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# Software Estimation

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The presentation was prepared and delivered to fulfill the curriculum requirement of PROTON business school, Indore in 2nd trimester of IT &amp; System group.

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### Software Estimation

1. 1. Prepared & Presented by:<br />Shashank Jain<br />Software Estimation Techniques<br />
2. 2. Software Estimation<br />Size Estimation<br />Cost Estimation<br />Effort Estimation<br />2<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
3. 3. Size Estimation<br />Based upon known system requirements<br />Two methods for size estimation:<br />KSLOC<br />Functional Points<br />By using some constants functional points are converted into KSLOC.<br />3<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
4. 4. Techniques for Size estimation<br />Developers opinion<br />Experts estimation<br />-Guessing based on experience<br />4<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
5. 5. Techniques for Size estimation<br />Previous years’ experience<br />Using the Size Estimating Template: help to make estimates of how big a new software project will be or how long it will take to create the project (seize and time estimation)<br />5<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
6. 6. Techniques for Size estimation<br />Counting functional blocks<br />- relies on the fact that most software systems<br />decompose into roughly the same number of "levels".<br />After decomposing it into functions and sub-functions it is multiplied with previous size estimates.<br />In case of no previous estimates we multiply as:<br />Functional blocks = 41.6 KSLOC<br />Sub functional blocks = 4.16 KSLOC<br />6<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
7. 7. Techniques for Size estimation<br />Functional Point analysis:<br /> -Instead of counting the lines of code that make up a system, count the number of externals (inputs, outputs, inquiries and interfaces) that make up the system.<br />7<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
8. 8. Functional Point analysis<br />external inputs - data or control inputs (input files, tables, forms, screens, messages, etc.) to the system.<br />2. external outputs - data or control outputs from the system<br />3. external inquiries - I/O queries which require a response (prompts, interrupts, calls, etc.)<br />8<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
9. 9. Functional Point analysis<br />4. external interfaces - libraries or programs which are passed into and out of the system (I/O routines, sorting procedures, math libraries, run-time libraries, etc.)<br />5. internal data files - groupings of data stored internally in the system (entities, internal control files, directories)<br />9<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
10. 10. Application Size Estimation<br />UCP = UUCP * TCF * EF<br />TCF= 0.6+ (0.01* T-FACTOR)<br />EF= 1.4 + (-0.03* E-FACTOR)<br />UUCP = Weightage Value<br />10<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
11. 11. Software cost analysis<br />Cost is the function of<br />Software development cost<br />Cost of equipments and supplies<br />So Cost= Effort * Fixed labor cost<br />11<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
12. 12. Effort Estimation<br />Holistic model<br />For new development where relative rates are not available<br />Activity based model<br />When relative rates are available<br />12<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
13. 13. Popular holistic model<br />SDM (Software Development Model - Putnam - 1978)<br /> SLIM (Software Lifecycle Management - Putnam - 1979)<br /> COCOMO (Constructive Cost Model - Boehm - 1981)<br /> COPMO (Cooperative Programming Model - Conte,<br />13<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
14. 14. COCOMO<br />COCOMO comes in 3 levels with increased accuracy in each level:<br />Basic<br />Intermediate<br />Detail<br />14<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
15. 15. 15<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
16. 16. Basic COCOMO<br />Basic COCOMO is provided for three operational modes: organic, semi-detached, and embedded<br />Organic: small experienced team in small project<br />Embedded: large project with many constraints<br />Semi-detached: somewhere in between<br />16<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
17. 17. Basic COCOMO equations<br />17<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
18. 18. The activity-based model uses data from the metrics database to determine the labour rates<br />For this reason, you can only apply it once the metrics database is established and there is a baseline from which to work<br />Activity based model:<br />18<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />
19. 19. - THANK YOU<br />19<br />Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain <br />