into two major classes, which are used individually or in combination with each other. (other terms are also used such as wet finishing, dry finishing, durable finishes and non durable finishes). 2.1 Mechanical Finishing Involves the application of physical principles such as friction, temperature, pressure, tension and many others. The various types of mechanical finishes are: 2.1.1 Calendering: It is a process ofpassing cloth between rollers (or "calendars"), usually under carefully controlled heat and pressure, to producea variety of surface textures or effects in fabric such as compact, smooth, supple, flat and glazed. One of the calendar is a highly polished, usually heated, steel bowl which rotates at a higher surface speed than the softer (e.g. cotton or paper packed) bowl against which it works, thus producing a glaze on the face of the fabric that is in contactwith the steel bowl.
  17. 17. 17 The friction ratio is the ratio of the peripheral speed of the faster steel bowl to that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 1.5 to 3.0.. During calendering, the yarns in the fabric are squashed into a flattened elliptical shape; the intersections are made to close-up between the yarns. This causes the fabric surface to becomeflat and compact. The improved planeness of surface in turn improves the glaze of the fabric. The calender machines may have several rollers. 2.1.2 Compacting: Durable finish imparted on man-made and knitted fabrics by employing heat and pressure to shrink them to producea crepe and bulky texture. 2.1.3 Emerising(orsueding): Emerising (also known as sueding or sanding, in the USA) is a process in which fabric at openwidth is passed over one or more rotating emery- covered rollers to producea suede-like finish. Woven and knitted fabrics and also laminated fabrics may be emerised, the surface appearance, texture and handle of the treated fabric being altered according to the emerising conditions. 2.1.4 Raising/Teaseling orNapping: Raising and teaselling (sometimes called gigging and napping) are widely used to modify the surface of wool and blend fabrics. The general aim of these processes is to develop a fibrous or pile surface (sometimes called a nap) on the fabric by drawing fibres from the yarns to the surface of the cloth. This surface can be required to obtain the visual and tactile (full and soft) characteristics of meltons and velours, to conceal the weave or to impart a smooth, planar surface to those fabric where it is required in later use (for example, billiard cloth). 2.1.5 Pressing: Pressing operations are designed to flatten wool and wool-blend fabrics and modify their surface geometry by squeezing them between two smooth surfaces under high pressureand using elevated temperatures. Pressing reduces the thickness of wool fabrics and imparts the smooth handle and lustre required in a range of fabric types. A subsequent permanent setting operation is required to ‘stabilise’ or render permanent the effects imparted by pressing.
  18. 18. 18 2.1.6 Shearing: Shearing is an important preparatory stage in the processing of cotton cloth. The objective of "Shearing" is to remove fibres and loose threads from the surface of the fabric, thus improving surface finish. 2.1.7 Stabilization: A term usually referring to fabrics in which the dimensions have been set by a suitable preshrinking operation 2.1.8 Decating: Also called decatizing. A finishing process applied to fabrics to set the material, enhance lustre and improve the hand. Fabric wound onto a perforated roller is immersed in hot water or has steam blown through it. 2.1.8 Steaming and Heat setting: It is done by using high temperatures to stabilize fabrics containing polyester, nylon, or triacetate but not effective on cotton or rayon.It may be performed in fabrics or garment. It may cause shade variation from side-to-side. 2.1.9 Sanforizing or Pre Shrinking: Sanforizing is a process where by the fabric is run through a sanforizer; a machine that has drums filled with hot steam. This process is done to control the shrinkage of the fabric.The fabric is given an optimum dimensional stability by applying mechanic forces and water vapour. 2.1.10 Fulling: The structure, bulk and shrinkage of wool are modified by applying heat combined with friction and compression.
  19. 19. 19 2.2 Chemical Finishing The finishes applied by means of chemicals of different origins, a fabric can receive properties otherwise impossible to obtain with mechanical means. 2.2.1 Softening: Softening is carried out when the softness characteristics of a certain fabric must be improved, considering the composition and properties of the substrate as well as those of the chemicals. 2.2.2 ElastomericFinishes: Elastomeric finishes are also referred to as stretch or elastic finishes and are particularly important for knitwear. These finishes are currently achieved only with silicone-based products. The main effect is durable elasticity, because not only must extensibility be enhanced, but recovery from deformation is of crucial importance. After all stresses and disturbing forces have been released, the fabric should return to its original shape. 2.2.3 CreaseResistantorCrease Proofing: Crease Resistant Finishes are applied to cellulose fibres (cotton, linen and rayon) that wrinkle easily. Permanent Press fabrics have crease resistant finishes that resist wrinkling and also help to maintain creases and pleats throughout wearing and cleaning. 2.2.4 SoilReleaseFinishes: These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during cleaning and help remove soil. 2.2.5 Flame RetardantTreatment: Are applied to combustible fabrics used in children's sleepwear, carpets ,curtains, etc and prevent highly flammable textiles from bursting into flame. 2.2.6 Anti Pilling: Pilling is a phenomenon exhibited by fabrics formed from spun yarns (yarns made from staple fibres). Pills are masses of tangled fibres that appear on fabric surfaces during wear or laundering. Fabrics with pills have an unsightly appearance and an unpleasant handle. Loosefibres are pulled from yarns and are formed into spherical balls by the frictional
  20. 20. 20 forces of abrasion. These balls of tangled fibres are held to the fabric surface by longer fibres called anchor fibres. Anti pilling finish reduces the forming of pills on fabrics and knitted products made from yarns with a synthetic-fibre content, which are inclined to pilling by their considerable strength, flexibility and resistance to impact. Anti pilling finish is based on the use of chemical treatments which aim to suppress the ability of fibres to slacken and also to reduce the mechanical resistance of synthetic fibre. 2.2.7 NonSlip Finish: A finish applied to a yarn to make it resistant to slipping and sliding when in contact with another yarn.The main effect of non-slip finishes is to increase the adhesion between fibres and yarns regardless of fabric construction, the generic term for these finishes would be fibre and yarn bonding finishes. Other terms that can be used include anti-slip, non-shift and slip-proofing finishes. 2.2.8 Stainand Soil ResistantFinishes: Prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics. Such finishes may be resistant to oil-bourne or water-bourne soil and stains or both. Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used in clothing and furniture. Scotchgard is a stain and soil resistant finish commonly applied to carpet and furniture. 2.2.9 Oil and Water Proofing: Waterproof Finishes -Allows no water to penetrate, but tend to be uncomfortable becausethey trap moisture next to the body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that are waterproof, yet are also breathable 2.2.10 Water-RepellentFinishes: Water-repellent finishes resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually pass through. Applied to fabrics found in raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains. 2.2.11 AbsorbentFinishes: Increase fibres' moisture holding power. Such finishes have been applied to towels, cloth diapers, underwear, sports shirts and other items where moisture absorption is important. 2.2.12 Anti Static Finish: Reduce static electricity which may accumulate on fibres. The most common type of anti-static finishes are fabric softeners.
  21. 21. 21 2.2.13 Antimicrobial finish: Provides the various benefits of controlling the infestation by microbes, protect textiles from staining, discoloration, and quality deterioration and prevents the odorformation. Anti-microbial agents can be applied to the textile substrates by exhaust, pad-dry-cure, coating, spray and foam techniques. The application of the finish is now extended to textiles used for outdoor, healthcare sector, sports and leisure. 2.2.14 UV ProtectionFinish: Fabric treated with UV absorbers ensures that the clothes deflect the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, reducing a person's UVR exposure and protecting the skin from potential damage. The extent of skin protection required by different types of human skin depends on UV radiation intensity and distribution with reference togeographical location, time of day, and season. This protection is expressed as SPF (Sun Protection Factor), higher the SPF value better is the protection against UV radiation. 2.2.15 ColorfastnessImproving Finish: Color fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its color characteristics, to the transfer of its colorants to adjacent materials or both. Fading means that the color changes and lightens. Bleeding is the transfer of color to a secondary, accompanying fibre material. This is often expressed as soiling or staining meaning that the accompanying material gets soiled or stained. The physical and chemical principles involved in the performance of the fastness improving finishes concern either the interaction with the dyestuff or with the fibre or both. The finishes are applied to: a. Improve the colorfastness to washing b. Improve the colorfastness to crocking c. Improve the colorfastness to light d. Improve the colorfastness to weathering e. Improve the colorfastness to chemicals washes such as mild bleaching, dry cleaning and commercial washing.
  22. 22. 22 2.2.16 Plasmafinish: Plasma treatment is a surface modifying process, where a gas (air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbondioxide and so on), injected inside a reactor at a pressure of approximately 0.5 mbar, is ionised by the presence of two electrodes between which is a high-frequency electric field. The need to create the vacuum is justified by the necessity to obtain so called cold plasma with a temperature no higher than 80 °C. This, with the same energy content that can be reached at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of some thousands of degrees Celcius, permits the treatment of fabrics even with a low melting point such as polypropylene and polyethylene, without causing any form of damage. The fabric, sliding through the electrodes, is subject to a true bombardment from the elements that constitute the plasma (ions, electrons, UV radiation and so on) and which come from the decomposition of gas and contain a very high level of kinetic energy. The surface of the fabric exposed to the action of the plasma is modified, both physically (roughness), as well as chemically, to remove organic particles still present and to prepare for the successiveintroduction of free radicals and new chemical groups inside the molecular chain on the surface of the material. The mechanical properties remain, on the other hand, unaltered, as the treatment is limited to the first molecular layers. 2.2.17 Enzyme Finishing: Bio polishing, also called bio-finishing, is a finishing process applied to cellulosic textiles that produces permanent effects by the use of enzymes. Bio-finishing removes protruding fibres and slubs from fabrics, significantly reduces pilling, softens fabric hand and provides a smooth fabric appearance, especially forknitwear and as a pretreatment for printing.
  23. 23. 23 3.TESTS FOR ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE FINISH 3.1. TENSILE STRENGTH OF FABRIC 3.1.1 Testmethod: ASTM D5034- 09 3.1.2 PreparationofTestSpecimen: 1. Cut 5 Strips each in Warp & in Weft direction of size 30 cms. X 5 cms. 2. Revel the 0.5cms. Side of Strip from both sides till it becomes exactly 4 cms. Wide. 3. This reveled strip is used for testing Tensile Strength. 3.1.3 Procedure: 1. Switch ‘ON’ the Mains. Switch ‘ON’ the Lower button on the panel of the machine. (Light glows indicates Power supply is ON) 2. Press the upper push button on the panel to bring the Lower grip to its top most position. After reaching there the motor stops automatically. 3. Press the Lower push button on the panel to bring the Lower grip downward till it reaches 20 cms. Mark. Stop the machine by pressing red button. 4. Lock the upper grip by turning the locking lever on the top cover, anticlockwise. 5. Loosen the upper plates of both the Lower & Upper grips by turning the tightening bolt. 6. Insert the fabric in the Upper grip. Tighten the grip so that the upper end of the strip is held tightly. 7. Insert the other end of the Strip in the Lower grip. Pull the specimen taut & hold it firmly in the Lower grip. 8. Tighten the grips fully with the help of the handle provided. 9. Unlock the upper grip by turning the locking lever clockwise. 10.Bring the red pointer to Zero by turning the knob in the center of the dial anticlockwise. 11.Press the lower push button on the panel. The grips would start separating.
  24. 24. 24 12.As soon as the specimen breaks note down the reading of scale against pointer on the lower grip & also the reading shown by the red pointer on the dial. 13.Repeat the above procedure & determine the breaking load for the remaining test specimens. 14.If the load exerted exceeds the maximum load of the range selected, the motor will stop automatically. Release the load & test in the next higher range by adding extra plate on the rod provided backside of the machine. 3.1.4 Calculation: 1. Calculate Mean Breaking Load separately for Warp way & Weft way. Breaking Load (Tensile Strength in Kg.Force) = Reading (0 – 250 on dial) X 0.5. 3.2. CREASE RECOVERY ANGLE OF FABRIC 3.2.1 Testmethod: AATCC TestMethod 66-2008 3.2.2 Testspecimen: 1. Cut 10 specimens 5 warpways & 5 weftways using template which is of 2x1 cm. 3.2.3 Conditioning: Condition the specimens, flat and free from wrinkles, at 65 +/- 2% RH, 21+/-1 C for at least 24 hr. prior to testing. 3.2.4 Procedure: 1. With the specimen holder in the left hand, use tweezers to place a test specimen between the leaves of specimen holder. 2. Take care that the specimen is not handled, even with the tweezers near the area to be folded.
  25. 25. 25 3. Invert the press holder combination on a table top with the small platform upward, and gently, apply a load of 500g. to the platform. 2. 4.After 5 min+/- 5 sec, remove the load, pick up the press holder combination by the plastic press and insert the exposed end of the specimen holder in the mount on the face of the tester. 4. Exactly 5 min+/- 5 sec after the removal of the 500 g., make the final adjustment of dangling leg to the vertical guide line, and read the wrinkle recovery value to the nearest degree from the protractor scale by means of the vernier. 3.2.5 Calculation: Calculate average recovery in degrees for each group of three specimens, warp folded face-to-face, warp folded back-to-back, filling folded back- to-back. 3.3. TEAR STRENGTH TEST 3.3.1 Testmethod: ASTM D2261– 13 3.3.2 Testspecimen: 1. Cut the specimens of the required size with the help of a template from the different portions of the sample under test. 2. There should be 3 each samples cut in the warp direction and the weft direction. 3. The lengthwise direction should be parallel to the warp or weft direction for which tear strength is required. 3.3.3 Procedure: 1. Raise the pendulum to the starting position and secure it with the help of the latch and set the pointer against the stop. 2. Calibration of the pendulum is carried out by releasing the pendulum and holding the pendulum on its return swing, we must know check if the pointer is at zero or not, if not we rotate the screws positioned under the tester accordingly and test for calibration again.
  26. 26. 26 3. After it has been calibrated, fix the test specimen securely in the clamps so that it is well cantered and tighten the clamps. 4. Make a slit in the fabric using the blade. 5. Release the pendulum by pressing the latch and let the specimen be torn. 6. After the tear is complete, hold the pendulum on its return swing by hand without disturbing the position of the pointer. 7. Read the scale to the nearest whole scale division. 3.3.4 Calculations: Tear Strength = Reading on scale x 6.4kg /100 3.4. DURABLE PRESS RATING TEST 3.4.1 Testmethod: AATCC TestMethod 124-2011 3.4.2 Procedure: 1. After the fabric has been cured, the fabric is given 5 washes using 1 spoon of detergent. After the 5 washes, it is then tumble dried at temperature of about 60oC for 45 minutes. 2. After tumble drying, the specimens are then kept for conditioning in a standard atmosphere having relative humidity of 65 +/- 2% at 21 +/- 1oC for 30-60 minutes. 3. The specimens are then compared with the scale provided and according to the degree of creases formed, a rating is given.
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28 3.5. WATER ALCOHOL TEST 3.5.1 Testmethod: 3.5.2 Procedure: 1. Place the test sample on a horizontal, flat surface. 2. Use a dropper to gently place 3 small drops of a test liquid in 2 or 3 different areas of samples. Do not touch the sample by dropper tip. 3. Allow the drops to stand undisturbed for 10 seconds. Water repellency Grade number % composition of the test liquid 0 Water 1 98/2 water/ isopropyl alcohol 2 95/5 water/ isopropyl alcohol 3 90/10 water/ isopropyl alcohol 4 80/20 water/ isopropyl alcohol 5 70/30 water/ isopropyl alcohol 6 60/40 water/ isopropyl alcohol 7 50/50 water/ isopropyl alcohol 8 40/60 water/ isopropyl alcohol
  29. 29. 29 3.5.3 Evaluation and Rating: If after 10 seconds, 2 of the 3 drops are still visible as spherical or hemispherical and there is no wetting of the fabric to be seen. 3.6. OIL TEST 3.6.1 Testmethod: AATCC- 118 3.6.2 Procedure: 1. Place the test samples flat on a smooth, horizontal surface. 2. Beginning with the lowest numbered test liquid, gently place small drops with the dropper bottle pipette on the test sample in several locations. 3. If no penetration or wetting of the substrate at the liquid-substrate interface and no wicking around the drop occurs, place a drop of the next higher numbered test liquid.
  30. 30. 30 Oil repellency rating number composition 1 Liquid paraffin 2 65/35 liquid paraffin/n- hexadecane 3 n-hexadecane 4 n-tetradecane 5 n-dodecane 6 n-decane 7 n-octane 8 n-heptane 3.6.3 Evaluation: The oil repellency grade of a substrate is numerical value of the highest numbered test liquid which will not wet the substrate within a period of 30 seconds. 3.7. SPRAY TEST 3.7.1 Testmethod: AATCC-22 3.7.2 Procedure: 1. The test sample is fastened securely in the embroidery hoop so that it prevents a smooth wrinkle free surface. 2. The hoop is then placed on the stand of the tester with the fabric uppermost in such a position that the centre of the spray pattern coincides with the centre of the loop.
  31. 31. 31 3. 250 ml of water is poured at 27° C are poured into the funnel of the tester and allowed to spray onto the test sample, which take approximately 30 seconds. 4. Then the hop is taken by one edge and the opposite angle edge is tapped smartly once against a solid object. The hoop is then rotated 180° C and then tapped once more. 3.7.3 Evaluation: Immediately after tapping the loop, the wet or spotted pattern on the fabric sample is compared with the AATCC Standard Spray Test Rating Chart
  32. 32. 32 3.8. SOIL RELEASE: OILY STAIN RELEASE METHOD 3.8.1 Testmethod: 3.8.2 Procedure: 1. Place the unstained specimen on the horizontal surface. 2. Using the medicine dropper, place 5 drops of corn oil and mineral oil in the approximate of the test specimen. 3. Place a 7.6 x 7.6 cm square of glassine paper over the stained area. 4. Place the weight on the glassine paper directly over the stained area. 5. Allow weight to sit undisturbed for 60 +/- 5 secs. Then remove the weight and discard the glassine sheet. 6. Do not allow stained test specimen to contact each other in a manner which would transfer stains. Wash within 20 +/- 5 mins after staining. 7. Compare the residual stains on the specimens with the stains in the AATCC standard stain release replica and assign a grade as follows: GRADE Standard Grade 5 Stain equivalent to Standard Stain 5 Grade 4 Stain equivalent to Standard Stain 4 Grade 3 Stain equivalent to Standard Stain 3 Grade 2 Stain equivalent to Standard Stain 2 Grade 1 Stain equivalent to Standard Stain 1 Grade 5 represents the best stain removal and Grade 1 the poorest stain removal.
  33. 33. 33 3.9. WICKING TEST 3.9.1 Procedure: 1. Cut 4 strips 2 warp ways & 2 weft ways of 15 cm in length X 2 cm in width of the required fabric. 2. Mount the strip on a steel plate with the help of clip. 3. Below the strip put petridish filled with 50ml water. 4. Adjust the strip in such a way that tip of strip just touch the water in petridish. 5. Immediately start the stop-watch and allow the water to rise through the strip for 3 minutes. 6. After 3 minutes give cut to the fabric till where water has reached. Air dry the fabric and measures the height with ruler scale and record the reading. 7. Any reading more than 5 cms is satisfactory and less than 5 cms is poor. 3.10. ABSORBENCY 3.10.1Procedure: 1. Place fabric sample which is to be tested on flat surface. 2. Put drop of water and start stop watch immediately. 3. Observe the time taken by water drop to penetrate inside the fabric.
  34. 34. 34 4. If any fabric takes more time for drop to get penetrated then wait for 30 seconds and give rating as more than 30 seconds. 3.11. SURFACE EVAPORATION 3.11.1 Conditioning: Condition the specimens, flat and free from wrinkles, at 65 +/- 2% RH, 21+/-1 C for at least 24 hr. prior to testing. 11.2 Procedure: 1. This test is intended to imitate the transport of moisture from the skin through the textile substrate into the environment. 2. Place a 0.6 g drop of demineralized water on a balance pan. 3. Place a round fabric sample (r = 7 cm) on top of it to absorb the water. 4. If the fabric is hydrophilic the water is distributed better and can therefore evaporate more rapidly on the surface. 5. Record the weight every 10 min and finally record the residual moisture content. The test is continued until a residual moisture content of max. 10% is reached. 6. If this is not reached after 90 min the test is stopped.
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36 PROJECT EFFECT LABELS FOR THE APPAREL SEGMENT
  37. 37. 37 1.MOISTURE MANAGEMNT 1.1 DEFINITION:This finish is defined as the ability of a garment to transport moisture away from the skin to the garment’s outer surface. The finish exhibits increased absorbencyand may exhibit either or all the characteristics (mentioned below) when applied to textile fabrics. a) Absorbency b) Wicking c) Evaporation 1.2 PURPOSE:BREATH IS LIFE - EVEN FOR TEXTILES. No matter what they are doing, consumers expect their clothes to feel comfortable at all times.Using moisture management finishes, fabrics dry quicker, wick moisture away from the skin and stay soft and breathable even when the wearer is involved in high-intensity sport activities. Therefore, the resultant finish provides a) Increased Wearer Comfort, b) No sticking of the garments to the body. 1.3 THEORY: The market for moisture management fabrics is set to grow as apparel manufacturers
 shift their attention to the high- performance end of the sector and consumers place increasing importance on the performance of garments. Moisture management is one of the key performance criteria in today’s apparel industry. It is defined as the ability of a garment to transport moisture away from the skin to the garment’s outer surface. This action prevents perspiration from remaining next to the skin. In hot conditions, trapped moisture may heat up and lead to fatigue or diminished performance. In cold conditions, trapped 
 moisture will drop in temperature and cause chilling and hypothermia. Excess moisture may also cause the garment to become heavy, as well as cause damage to the skin from chafing. 1.3.1 Applications: Any garment which is worn next to the skin or worn during exercise benefits from moisture management properties. The range of applications for such fabrics continues to expand as new fabric technology is released on to the market. In addition to sportswear
  38. 38. 38 and active wear, there is also growing interest in moisture management fabrics from the flame retardant apparel market. 1.3.2 Factors affecting moisture management: a) Fineness offibres: Moisture is transported in textiles through capillary action or wicking. In textiles, the spaces between the fibres effectively form tubes, which act as capillaries, and transport the liquid away from the surface. As a rule, the narrower the spaces between the fibres in a fabric, the more effectively they will draw up moisture. For this reason, fabrics with many narrow capillaries, such as microfibres, are ideal for moisture transport. b) Absorbency: Another factor which affects moisture management is absorbency. However, while greater absorbencyincreases the ability for moisture to be drawn into the fabric, the tendency of absorbentfibres to retain such moisture affects comfort levels, as the garment becomes saturated. It has been shown that fabrics which wick moisture rapidly while absorbing little water help to regulate bodytemperature, improve muscle performance and delay exhaustion. Generally, the most effective moisture management fabrics are high-tech synthetic fabrics which are made from polyamide or polyester microfibres. These are lightweight, are capable of transporting moisture efficiently, and dry relatively quickly. Moisture management capabilities can also be enhanced by using certain finishing processes, byvarying the fabric or fibre construction, or by using a blend of fibre types. "Push-pull" fabrics – bi-component materials composed ofa non- absorbentmaterial on the inside and an absorbentmaterial on the outside have proved to be an effective construction for moisture management fabrics. This is because the absorbent material on the outside draws the moisture away from the skin while the non-absorbent material keeps the skin dry. 1.3.3 Scope: As manufacturers of sports and active outdoor wear strive to improve the functionality of their collections, the future will see further developments in the field of moisture management fabrics. For example, the area of nano-fibres looks set to revolutionise the moisture management market. In addition, the next generation of "smart" textiles could see the development of fabrics which are able to
  39. 39. 39 respond to changes in the environment by adjusting their pore size or thickness to allow moisture through. 1.4 EXPERIMENT: 1.4.1 Aim: To carry out moisture management system for the following fabrics: a) Polyester (PES) knit. b) Cotton (CO) knit. c) Polyester/Cotton (PES/CO)blend. d) Cotton (CO) poplin. And to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 1.4.2 Chemicals Used: 1.4.2.1 Hydroperm SRHA liq: A hydrophilising agent that gives polyester and polyester rich blends a soft, supple handle. a) Salient Features: -  Moisture management finish for PES and its blends  Reduces the soil retentivity of those articles which are made out of polyester fibres.  Imparts exceptionally soft and supple dry handle  Imparts a marked improvement of re-wettability on polyester fibres  Notable improvement in the electrical conductivity of polyester and its blended fibres.  Improve the anti-pilling characteristics in certain specific synthetic fibre qualities. b) Properties: Appearance Milky White Liquid Chemical Character Polyester copolymer Ionic Character Non-Ionic
  40. 40. 40 1.4.2.2SolusoftTOW Liq c: Concentrated hydrophilic silicone micro-emulsion for finishing cottonterrycloth goods and bath towels. a) Salient features: • Highly concentrated micro-emulsion of a modified silicone softener, suitable for the preparation of dilute working emulsions by simple dilution with water. The productcan also be added directly to the finishing bath in concentrated form. • Produces very hydrophilic finishes with good absorbency. • Specially suitable for terrycloth goods. • Imparts a very voluminous, fluffy soft handle. • No impairment of the degree of whiteness. • Mainly for padding but also suitable for exhaust processes. • Very good shear stability. b) Properties:  Appearance clear, practically colorless microemulsion  Chemical characteR special compounded polysiloxane  Ionic character weakly cationic 1.4.3 Recipe: CONCENTRATION(g/l) FABRIC Hydroperm SRHA liq Solusoft® TOW liq c Polyester Knitwear 25 10 PES/CO blend 25 10 Cotton poplin 20 10 Cotton Knitwear 20 10 All the fabric samples were padded at 20◦ C with a pick up of 65% and dried at 150◦ C for 1 minute. The dried samples were then conditioned at a temperature of 20±2 ◦ C and relative humidity of around 65±2 %. After this, the performance of the finish produced was tested.
  41. 41. 41 1.4.4 Oberavtions: 1.4.4.1Wicking height: UN PES PES WARP 6.65 0 WEFT 5.15 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HEIGHT(CM) WIKING HEIGHT UN CO KN CO KN WARP 7.4 6.55 WEFT 8.35 6.25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HEIGHT(CM) WICKING HEIGHT
  42. 42. 42 UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND WARP 5.1 3.5 WEFT 5.1 3.25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6HEIGHT(CM) WICKING HEIGHT UN POPLIN POPLIN WARP 4.25 3.05 WEFT 3.35 3.35 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 HEIGHT(CM) WICKING HEIGHT
  43. 43. 43 1.4.4.2 Surface evaporation: After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN CO KN 13% 13% 4% TR CO KN 17% 12% 13% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN PO KN 3% 4% 3% PO KN 14% 14% 16% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION
  44. 44. 44 After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN POPLIN 20% 19% 20% POPLIN 22% 21% 21% 18% 18% 19% 19% 20% 20% 21% 21% 22% 22% 23%RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN P/C 22% 20% 21% P/C 26% 22% 22% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION
  45. 45. 45 1.4.4.3DropTest: UN PES KN PES KN TIME IN SEC 30 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35Timeinseconds DROPTEST UN CO KN CO KN TIME IN SEC 1 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Timeinseconds DROP TEST
  46. 46. 46 1.4.5 Results and conclusions: After applying moisture management finish system on PES knit, CO knit, CO poplin and PES/CO blended fabrics, it can be concluded that: 1. The wicking property is improved for PES and CO knit fabrics with the wicking height for both warp as well as weft directions being more than 5 cms. While, for CO poplin and PES/CO blended fabrics, the wicking property is diminished with the wicking height being less than the untreated fabrics for bothwarp as well as weft directions. 2. All the types treated fabrics can be effectively used in moisture management applications as the percentage of moisture evaporated after 30 minutes increased significantly as compared to that of the untreated fabric samples. UN CO POPLIN CO POPLIN TIME IN SEC 1 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Timeinseconds DROPTEST UN CO POPLIN CO POPLIN TIME IN SEC 1 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Timeinseconds DROPTEST
  47. 47. 47 3. The absorbencyof the treated PES knit, PES/CO blended fabrics increased (resulting in better moisture management characteristics) as shown by a decrease in the absorption time but the absorbencyof the treated CO poplin reduced with the absorption time increasing after finishing to 14 sec from 1 sec(untreated) However, CO knit fabric maintained its absorbencyproperties.
  48. 48. 48 2. ANTIMICROBIAL FINISHES CLARIANT’S EFFECT LABELS UNDER ANTIMICROBIAL FINISHES: 2.1 HYDRY FINISH. 2.2 MOSQUITO PROTECTION. THEORY: What are microbes? Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eye. They include a variety of micro-organisms like Bacteria, Fungi, Algae and viruses. o Bacteria are uni-cellular organisms which grow very rapidly under warmth and moisture. Further, sub divisions in the bacteria family are Gram positive(Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (E-Coli), sporebearing or non spore bearing type. Some specific types of bacteria are pathogenic and cause cross infection. o Fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth rate. They stain the fabric and deteriorate the performance properties of the fabrics. Fungi are active at a pH level of 6.5. o Algae are typical micro organisms which are either fungal or bacterial. Algae require continuous sources of water and sun light to grow and develop darker stains on the fabrics. o Dust mites are eight legged creatures and occupythe household textiles such as blankets bed linen, pillows, mattresses and carpets. The dust mites feed on human skin
  49. 49. 49 cells and liberated waste products cancause allergic reactions and respiratory disorders. Todaybiocides are important in textile finishing in the area of anti- microbial finishes. These include material protection (rotproofing and preservation), aesthetic (prevention of staining) and hygiene finishes (control of the development of odourand bacteria). Such finishes must reach a range of performance criteria, and be practical and economic in terms of application as well as meeting modern environmental standards. Types of antimicrobial: a) Leaching Type : The vast majority of antimicrobials work by leaching or moving from the surface on which they are applied. This is the mechanism used by leaching antimicrobials to poison a microorganism .Besides affecting durability and useful life, leaching technologies have the potential to cause a variety of other problems when used in garments. These include their negative effects because, they can contact the skin and potentially effect the normal skin bacteria, cross the skin barrier, and/or have the potential to cause rashes and other skin irritations. A more serious problem with leaching technologies has to do with their allowing for the adaptation of microorganisms. The conventional leaching types of antimicrobials leave the textile and chemically enter or react with the microorganism acting as a poison. b) Non leaching :The bound unconventional antimicrobial technology, an organofunctional silane, has a mode of action that relies on the technology remaining affixed to the substrate - killing microorganisms as they contact the surface to which it is applied. Effective levels of this technology do not leach or diminish over time. When applied, the technology actually polymerizes with the substrate making the surface antimicrobial. This type of antimicrobial technology is used in textiles that are likely to have human contact or where durability is of value. The unconventional bound antimicrobial stays affixed to the textile and, on a molecular scale, physically stabs (the membrane) and electrocutes (the biochemicals in the membrane) the microorganism on contact to kill it. Requirements for biocides It is fairly easy to list the desirable properties of an ‘ideal’ biocide: (1) Wide spectrum of effectiveness against both bacteria and
  50. 50. 50 fungi; (2) Durable for the life of the product; (3) Non-toxic to humans at concentrations used – safe to handle and use; (4) Colorless and odorless; (5) Reasonable cost, and effective at low concentrations; (6) Resistant to leaching, weathering and sunlight; (7) No adverse effect on handle or other physical properties of the fabric; (8) Compatible with water-repellent and flame-retardant finishes, dyes and other textilecchemicals; (9) Does not accelerate or catalyse other degenerative processes; (10) Applicable using standard textile machinery; (11) Withstands processingconditions and temperatures; (12) No environmental problems. Chemistry: a) Leaching chemistry: In all cases leaching antimicrobial technologies provide a killing field or "zone of inhibition". This zone exists in real-world uses if it is assumed that the right conditions exist for leaching of a lethal doseat the time that it is needed. The zone of inhibition is the area around the treated substrate into which the antimicrobial chemistry leaches or moves to, killing or inhibiting microorganisms.  Triclosan inhibits growth of microorganisms by using an electro chemical mode of action to penetrate and disrupt their cell walls. When the cell walls are penetrated, leakage of metabolites occurs and other cell functions are disabled, thereby preventing the organism from functioning or reproducing. The Triclosan when incorporated within a polymer migrates to the surface, where it is bound. Because, it is not water-soluble, it does not leach out, and it continuously inhibits the growth of bacteria in contactwith the surface using barrier or blocking action.  One of the most durable type of antimicrobial products is based on a diphenyl ether (bis-phenyl) derivative known as either 2, 4, 4'- trichloro-2'hydroxy dipenyl ether or 5-chloro-2-(2, 4-dichloro  phenoxyl) phenol.
  51. 51. 51  Triclosan products have been used for more than 25 years in hospitals and personal care products suchas antimicrobial soap, toothpasteand deodorants. b) Non Leaching Type Chemistry: A significantly different and much more unique antimicrobial technology used in the textile industry does not leach but instead remains permanently affixed to the surface it is applied to. Applied in a single stage of the wet finish process, the attachment of this technology to surfaces involves two means. First and most important is a very rapid process, which coats the substrate (fabric, fiber, etc.) with the cationic species (physisorption) one molecule deep. This is an ion exchange process bywhich the cation of the silane quaternary ammonium compound replaces protons from water or chemicals on the surface. The second mechanism is unique to materials such as silane quaternary ammonium compounds. In this case, the silanol allows for covalent bonding to receptive surfaces to occur(chemisorption). This bonding to the substrate is then made even more durable by the silanol functionality, which enables them to homopolymerize. After they have coated the surface in this manner, they become virtually irremovable, even on surfaces with which they cannot react covalently.
  52. 52. 52 Mode Of Action: In order to live and multiply, micro-organisms need moisture, warmth and a food source. Forpractical purposes, keeping material permanently dry or very cold is impossible although it is worth noting that degradation of materials in deserts or Polar Regions is very slow. Normally micro- organisms are present all around us and, being airborne, are constantly landing on textiles and materials. Given an adequate food sourcethey will then start to multiply, producing deleterious effects as described above. The food sourcemay be the textile itself (for example, cellulose or polyurethanes) or another chemical present on the substrate (for example, spinning oils or soiling). The latter category includes dirt deposited from the atmosphere, perspiration, skin scales and soap residues. The level of soiling varies considerably depending on the environment; consider the difference between greasy deposits that accumulate near cooking areas and ordinary dustaccumulation in a bedroom. The foodstuff may be in a form that is immediately useable by the micro- organism; an obvious example of this is the breakdown of sugars by yeast in the fermentation process.More usually, however, it is necessary for the micro-organism to break down more complicated molecules into a form that is accessible as food. To do this the micro-organism produces an enzyme that is a biocatalyst. A typical sequence in connection with the breakdown of cottonis shown in figure below. Degradation Process (cotton)
  53. 53. 53 It follows, therefore, that in order to prevent degradation of textile materials, four possibilities are available: (1) kill organism; (2) block enzyme; (3) insert a barrier (for example, coating); (4) modify fibre (top surface or whole). Application: The general type of antimicrobial finish can be divided into three main groups: (a) Rotproofing is an anti-microbial finish applied to give material protection, either long-term or short-term, against physical deterioration. (b) Hygiene finishes are concerned with the control of infection and unwanted bacteria. (c) Aesthetic finishes are used to controlodour development and to prevent staining. Some finishes fulfil two or even three of the above purposes – for example, cottonsocks (prevent degradation, control dermatophytic fungi, inhibit odour development). Organism lands on the fabric Germinates Enzymes secreted Attack on cellulose molecules Food for micro- organisms
  54. 54. 54 2.1 HYDRY FINISH: 2.1.1 DEFINITION:Hydry finish can be defined as the finish which combines characteristics such as hygiene and moisture management when applied to textile substrates. As soonas a personbegins to sweat, an unpleasant odorcan develop, bringing with it that uncertain, insecure feeling that limits freedom of movement. The Sanitized® hygiene function – integrates permanently into the clothing during manufacture - acts like a built-in deodorant and prevents the development of unpleasant odors. Since the Sanitized® hygiene function prevents the growth of bacteria, clothing remains fresh longer, can be laundered less frequently and washed at cooler temperatures. This means time, energy and water can be saved, which ultimately helps to protect the environment. 2.1.2 PURPOSE:The combined finish brings more comfortand well- being into the everyday life – 
at home, at work, during sports oron the go. This finish is used basically for three purposes: a) Freshness: Daily activity: At home, at work, while shopping or during sport, the Sanitized® hygiene function ensures a feeling of freshness all day long. This treatment is integrated into the textile and offers long-lasting, safe and fresh wearing comfort—all day, every day. Sanitized® maintains freshness letting the wearer feel completely comfortable. b) Comfort: Bed linens, carpets, curtains or furniture fabrics, which carry the Sanitized® Quality Seal, make the perception of well- being possible. The effectiveness of the integrated hygiene function is long-lasting and reliable. Sanitized® provides a reassuring feeling of lasting freshness in bedding, mattresses and other home textiles. c) Protection: The integrated Sanitized® hygiene function reliably and permanently equips material against bacterial and fungal growth depending on individual needs. By preventing unsightly
  55. 55. 55 mildew spots notonly the optical appearance is retained but also the material structure. Unappealing mold stains do not appear and you benefit from an extended useful life. Sanitized® is used in technical applications and textiles, household utensils, in the kitchen and bathroom. Unprotected fibre Protected fibre
  56. 56. 56 2.1.3 EXPERIMENT: 2.1.3.1 Aim:To carry out clariant’s hydry finish system on the following fabrics: a) Polyester (knit) b) Cotton(knit) c) Cotton(Poplin) And to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 2.1.3.2Chemicals used: 2.1.3.2.1 Hydroperm SRHA liq. 2.1.3.2.2 Sanitized T 96-21 liq: 1) Mode of Action: Sanitized® T 96-21 has a reliable and durable bacteriostatic effect against a large number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Its activity on the cell disrupts the metabolic process of unwanted micro-organisms and thus interrupts their ability to function, grow and reproduce. 2) Advantages:  Lasting hygienic freshness and excellent wearing comfort.  Outstanding effectiveness against a wide range of bacteria including MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).  Inhibits odors caused by microbes.  Good tolerance with other chemicals, such as fluorocarbons, flame retardants, and softening, linking, and binding agents, etc.  Good wash fastness.  Human skin tolerance according to the cytotoxicity test, ITV Denkendorf. 3) Characteristics:  Composition -Liquid preparation with halogenated phenoxy compound.  pH -value 6.3 - 8.3 (20°C, 50 g/l)  Ionic character- Non-ionogenic  Appearance- Colorless to yellowish liquid. (Solidifies slowly at temperatures below about 18°C.  Ecology- Good degradability in biological sewage treatment plants: > 95 % according to OECD 302 B(1992)
  57. 57. 57  Skin tolerance- Irritating to the skin and eyes in commercial concentrations (wear gloves and eye protection). 4) Fields of Application:  Apparel-Underwear, outer garments, work wear, sportswear, outdoorgarments, lining fabric,socks, hosiery  Home textiles-Terrycloth, woolen and acrylic blankets  Bedding textiles- casings for pillows and quilts, bed sheets, fitted bed sheets, covers for pillows and duvets, molletons. 2.1.3.2.3 Solusoft TOW liq. 2.1.3.2.4 Hydroperm RPU liq: Newly developed thermoreactive polyurethane for permanent soft handle effects on all natural and regenerated cellulose fibres as well as polyamide. In combination with crosslinking agents this special polyurethane also improves the crease recovery angle and wash and wear behaviour of cellulosic fibres. 1) Salient Features:  produces a washfast, very full and extremely soft handle.  the finished goods seem much fuller and appear heavier: higher quality goods are achieved.  mainly applied in combination with silicone softeners.  achieves suede-like finishing effects in combination with mechanical treatments such as buffing and emerizing.  improves the elasticity and shape recovery of knit goods.  Produces hydrophilic finishing effects.  is readily combinable with the usual finishing agents.  does not impair the degree of whiteness of optically brightened goods and has only a slight effect on the shade of dyed goods.  improves the crease recovery angle and wash and wear behaviour in combination with crosslinking agents for cellulosic fibres.  is formaldehyde-free.  has a high turbidity point and can therefore also be applied in countries with very high room temperatures. 2) Properties:  Appearance- clear to weakly yellowish, slightly turbid, viscous liquid
  58. 58. 58  Chemical character- thermoreactive polyurethane resin  Ionic character- nonionic  pH- of the commercial productpH 5 +/- 1 3) Mode of action : Hydroperm RPU liquid imparts a full, soft elastic handle to the goods. It crosslinks under the usual curing conditions for resin finishing and produces permanent effects which are fast to washing and dry cleaning. Together with reactant crosslinking agents such as Arkofix® NDF liquid c Hydroperm RPU liquid is applied to improve the crease recovery angle and wash and wear behaviour of woven and knit goods of cotton, viscoseand their blends with polyamide fibres. In such applications the amount of reactant crosslinking agent can be reduced. 2.1.3.2.5 Sanitized T27-22 Silver liq: 1) Mode Of Action: Sanitized® T 27-22 Silver has a safe bacteriostatic effect against a large number of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, including MRSA (methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus) as well as some yeasts and micro-fungi. 2) Benefits:  Excellent storage stability.  Ready-to-use productwith easy dosage.  No binder required.  Can be combined with other textile effects such as binders, softeners, wetting agents, fluorocarbons, etc.  Can easily be applied in both padding and exhaust processes.  Excellent exhaustion rate.  Non-fading finish.  Outstanding washing resistance and temperature stability.  Dermatologically tested.  Free from AOX.  bluesign® approved.  EPA registered.  Accepted for OEKO-TEX Standard 100.  classes I-IV.
  59. 59. 59  SIAA homologation.  No nano-technology. 3) Characteristics  Composition -Silver chloride and titanium dioxide  pH -(20°C) 5.8 – 7.8 (20°C).  Ionogenicity- Non-ionogenic, weakly anionic.  Appearance- White to light grey dispersion.  Skin tolerance- Skin and eye irritant at industrial concentrations (wear gloves and eye protection).Substrate streated with Sanitized® T 27-22 Silver have been tested for dermatological safety. 4) Fields of Application:  Apparel-Underwear, outer garments, work wear, sportswear, outdoorgarments, lining fabric,socks, hosiery  Home textiles-Terrycloth, woolen and acrylic blankets  Bedding textiles- casings for pillows and quilts, bed sheets, fitted bed sheets, covers for pillows and duvets, molletons. 2.1.3.2.6 Ceralube HD liq: Lubricant and sewability improver for all types of fibres 1) Salient Features:  Distinctly improves the tear strength of the fabric .  Produces a supple and smooth handle ..  Does not affect the degree of whiteness of brightened goods.  Improves the abrasion resistance and compensates for the loss of strength observed during resin finishing .  Noticeably improves the effects on raised goods.  Improves sewability of woven and knitted goods .  Compatible with resins and in high acidic baths .  Also imparts good yarn lubricating properties .  Considerably facilitates penetration of the needles when needling felts and nonwovens. 2) Properties:  Appearance : Thin white to yellowish emulsion.
  60. 60. 60  Chemical character : Polyolefin dispersion.  Ionic nature : Mildly cationic. 3) Mode Of Action:  Improving sewability -Ceralube HD.IN liq increases the sliding properties of yarns and thus significantly improves the sewability of knit goods and other textile constructions. The fibres or threads of the finished goods canreadily evade the sewing needle and fibre/metal friction is considerably reduced. As a result the goods can be readily pierced by the sewing needle and no excessive heating occurs. Onhigh speed machines problems with hole formation, stitch damage, needle and thread breakages are largely avoided.  Handle -Ceralube HD.IN liq imparts smoothness and a supple, very soft handle. These properties are highly favoured not only by the garment maker when working with the finished goods but also by the consumer. Ceralube HD.IN Liquid can also be combined with softeners and silicone elastomers for individual handle variants.  Influence on white goods -The degree of whiteness of brightened textiles is virtually unaffected by treatment with Ceralube HD.IN liq.  Sublimation behaviour -Ceralube HD.IN liq exhibits no sublimation even at the high temperatures in shockcuring. 4) Application:  For clothing and household textile.  Resin finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres.  For raised and emerized goods.  When needling felts and nonwovens. 2.1.3.3Recipe: CONCENTRATION(g/l) CONCENTRATION (o.w.f) FABRIC Hydroperm SRHA liq Solusoft TOW liq c Ceralube SVN liq Sanitized T 27-22 Silver liq Polyester Knitwear 20 10 - 0.5%
  61. 61. 61 Cotton Knitwear 20 10 15 0.5% Cotton poplin 20 10 15 0.5% Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of 65%. The padded fabrics were dried at 150C for 1minute after which they were conditioned in standard conditions of temperature (20±2 C)and relative humidity (65±2%).The fabrics were then tested for the performance of the finish produced on them. 2.1.3.3 Observations: 2.1.3.3.1 Wicking height: PES KN UN PES KN WARP 7.05 0 WEFT 5.85 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HEIGHT(CM) WICKING HEIGHT
  62. 62. 62 2.1.3.3.2Surface evaporation: CO KN UN CO KN WARP 6.9 7.4 WEFT 6.4 8.35 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HEIGHT(CM) WICKING HEIGHT POPLIN UN POPLIN WARP 2.85 4.25 WEFT 2.95 3.35 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 HEIGHT(CM) WICKING HEIGHT
  63. 63. 63 After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN CO KN 13% 13% 4% CO KN 16% 12% 14% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN PES KN 3% 4% 3% PES KN 14% 17% 18% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION After 10 min After 20 min After 30 min UN POPLIN 20% 19% 20% POPLIN 24% 23% 27% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% RATINGIN% SURFACE EVAPORATION
  64. 64. 64 2.1.3.3.3Droptest UN PES KN PES KN TIME IN SEC 30 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Timeinseconds DROPTEST
  65. 65. 65 2.1.3.4Results and conclusions:After applying Hydry finish system on PES knit, CO knit and CO poplin fabrics, it can be concluded that: 1. The wicking property is improved for PES fabric with the wicking height for both warp as well as weft directions being more than 5 cms. While, for CO poplin and CO knit fabrics, the wicking property is diminished with the wicking height being less than the untreated fabrics for both warp as well as weft directions. 2. All the types treated fabrics can be effectively used in moisture management applications as the percentage of moisture evaporated after 30 minutes increased significantly as compared to that of the untreated fabric samples. UN CO KN CO KN TIME IN SEC 1 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Timeinseconds DROPTEST UN CO POPLIN CO POPLIN TIME IN SEC 1 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Timeinseconds DROPTEST
  66. 66. 66 3. The absorbencyof the treated PES knit, fabrics increased (resulting in better moisture management characteristics) as shown by a decrease in the absorption time. However, CO knit and CO poplin fabrics maintained their absorbencyproperties. 2.2 MOSQUITO PROTECTION: Protective textiles refer to those textile products which have a functionality of giving protection from something in some or the other sense. With regard to textiles, the protective textile field of the smart textiles has to fulfill this requirement. A Mosquito protective textile is one such textile product. Mosquitoes classify as one of the deadliest pests known to man. In the tropical countries mosquito menace is one of the greatest problems faced by the people in their every day lives. Mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism. Worldwide, however, mosquitoes transmit disease to more than 700, 000, 000 people annually and will be responsible for thedeaths of 1 of every 17 people currently alive... Mosquitoes have complex methods of detecting hosts and different types of mosquitoes react to different stimuli. Most mosquitoes are active at dawn and dusk, but there are also mosquitoes that seek hosts during the day. You can avoid being bitten by making sure you aren't attracting mosquitoes, using attractants to lure mosquitoes elsewhere, using a repellent, and avoiding actions that diminish the effectiveness of the repellent. 2.2.1 DEFINITION:Mosquito Protective textiles is one of the revolutionary ways to advance the textile field by providing the much- needed features of driving away mosquitoes, especially in the tropical areas. 2.2.2 PURPOSE:It protects the human beings from the bite of mosquitoes and thereby promising safety from the mosquito-borne diseases, suchas malaria, dengue fever (DF), Nile fever,dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), chicken gunia and filariasis, are serious public health problems in tropical regions, especially in Africa and Asia. These diseases are transmitted to human beings through mosquito bite only.
  67. 67. 67 Since there is no effective vaccine available for the control of these diseases, prevention of mosquito bites is one of the main strategies to control or minimize incidence of these diseases. 2.2.3 EXPERIMENT: 2.2.3.1Aim: To carry out with Sanitized AM23-24, clariant’s mosquito protection finish system on cotton knitwears and to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 2.2.3.2Chemicals used: 1. Hostapal MRN. 2. Acetic acid(60%). 3. Solusoft MW liq c. 4. Appretan N92111 liq: Consist of Acrylic ester copolymers in aqueous dispersion. Advantages:  Resistant to washing and dry cleaning  Self crosslinking  Soft  APEO free Properties:  Appearance- Milky, low viscosity dispersion.  Ionic character- Anionic. Film properties :  Appearance -transparent, soft, slightly sticky.  Glass transition temperature- appr. - 8°C .  Color- No or very low yellowing after curing at high temperature.  Light and ageing stability- Very good stability to light ageing. 5. Sanitized AM23-24: Sanitized® AM 23-24 effects a significant reduction of landings and bites of insects, especially vectors (disease transmitting species), like the mosquito Aedes Aegypti (yellow fever) and Anopheles Gambiae .( malaria). Advantages:  Washing resistant protection against vectors suchas mosquitoes, ticks, etc.  Proven reduction of mosquito bites.
  68. 68. 68  Effectiveness against mosquitoes certified by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland and Biogents, Germany.  Effectiveness against ticks and bedbugs confirmed by the Zoological Institute, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.  Textiles treated with Sanitized® AM 23-24 fulfill the requirements of TL 8305-0331 (“Vector protection for textile areameasured material”) for the German and French armies.  Accepted by OEKO-TEX Standard 100, classes I-IV.  Dermatologically tested.  Formulation perfectly tailored to aim of application. Characteristics:  Composition- Formulation with permethrin.  Ionic character Non-ionogenic.  Appearance Yellow to brownish liquid.  Applications: Application possible on all common types of textiles except pure polypropylene.  Uniforms.  Battle dresses.  Tents.  Sleeping bags.  Work wear.  Hunting and hiking apparel.  Carpets.  Curtains.
  69. 69. 69 2.2.3.3Recipe: CONCENTRATION(g/l) FABRIC Hostapal MRN liq c. Acetic acid 60% Solusoft MW liq c. Appretan N92111 liq Sanitized AM23-24. (calculated using Clariant sanitized calculator 1.0) Cotton knitwear 0.5 1 10 70 28.1 Padding was done at 20-30C with a pick up of 70% and a bath pH of 4- 5.5. The padded fabrics were then shockcured at 140C for 45 seconds after which they were conditioned in standard conditions of temperature (20±2 C) and relative humidity (65±2%).The fabrics were then tested for the performance of the finish produced on them. 2.2.3.4Results:Cotton knit fabrics have been successfully treated with clariant’s mosquito protection finish system.
  70. 70. 70 3. RESIN FINISHES CLARIANT’S EFFECT LABELS UNDER RESIN FINISH ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. EASY WEAR. 2. EASY CARE & COMFORT. 3. WASH & WEAR( MOIST CURE). 4. WASH & WEAR( LT CURE). 5. PREMIUM ECO CARE. THEORY: Need for resin finishing on cellulosics: The inherenttendency of cellulosics towards creasing in wear and shrinkage on launderingconstitute their principaldisadvantages, which, although often improved by fabricor garment construction, are increasingly conquered by topical chemical treatment. The goal is ‘easy-care’ clothing that may be washed with minimal creasing and shrinkage. The cellulose polymer chainsare held together in bundlesby hydrogen bondsand van der Waals forces, to form individualfibres, the chains runningparallelto the fibre axis in a typically crystalline structure, although around 30% of cotton and 60% of viscose is amorphous. It is in the amorphousregions, however, that the chemistry of easy-care finishing takes place. The shrinkage of cellulosic fabrics is a consequenceof the relatively inelastic nature of the fibre and the dimensional changes that occur in the fibre during the transition from the dry to wet to dry state – effectively the ‘repacking’ of the structure, which has been disrupted when aqueous. The creasing of cellulosic fabrics depends again on fibre structure – on a
  71. 71. 71 molecular level, a schematic representation of creasing and crease resistance shows that an unstable polymeric structure may not hold firm on deformation, so that the structure fails to recover and creasing results when the load is removed. Forthe same reason, moistening of cellulosic fabrics, prior to ironing, allows the cellulose to regain its original configuration or for it to be persuaded to adopt another one (for example, a crease or pleat). Resinfinish Properties: A ‘wish list’ for the easy-care finisher might be as follows: (1) high ‘durable press’ rating , (2)high dry and wet crease recovery angles ; (3) minimal shrinkage, abrasion loss, tensile/tear strength loss; (4) little effect on shade and fastness of dyed fabrics or yellowing of whites; (5) good absorbency; (6) low or zero formaldehyde levels; (7) good pilling resistance; (8) desirable handle. Effectof resin finishing on fabric properties: It is apparent that cross-linking impacts negatively on all mechanical properties. The also may be the possibility of permanent damage – caused by some loss of the degree of polymerization of the cellulose caused during the curing step. The ‘degree of cure’ of a resin finish attempts to quantify the percentage of resin on the fabric that has cross-linked, using an analytical technique. It may be readily observed that, as the degree of cure increases, so the mechanical properties degrade and any change of shade or yellowing will becomemore pronounced. In all cases, the magnitude of the effect depends on the specific chemicals and processing conditions used. The fibre embrittlement brought about by resination, may, under certain circumstances, beneficial. It has been observed that the resination of cotton/polyester blends dramatically reduces ‘permanent’ pilling, since the weakened cellulosic component encourages pill detachment. Resination of both white and coloured fabrics usually affects the shade to some degree. Typically the effect is a yellowing of the shade, the effect increasing with cure temperature. Formaldehyde: hazards, sources anddetection: The chemistry of the resination of fabrics with DMDHEU-type reactant resins is inextricably linked with that of formaldehyde some of which
  72. 72. 72 appears on the treated fabric in either a free or bound form. Hazards: Its known hazards to health are its potential to irritate (especially the eyes and respiratory tract) and the ability to trigger skin allergy in susceptible individuals. Solutions of formaldehyde in water above 1% concentration are labelled with the risk phrase R40 ‘possible risk of irreversible effects’ [8]. At much lower concentrations (above 0.2%) such solutions carry the R43 label (‘may cause sensitisation by skin contact’). The current standards for maximum fabric concentrations of formaldehyde for Oeko-Tex Standard 100 are measured according to Japanese Law 112 (see below) in ppm and are as follows: (1) for furnishing fabrics – 300 ppm; (2) for adult clothing and other skin contact items – 75 ppm; (3) for children’s items – 20 ppm. As reactant resin systems develop, it has become increasingly easy to meet the 75 ppm standard after easy-care – many modified DMDHEU resins (described as low or ultra-low formaldehyde products)currently on the market may be used. The 20 ppm standard is somewhat more difficult to achieve, even with state of the art reactants, especially if it is unacceptable to give the fabric a wash-off after processingto remove much of the unassociated formaldehyde. Sources: The sources of formaldehyde in treated fabrics are various. It is not possible to prepare an aqueous solution of a DMDHEU-type resin without the presence of its equilibrium partner, formaldehyde. In addition, the cross-links formed between resin and cellulose may be back hydrolyzed under favorable conditions to release formaldehyde. It is therefore easy to see that the finishing conditions must be carefully optimized to minimize the potential for formaldehyde generation. The resin itself may be modified. Low formaldehyde crosslinking agents were developed based on methylated or glycollated DMDHEU, which has improved stability with respect to its precursor. Detection: Two methods dominate the UK finishing industry: (1)The first test method relates to British Standard BS 6806 Part 2 (free formaldehyde) and Part 3 (released formaldehyde). (2) The second test method relates to Japanese Law 112 (1973), which measures the actual formaldehyde content of an aqueous extract after the extraction period.
  73. 73. 73 EasyCare Technology: Easy-care finishing of cellulosics is achieved using an aqueous, known add-on technique, followed by a drying and then curing (crosslinking) step. The proceduremay be applied to fabrics using a pad mangle and stenter or to made-up garments via a hydro-extract, press and cure method. In all cases the chemical bath is made up with resin (reactant), catalyst and a cocktail of softeners and stitch lubricants to enhance handle and performance. Compatible water- and stain-repellent finishes (such as fluorocarbon emulsions) may also be incorporated in the chemical mix, to further enhance the final fabric performance. Most of the catalysts used in resin finishing are either acids or latent acids (the latter developing acidity only on heating). ForDMDHEU reactants, the most popular catalyst is magnesium chloride – being neutral in aqueous solution at all temperatures and thus offering maximum bath stability. Since very high fabric temperatures must be avoided to prevent fibre degradation, sharper more active catalysts have evolved known as metal salt complex/co-catalysts – for example, magnesium chloride/citric acid, magnesium chloride/ aluminium hydroxychloride and magnesium chloride/sodium fluoroborate, these latter often referred to as ‘flash catalysts’. The mechanism of catalysis have indicated that a complex intermediate is formed between the metal catalyst ion and the reactant alkoxy group. Catalyst choice must reflect closely the desired finishing temperatures, fabric speeds and acceptable residual formaldehyde levels, taking into account the deterioration in mechanical properties and shade that occuras the degree of cure increases. Prior to pad–stenter–cure (otherwise referred to as ‘single pass’), the amount of liquor on the fabric should be kept as low as possible to minimise the energy required for processing. In somecases, resin migration to the surface of the fabric will occurif the water is driven off too swiftly in the earlier stages of drying, leading to a harsh handle and generally poorperformance. Conclusion: The development challenges are clear – to replace the conventional DMDHEU compounds with formaldehyde-free alternatives at acceptable costand, if possible, to develop more reactive, controllable systems that are capable of giving robust, easy-care properties to challenging, relatively unstable substrates, suchas weft knits. The ultimate judge of any topical treatment (no less true for easy-care than other areas of textile finishing) must be the unbiased consumer who demands ‘value for money’ rather than responding to the aesthetic
  74. 74. 74 appeal of some neat chemistry! 3.1 EASY WEAR: 3.1.1 Aim: To carry out clariant’s easy wear finish system on the following fabrics: a) Shirting. b) Bottom width. c) Polyester/Cotton blend. And to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 3.1.2 Chemicals: 1. Arkofix NES: It is a very Low formaldehyde crosslinking agent for the crease resistant, dimensionally stable finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres and their blends with synthetic fibres. Salient Features:  Imparts excellent crease and shrink-resistant properties to  textiles of cottonand viscoseand their blends.  Meets the requirements of consumer labels such as Öko-Tex  Standard 100 for textiles worn next to the skin (<75 ppm formaldehyde on the goods). This applies particularly to the assessment methods as described in Japan Law 112-1973.  On 100% cottonthe finish shows no chlorine retention. 2. MgCl2.6H2O. 3. Ceralube HD. 4. SolusoftTOW liq c. 5. Hydroperm RPU. 6. Acetic acid (60%). 3.1.3 Recipe: CONCENTRATION(g/l) FABRIC Arkofix NES liq c. MgCl2.6H2O Ceralube HD Solusoft TOW Hydroperm RPU liq Acetic acid(60%) Shirting 40 10 30 20 10 0.7 Polyester/cotton 40 10 30 20 10 0.7
  75. 75. 75 blend Bottom width 60 15 40 30 30 1 Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of 70%. The padded fabrics were shockcured at 170C for 30 seconds after which they were conditioned in standard conditions of temperature (20±2 C)and relative humidity (65±2%).The fabrics were then tested for the performance of the finish produced onthem. 3.1.4 Observations: 3.1.4.1Tensile strength: 3.1.4 Observations: 3.1.4.1Tensile strength: UN BW BW Warp 47.75 39.5 Weft 37 33.625 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH
  76. 76. 76 3.1.4.2CreaseRecovery: UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND Warp 40.75 36.91 Weft 25.75 20.08 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 21.125 21.66 Weft 16.5 11.91 0 5 10 15 20 25 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH
  77. 77. 77 UN BW BW Warp 72 88 Weft 66.5 111 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Anglein°C CREASE RECOVERY UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND Warp 81.5 115 Weft 66 77.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Anglein°C CREASE RECOVERY UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 63.5 78 Weft 54.5 66 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Anglein°C CREASE RECOVERY
  78. 78. 78 3.1.4.3Durable press rating: UN BW TR BW AW BW RATING 4 4 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING
  79. 79. 79 UN P/C TR P/C AW P/C RATING 4 4 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING UN SHR TR SHR AW SHR RATING 4 4 3.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING
  80. 80. 80 3.1.4.4Tearstrength: UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 1.184 1.408 Weft 0.928 1.088 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH UN BW BW Warp 1.216 1.856 Weft 1.216 1.376 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  81. 81. 81 3.1.5 Results and conclusions:After applying Easy wear finish system on Shirting (yarn dyed), PES/CO blend and Bottom width fabrics, it can be concluded that: 1. Tensile strength for all the treated fabrics reduced in both warp as well as weft direction with the bottom width fabric showing the most reduction while shirting fabric showing the least reduction. 2. The resistance of all fabrics towards creases increased significantly as shown by the increase in crease recovery angles. 3. After 5 washes, all the treated fabrics showed more wrinkles resulting in a lower DP rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. 4. The tear strength for all the fabrics increased due to the usage of special polyurethane softener in the recipe which reduces the effect of cross linking agents on mechanical properties of fabrics. 3.2 EASY CARE & COMFORT: 3.2.1 Aim: To carry out easy care and comfort finish system on the following fabrics: a) Shirting b) Bottom width c) Polyester/Cotton blend. And to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 3.2.2 Chemicals Used: 1. Arkofix ELF liq c: Ultra low formaldehyde containing cross linking agent for the easy care finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres & their blends with synthetic UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND Warp 1.344 2.944 Weft 0.704 0.64 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  82. 82. 82 fibres . Highly recommended for ETSI (Enhanced Textile Strength Improvement) system from Clariant. Salient Features:  Suitable for imparting crease resistant, dimensionally stable finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres and their blends with synthetic fibres.  Free formaldehyde less than 75 ppm on the fabric.  Meets the requirements of consumer labels like Eco-Tex Std. 100 for textiles worn next to skin.  Very low impact on whiteness so recommended for whites  Minimal strength loss as compared to conventional resins so ideal for delicate fabrics like poplin & knit articles .  On 100% cottoneffects are not stable to chlorine. Properties: Appearance : Colourless to pale yellow clear liquid Chemical character : Modified N-methylol di-hydroxy ethylene Urea. 2. MgCl2.6H2O. 3. Ceralube HD. 4. Solusoft TOW liq c. 5. Hydroperm RPU. 6. Acetic acid (60%). 7. Hostapal MRN liq. 8. Hydroperm HV. 3.2.3 Recipe: CONCENTRATION(g/l) FABRIC Arko fix ELF lit c. MgCl2.6 H2O Ceral ube HD liq c. Solus oft TOW liq c. Hydrop erm RPU liq. Acetic acid(6 0%) Hosta pal MRN liq Hydrop erm HV Shirting 40 10 10 15 25 0.7 0.2 10 Polyester/C otton blend 40 10 10 15 25 0.7 0.2 10 Bottom Width 60 15 15 25 30 1 0.5 15
  83. 83. 83 Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of 70%. The padded fabrics were shockcured at 170C for 30 seconds after which they were conditioned in standard conditions of temperature (20±2 C)and relative humidity (65±2%).The fabrics were then tested for the performance of the finish produced onthem. 3.2.4 Observations: 3.2.4.1Tensile strength: UN BW BW Warp 47.75 38.875 Weft 37 33.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND Warp 40.75 37.125 Weft 25.75 21.125 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH
  84. 84. 84 3.2.4.2Creaserecovery UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 21.125 17.625 Weft 16.5 15.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 63.5 77.5 Weft 54.5 85 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AngleinºC CREASE RECOVERY
  85. 85. 85 UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND Warp 74.75 81.5 Weft 66 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 AngleinºC CREASE RECOVERY UN BW BW Warp 72 81.5 Weft 66.5 84.75 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AngleinºC CREASE RECOVERY
  86. 86. 86 3.2.4.3Durable press rating: UN SHR TR SHR AW SHR RATING 4 4 3.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING UN BW TR BW AW BW RATING 4 4 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING
  87. 87. 87 3.2.4.4Tearstrength: UN P/C TR P/C AW P/C RATING 4 4 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 1.184 1.536 Weft 0.928 1.28 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  88. 88. 88 3.2.5 Results and conclusions:After applying Easy care & comfort finish system on Shirting (yarn dyed), PES/CO blend and Bottom width fabrics, it can be concluded that: 1. Tensile strength for all the treated fabrics reduced in both warp as well as weft direction with the bottomwidth fabric showing the most reduction while shirting fabric showing the least reduction. 2. The resistance of all fabrics towards creases increased significantly as shown by the increase in crease recovery angles. 3. After 5 washes, all the treated fabrics showed more wrinkles resulting in a lower DP rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. 4. The tear strength for all the fabrics increased due to the usage of ETSI recipe. UN BW BW Warp 1.216 2.016 Weft 1.216 1.92 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH UN P/C BLEND P/C BLEND Warp 1.344 1.536 Weft 0.704 0.832 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  89. 89. 89 3.3WASH & WEAR( Moist Cure): 3.3.1 Aim: To carry out with Arkofix ELF, clariant’s wash & wear finish system on shirting fabric and to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 3.3.2 Chemicals Used: 1.Arkofix ELF liq c: Ultra low formaldehyde containing cross linking agent for the easy care finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres & their blends with synthetic fibres. Highly recommended for ETSI(Enhanced Textile Strength Improvement) system from Clariant. Salient Features:  Suitable for imparting crease resistant, dimensionally stable finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres and their blends with synthetic fibres.  Free formaldehyde less than 75 ppm on the fabric.  Meets the requirements of consumer labels like Eco-Tex Std. 100 for textiles worn next to skin.  Very low impact on whiteness so recommended for whites.  Minimal strength loss as compared to conventional resins so ideal for delicate fabrics like poplin & knit articles.  On 100% cottoneffects are not stable to chlorine. Properties: Appearance : Colourless to pale yellow clear liquid. Chemical character : Modified N-methylol di-hydroxy ethylene urea. 2.CatalystMC1 liq. 3.Ceralube HD: Lubricant and sewability improver for all types of fibre Salient Features:  Distinctly improves the tear strength of the fabric  Produces a supple and smooth handle  Does not affect the degree of whiteness of brightened goods
  90. 90. 90  Improves the abrasion resistance and compensates for the loss of strength observed during resin finishing  Noticeably improves the effects on raised goods  Improves sewability of woven and knitted goods  Compatible with resins and in high acidic baths  Also imparts good yarn lubricating properties  Considerably facilitates penetration of the needles when needling felts and nonwovens. Properties: Appearance : Thin white to yellowish emulsion. Chemical character : Polyolefin dispersion. Ionic nature : Mildly cationic. 4.SolusoftMW liq c:. Highly effective non-yellowing, economical micro amino silicone for permanent finish effects on all types of fibres Salient Features:  Confers a pleasant, soft, slightly bulky handle on the goods.  Also suitable for finishing articles made of open-end (OE) yarns.  Improves sewability.  As an additive in synthetic resin finishes improves the technological properties of the goods (creasing behaviour, tensile strength).  Specially suitable for white goods since it does not impair the effect of optical brighteners.  Applied by the padding method.  Improves the stretch and recovery capacity of knit goods.  Produces finish effects that are fast to washing and dry cleaning. Properties: Appearance : Pale yellowish liquid. Chemical Character : Modified poly-siloxane. Ionic Character : Nonionic. 5. Acetic acid (60%). 6. HostapalMRN liq. 7. Hydroperm HV.
  91. 91. 91 3.3.3 RECIPE: 1. ResinFinish: CONCENTRATION(g/l) FABRIC Hostapal MRN liq c. Arkofix ELF liq c. Hydroperm HV liq. Ceralube HD liq. Catalyst MC 1 liq. Shirting 0.3 130 1 8 16 Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of approximately 70%. The padded fabrics were then dried at 100C to a residual humidity of 6-8% (Mahlo) with reduced ventilation. 2. Batching: the dried fabrics were batched at 25-30C for 24 hours. 3. Washing/neutralizing and drying: After batching the fabrics for 24 hours, they were washed with a solution containing 1g/l soda ash and 1g/l Imerol PCJ. 4. Top Finish: CONCENTATION(g/l) FABRIC Hostapal MRN liq c. Acetic acid 60% Solusoft MW liq conc Ceralube HD Shirting 0.3 0.3 15 20 The washed fabrics were padded with the above recipe , dried and then cured at 140C .
  92. 92. 92 3.3.4 Observations: UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 21.125 14.375 Weft 16.5 12.25 0 5 10 15 20 25 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 1.184 1.312 Weft 0.928 1.056 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  93. 93. 93 3.3.5 Results and conclusions:After applying Wash & Wear(Moist cure0 finish system on Shirting (yarn dyed), PES/CO blend and Bottom width fabrics, it can be concluded that: 1. The tensile strength of the shiting fabric reduced for bothwarp as well as weft directions. 2. The resistance of the shiting fabric towards creases increased as shown by the increase in crease recovery angles. 3. After 5 washes, the treated fabrics showed more wrinkles resulting in a lower DP rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. 4. However, unlike tensile strength, the tear strength of the treated fabric increased due to more slippage occuring in the fabric after treatment. UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 63.5 88.75 Weft 54.5 82.25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Anglein°C CREASE RECOVERY UN SHR TR SHR AW SHR RATING 4 4 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING
  94. 94. 94 3.4 WASH & WEAR( LT CURE): 3.4.1 Aim: To carry out with Arkofix ELF, clariant’s wash & wear finish system on shirting fabric and to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 3.4.2 Chemicals Used: 1. Arkofix ELF liq c. 2. CatalystNKC liq. 3.Ceralube HD. 4. Acetic acid (60%). 5. HostapalMRN liq conc. 6. SolusoftMW liq conc. 3.4.3 Recipe: 1. ResinFinish: CONCENTRATION(g/l) FABRIC Hostapal MRN liq conc. Arkofix ELF liq conc. Solusoft MW liq conc. Ceralube HD Catalyst NKC Acetic acid(60%) Shirting 0.3 190 30 40 48 0.5 Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of approximately 70%. The padded fabrics were then dried at 100C to a residual humidity of 6% (Mahlo or Pleva) with reduced ventilation. The fabrics were then cured at 140C for 2 minutes. 3.4.4 Observations:
  95. 95. 95 3.4.4.1Tensile Stength: 3.4.4.2TearStrength: UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 21.125 16.625 Weft 16.5 14.625 0 5 10 15 20 25 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 1.184 1.632 Weft 0.928 1.216 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  96. 96. 96 3.4.4.3CreaseRecoveryAngle: 3.4.4.4Durable Press Rating: 3.4.4.5Results and conclusions:After applying Wash & Wear(LT cure) finish system on Shirting (yarn dyed), PES/CO blend and Bottom width fabrics, it can be concluded that: 1. The tensile strength of the shiting fabric reduced for bothwarp as well as weft directions however the reduction was less as compared to that in wash and wear(moist cure) finish system. 2. The resistance of the shiting fabric towards creasing increased as shown by the increase in crease recovery angles but the UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 63.5 84.5 Weft 54.5 74.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 RatinginKgForce CREASE RECOVERY UN SHR TR SHR AW SHR RATING 4 4 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING
  97. 97. 97 increase was less than that observed in wash & wear(moist cure) finish system. 3. After 5 washes, the treated fabrics showed more wrinkles resulting in a lower DP rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. 4. However, unlike tensile strength, the tear strength of the treated fabric increased due to more slippage occuring in the fabric after treatment. Also, the increase in tear strength is more than that observed in wash& wear finish system. 3.5 PREMIUM ECO CARE (Taking care about ecologyand high performance) 3.5.1 Aim: To carry out clariant’s premium eco care finish system on shirting fabric and to assess the performance of the finish thus produced. 3.5.2 Chemicals: 1. HostapalMRN. 2. Arkofix ELF. 3. SolusoftMW liq conc. 4. Ceralube HD. 5. CatalystNKC. 6. Arkofix NZF: Crosslinking agent for the formaldehyde-free finishing of textiles of cellulosic fibres and their blends with synthetic fibres. Salient Features:  imparts very good dimensional stability with good wet and dry  crease recovery properties to textiles of cottonand viscoseand their blends.  meets the requirements of formaldehyde freedom as required for children's wear (under 2 years) in: Japan Law 112-1973 Finnish Law SFS 4996/1986 Eco-Tex Standard 100.  provides excellent formaldehyde-free wash and wear effects witha soft handle.  has no chlorine retention properties.
  98. 98. 98  It is possible that an unpleasant odour may develop on the finished goods. This can be avoided by acid rinsing with acetic acid and good ventilation.  suitable for white and dyed goods. If optical brighteners such as Leucophor® BLR on cottonand/or Hostalux* ETB/N on PES/Co are applied, the degree of whiteness obtained is comparable to that with a low formaldehde crosslinking agent.  The presence of urea in the finishing liquor impairs the degree of whiteness.  The influence on the lightfastness and shade of reactive dyeings may be 1-1 1/2 rating points poorerthan with low-formaldehyde crosslinking agent. Properties:  Appearance -clear, low viscosity liquid.  Chemical character- modified dihydroxy ethylene urea.  Reaction- slightly acid. 3.5.3 Recipe: 1. LT Cure Finish on cotton: FABRIC CONCENTRATION(g/l) Hostapal MRN liq conc. Arkofix ELF liq conc. Solusoft MW liq conc. Ceralube HD liq Catalyst NKC liq SHIRTING 0.3 150 30 45 38 Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of approximately 70% and a pH<4.5. The padded fabrics were then dried at 100C to a residual humidity of 6% (Mahlo or pleva) with reduced ventilation.The dried fabrics were then cured at 130 for 3 minutes. 2. SMF FINISH( Strength managementfinish) on coloredgoods:
  99. 99. 99 FABRIC CONCENTRATION(g/l) Hostapal MRN liq conc. Arkofix ELF liq conc. Arkofix NZF new liq. Solusoft MW liq conc. Ceralube HD liq Catalyst NKC liq SHIRTING 0.3 150 30 45 38 Padding was done at 20C with a pick up of approximately 70% and a pH<4.5. The padded fabrics were then dried at 100C to a residual humidity of 6% (Mahlo or pleva) with reduced ventilation.The dried fabrics were then cured at 135C for 3 minutes. 3.5.4 Observations: 1. LT CURE FINISH ON COTTON: UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 21.125 16.12 Weft 16.5 10.25 0 5 10 15 20 25 RatiginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH
  100. 100. 100 UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 63.5 116 Weft 54.5 103 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Angle CREASE RECOVERY UN SHR TR SHR AW SHR RATING 4 4 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 1.184 1.23 Weft 0.928 0.98 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH
  101. 101. 101 2. SMF FINISH(strength management finish) on colored goods: UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 21.125 18.12 Weft 16.5 9.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 RatinginKgForce TENSILE STRENGTH UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 63.5 104.5 Weft 54.5 100.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Angle CREASE RECOVERY
  102. 102. 102 3.6 Results and conclusions:: a) After applying Premium eco care(LT cure & SMF) finish system on Shirting (yarn dyed) fabric it can be concluded that: b) The tensile strength of the shiting fabric reduced for bothwarp as well as weft directions. The resistance of the shiting fabric towards creasing increased as shown by the increase in crease recovery angles. c) After 5 washes, the treated fabrics showed more wrinkles resulting in a lower DP rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. d) However, unlike tensile strength, the tear strength of the treated fabric increased due to more slippage occuring in the fabric after treatment. Also, the increase in tear strength is more in SMF finish than that observed in LT cure finish system. UN SHIRTING SHIRTING Warp 1.184 1.45 Weft 0.928 1.05 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 RatinginKgForce TEAR STRENGTH UN SHR TR SHR AW SHR RATING 4 4 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 Rating DURABLE PRESS RATING
  103. 103. 103 4 SOIL RELEASE FINISHES CLARIANT’S EFFECT LABELS UNDER SOIL RELEASE FINISHES: 4.1 SOIL & STAIN RELEASE. 4.2 EASY CLEAN & COMFORT. DEFINITION: Soil release finishes refer to the finishes applied which facilitate the removal of soiling matter during laundering of the item. PURPOSE:The purposeof soil-release finishing for textiles is to facilitate the removal of soil deposits on textile materials which are usually of complex composition, containing both oily and particulate matter. Particulate soil may be clay, sootor metal oxides. Street dirt, for instance, contains several components such as peat moss, cement, silica, raolin clay, mineral oil, carbon black and iron oxide. Oily soils are typically fatty materials secreted by the body. Most common within this category is shirt collar dirt consisting of skin cells, sebum and eccrine sweat. Various other substances that contribute to the soiling of textiles include stains from oily liquids and food residues. THEORY: Mechanismof Soiling: The mechanism of soiling is influenced by various factors associated with the transport and adsorption of soil onto a textile. Electrostatic attractive forces are primarily responsible for the deposition of air-borne particulate soil onto curtains or upholstery. In contrast, shoe dirt ground into a carpet surface, or soiling of a shirt collar or sofa by oily soil, arises from direct contact, exacerbated by rubbing action. Finally, cross transfer of soil or redeposition on the same fabric may take place during laundering of textile items. This last mechanism of soil transfer is referred to as ‘wet soiling’. Irrespective of the method of soil transfer onto a textile, the main cause of soiling is considered to be due to subsequentadhesion of the soil onto the fibre surface . This is effected mostly by van der Waals forces, which operate only over very short distances. The strength of this interactive force will depend on the nature of the soil and of the substrate, and

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