Constitutional Development in India This constitutional development started with the Regulating Act, 1773 and it can be divided into two parts: Constitutional Development during East India Company (1773-1857) and Constitutional Development during British Crown Rule (1857-1947).Constitutional Development during East IndiaCompany (1773-1857):Regulating Act-1773 Governor of Bengal to be the Governor-General of British Territories of India. Governor General to be the supreme head of all the Presidencies. Recognized Legislative power in the Presidencies.Charter Act-1833 Addition of a fourth member to the Governor General in Council. Concentrated all the legislative powers in the Governor General in Council. Deprived the local government (Presidencies) of their power of independent legislation. Authorized Presidency Governments merely to submit drafts or projects of any laws regulations deemed expedient or necessary to the Governor General in Council.Charter Act-1853 Marked the next stage in the evolution of the Legislatures. Made the Law Member of the Governor in Council a full member. Enlarged the Governor-General’s Council for legislative purposes. Addition of the Chief Justice of Bengal, one other Supreme Court Judge and one paid representative of each Presidency or Governor’s Province. Paved the way for establishing the first Legislative body in India. Governor General in Council to be the sole administrative as well as the Legislative authority.Constitutional Development during British Crown Rule (1857-1947) Indian Councils Act-1861 Sowed the seed for the future Legislative as an independent entity separate from the Executive Council. Associated with the Governor General’s Executive Council and the Executive Councils of Madras and Bombay. Restored the legislative power taken away by the Charter of 1833. Gave power to Legislative Council of the Madras Presidency to make laws for the peace and good government. Addition of the Advocate General and four to eight ad-hoc members to the Council of the Governor of
Madras. Governor nominated half of ad-hoc members for a period two years. The Provincial Legislative Councils were mere advisory bodies.Indian Councils Act-1892 Number of additional members of the Central Legislature rose to a maximum of 16. Number of additional members of the Madras Legislative Council rose to a maximum of 20. Not more than nine additional members of the Madras Legislative Council had to be officials. Non-official Members were recommended by the district boards, universities, municipalities and other associations. Members were to hold office for two years. Enlarged the functions of the Council. Council could discuss the annual financial statement and ask questions subject to certain limitation.Act of 1909 Popularly known as Morley-Minto Reforms. Enlarged the Legislative Councils both of the Governor-General and of the provinces. Increased additional members of the Governor-General Council to a maximum of 60. Increased additional members of the Madras Council to a maximum of 50. Dispensed with official majorities in the Provincial Legislative Councils. Gave Provincial Legislative Councils power to move resolutions upon matters of general public interest. Made Provincial Legislative Councils able to move resolutions upon the Budget and to ask supplementary questions. Introduced for the first time the method of election, though not direct election.Government of India Act of 1919 Known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. Introduced the system of diarchy in the Provinces. Classified subjects as Central and Provincial. Provincial subjects divided into transferred subjects and reserved subjects. Transferred subjects to be administered by the Governor and his ministers responsible to the Legislative Council. Reserved subjects to be administered by the Governor and his Executive Council. Powers given to Governor to overrule both the Ministers and the Executive Council. Raised the proportion of elected members of the Provincial Legislative Council to over 70 per cent. Extended the Legislative power of the Council to Provincial matters only. The Central Legislature thereafter called the Indian Legislature.
Legislative Assembly of Indian Legislature given the powers to vote supply.Government of India Act-1935 Base of the present day governance of India. Provided an All-India Federation. Governor’s Provinces and Indian States were constituent units of the Federation but accession of the states to the Federation was optional. Two houses exist (the House of Assembly called the Federal Assembly and the Council of States) in the Federal Legislature with equal powers. Demands for supply votes and financial Bills were to originate in the Federal Assembly only. The House of Assembly was called the Federal Assembly and its tenure was five years and it consisted of 375 members. 125 of them were representatives of the Indian States nominated by the rulers. Indirect election of representatives of the Governor’s provinces. The Council of State a permanent body. One-third of the members of Council of State to retire every three years. 260 members in Council of State. 104 representatives of Indian States in Council of State. 6 members of Council of State nominated by the Governor-General. 128 members of Council of State elected directly. A bi-cameral Legislature in the Province of Madras. Governor plus two Chambers (the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly) in the bi-cameral Legislature. Special responsibilities for Governor in regard to certain matters. Certain matters entirely outside ministerial control and within the absolute discretion of the Governor. Legislative Council permanent body. One-third members of Legislative Council to retire every three years. Minimum 54 and maximum 56 members in Legislative Council. 10 members of Legislative Council nominated by the Governor. 215 members in Legislative Assembly. Division of powers between the Centre and the Provinces. Certain subjects were in Central or Federal list, some were in Provincial list and rests were in concurrent list.After Act of 1935 Only part of Government of India Act relating to the Provinces came into operation in 1937. The first Madras Legislative Assembly under this Act constituted in July 1937. The Congress party formed the Government. The Ministry resigned in October 1939. First Session of the Second Legislative Assembly constituted in 1946. British Government transferred power to India under Lord Mountbatten Plan. Indian Independence Bill passed by British Parliament on July 18th, 1947.
India got independence on August 15th, 1947.Essay on consti dev of indiaSo far as the constitutional development in the pre-independent India is concerned the year 1858should be considered as the watershed. It was after the first war of independence (Sepoy Mutiny)in 1857, the transfer of power from the East India Company to the British crown was affected bythe Government of India Act. 1858. It was subsequently followed by the Indian Councils Act, 1861and the Indian Councils Act, 1892.Though the British Govt. repeatedly asserted its desire of providing better and more participatorygovernment to the Indians, all the acts cited above, in effect, strengthened the hands of theBritish government. The much lauded Indian Councils Act, of 1909, which, in fact, initiated theprocess of decentralisation had a positive vice in the form of introduction of communalrepresentation for the first time.The seeds of separation between the Hindus and the Muslims were sown for the first time aimingto weaken the nationalist agitation. During the First World War, which started in 1914, theBritish government, in order to elicit Indian support, declared on 20th August 1917 its desire toassociate the Indians in a significant manner in the administration after the end of the war.However, the Government of India Act, 1919, which was subsequently enacted, was a bigdisappointment for the Indians. Apart from retaining the unitary and centralised features ofadministration, it sought to perpetuate the communal representation system introduced in 1909.Subsequent to the enactment of the 1919 Act, a seven-man Statutory Commission was appointedin 1927 under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to report on the working of the 1919 Act. TheIndian National Congress boycotted the Commission as all the members were English men. Thereport of the Commission was placed before a Round Table Conference which was boycotted bythe Congress.The findings of the conference was again examined by a Joint Select Committee of the BritishParliament and on the recommendations of the Select Committee, the Government of India Act,1935 was enacted. While this Act, promised to set up a federal government in India, an attemptwas simultaneously made to deepen the communal cleavages in the country further by providingseparate representation not only to the Muslims, but also to the Sikhs, the European, Indian,Christians and Anglo-Indians.The Congress won overwhelmingly in the 1937 elections held as per the provisions of the 1935Act. However, with the outbreak of Second World War in 1939, the Indian National Congressgovernments resigned demanding right of self determination by framing their own Constitutionthrough a Constituent Assembly. Such a demand was earlier made by the Congress for the firsttime in 1935 and repeatedly made several times between 1935 and 1939. It was never paid anyattention by the British Government till 1942, when it was faced with the danger of defeat at the,hands of Germany.The Cripps Mission which came to India in 1942 though accepted the demands of an electedConstituent Assembly to frame a constitution, it indirectly accepted the plans of the MuslimLeague for a separate state i.e. Pakistan.The rejection of Cripps proposal was followed by the dynamic Quit India Movement in August1942. It was only after the end of the war, the British Government despatched the CabinetMission to India in March 1946. As per its recommendations, elections were held to theConstituent Assembly.The Muslim League members, though elected, boycotted the proceedings of the house whichstarted on 1 Dec. 1946. The grouping clause of the cabinet recommendation indirectly acceptedthe Muslim Leagues demand. Ultimately on 20th February, 1947 the British Government
announced its decision to transfer power to India by June 1948, keeping the option open to handover power to a truncated India.The Mountbatten Plan envisaged by Lord Mountbatten clearly decided in favour of partitioningIndia. With surprising speed, the Indian Independence Act 1947 was passed by the BritishParliament on 4th July and received royal assent in 18th July 1947. Accordingly, India andPakistan were to emerge as two independent Dominions and the Constituent Assembly of eachDominion was to have unlimited powers to frame and adopt any constitution it liked. India andPakistan became two completely sovereign states on the appointed day, that is 15 August 1947.Education present scenarioHistoryMonastic orders of education under the supervision of a guru was a favored form ofeducation for the nobility in ancient India.ame=Blackwell90>Blackwell, 90 The knowledgein these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had toperform.ame=Prabhu24>Prabhu, 24 The priest class, the Brahmins, were impartedknowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, theKshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare.ame=Prabhu24/> The businessclass, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the working class of the Shudras was generallydeprived of educational advantages.ame=Prabhu24/> The book of laws, the Manusmriti, andthe treatise on statecraft the Arthashastra were among the influential works of this era whichreflect the outlook and understanding of the world at the time.ame=Prabhu24/>Secular Buddhist institutions cropped up along with monasteries.ame=Prabhu24/> Theseinstitutions imparted practical education, e.g. medicine.ame=Prabhu24/> A number of urbanlearning centers became increasingly visible from the period between 200 BCE to 400CE.ame=Prabhu25>Prabhu, 25 The important urban centers of learning were Taxila (inmodern day Pakistan) and Nalanda, among others.ame=Prabhu25/> These institutionssystematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topicssuch as Buddhist literature, logic, grammar, etc.ame=Prabhu25/>By the time of the visit of the Islamic scholar Alberuni (973–1048 CE), India already had asophisticated system of mathematics.With the arrival of the British Raj in India the modern European education came to India.British Raj was reluctant to introduce mass education system as it was not their interest. Thecolonial educational policy was deliberately one of reducing indigenous culture and religion,an approach which became known as Macaulayism.ame="Nivedita">Kum. With this thewhole education as well as government system went through changes. Educated people failedto get job because the language in which they got education had become redundant.B.Nivedita, "The Destruction of the Indian System of Education," Adapted from a speech givento the Vivekananda Study Circle, IIT-Madras, January 1998. The system soon becamesolidified in India as a number of primary, secondary, and tertiary centers for educationcropped up during the colonial era.ame=Blackwell92-93>Blackwell, 91–92 Between 1867and 1941 the British increased the percentage of the population in Primary and SecondaryEducation from around 0.6% of the population in 1867 to over 3.5% of the population in1941. However this was much lower than the equivalent figures for Europe where in 1911between 8 and 18% of the population were in Primary and Secondary education.Ferguson,Niall (2003). Empire: How Britain made the Modern World. Penguin. p. 191.
ISBN 0141007540. Additionally literacy was also improved. In 1901 the literacy rate in Indiawas only about 5% though by Independence it was nearly20%.ame="LiteracyScenarioInIndia">"Literacy Scenario in India (1951–1991)".http://www.education.nic.in/cd50years/y/3T/9U/3T9U0301.htm. Retrieved December 29,2009.Following independence in 1947, Maulana Azad, Indias first education minister envisagedstrong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniformeducational system.ame=SripatiandThiruvengadam150>Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 150However, given the cultural and linguistic diversity of India, it was only the higher educationdealing with science and technology that came under the jurisdiction of the centralgovernment.ame=SripatiandThiruvengadam150/> The government also held powers to makenational policies for educational development and could regulate selected aspects ofeducation throughout India.ame=SripatiandThiruvengadam150-151>Sripati andThiruvengadam, 150–151The central government of India formulated the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986and also reinforced the Programme of Action (POA) in 1986.ame=I09RA-208>India 2009: AReference Annual (53rd edition), 208 The government initiated several measures thelaunching of DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and SSA (Sarva ShikshaAbhiyan,ssa.nic.in Indias initiative for Education for All) and setting up of NavodayaVidyalaya and other selective schools in every district, advances in female education, inter-disciplinary research and establishment of open universities. Indias NPE also contains theNational System of Education, which ensures some uniformity while taking into accountregional education needs. The NPE also stresses on higher spending on education, envisaginga budget of more than 6% of the Gross Domestic Product.ame=I09RA-208/> While the needfor wider reform in the primary and secondary sectors is recognized as an issue, the emphasisis also on the development of science and technology education infrastructure. Present education in IndiaIndias education system is divided into different levels such as pre-primary level, primarylevel, elementary education, secondary education, undergraduate level and postgraduatelevel.Present education in India Overview
Children lining up for school in Kochi.The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body forcurriculum related matters for school education in India. The NCERT provides support andtechnical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects ofenforcement of education policies. In India, the various curriculum bodies governing schooleducation system are: The state government boards, in which the majority of Indian children are enrolled. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board. The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (ICSE) board. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board. International schools affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations. Islamic Madrasah schools, whose boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband. Autonomous schools like Woodstock School, Auroville, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula.In addition, NUEPA (National University of Educational Planning and Administration)and NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education) are responsible for the management ofthe education system and teacher accreditation. Primary educationThe Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years(referred to as Elementary Education in India.) The Indian government has also bannedchild labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due toeconomic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the ElementaryStage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in theCountry.School children, MumbaiHowever, due to shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers frommassive gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levelsof teacher training. Education has also been made free for children for 6 to 14 years of age
or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act2009.There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The DistrictEducation Revitalization Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim touniversalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primaryeducation system. 85% of the DERP was funded by the central government and theremaining 15 percent was funded by the states. The DERP, which had opened 160000 newschools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education toapproximately 3.5 million children, was also supported by UNICEF and other internationalprogrammes.This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% forthe last three years in some states. Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment ofgirls has also been made as a part of this scheme. The current scheme for universalizationof Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest educationinitiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low. Private educationAccording to current estimates, 80% of all schools are government schools making thegovernment the major provider of education. However, because of poor quality of publiceducation, 27% of Indian children are privately educated. According to some research,private schools often provide superior results at a fraction of the unit cost of governmentschools. However, others have suggested that private schools fail to provideeducation to the poorest families, a selective being only a fifth of the schools and have in thepast ignored Court orders for their regulation.In their favour, it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum andoffer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music anddrama. The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 forgovernment schools and more teachers in private schools are female. There issome disgreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to the latestDISE survey, the percentage of untrained teachers (paratechers) is 54.91% in private,compared to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schoolsreceive inservice training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition inthe school market is intense, yet most schools make profit.Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free.A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabads slums attend private schools.Private schools are often operating illegally. A 2001 study found that it takes 14 differentlicenses from four different authorities to open a private school in New Delhi and could takeyears if done legally. However, operation of unrecognized schools has been made illegalunder the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act which has alsosignificantly simplified the process of obtaining recognition. Measures to reduce private cost in education
In order to reduce drop-out rates, several initiatives have been taken up by the government inthe recent past. A significant step in this regard has been delivery of free uniforms, textbooks,stationery to students belonging from families who are Below Poverty Line. Besides this,provision of free transport facilities, especially for children from rural households, has led toconsiderable increase in attendance. The government also plans to provide special incentivesfor girl children so that parents shed their apathy towards educating their girl child. As all theabove measures have led to reduction of private cost on education for the parents, theretention rates in schools have seen a rise. HomeschoolingHomeschooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option. The IndianGovernments stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home, ifthey wish to and have the means. HRD Minister Kapil Sibal has stated that despite the RTEAct of 2009, if someone decides not to send his/her children to school, the government wouldnot interfere. Secondary educationOlder studentsThe National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment awareness,science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga intothe Indian secondary school system. Secondary education covers children 14–18 whichcovers 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001. However, enrolment figuresshow that only 31 million of these children were attending schools in 2001–02, which meansthat two-third of the population remained out of school.A significant feature of Indias secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of thedisadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are oftencalled to support in vocational training. Another feature of Indias secondary school system isits emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding avocation of his/her choosing. A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA tosecondary education in the form of the Madhyamik Shiksha AbhiyanA special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974with a focus on primary education. but which was converted into Inclusive Education atSecondary Stage Another notable special programme, the Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was
started for the employees of the central government of India, who are distributed throughoutthe country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provideuniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless ofthe location to which the employees family has been transferred.A multilingual web portal on Primary Education is available with rich multimedia content forchildren and forums to discuss on the Educational issues. India Development Gateway  is anationwide initiative that seeks to facilitate rural empowerment through provision ofresponsive information, products and services in local languages. Higher educationMain article: higher education in IndiaSee also: List of Indian institutions of higher educationOur university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts inthe country, higher education enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of ouruniversities and 90 per cent of our colleges are rated as below average on qualityparameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that ofvice-chancellors, have been politicised and have become subject to caste and communalconsiderations, there are complaints of favouritism and corruption. — Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.Indias higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the UnitedStates. The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission(India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate betweenthe centre and the state. Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomousinstitutions established by the University Grants Commission.As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities,5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 33 institutes which are ofnational importance. Other institutions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusivewomens colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions. The emphasis inthe tertiary level of education lies on science and technology. Indian educationalinstitutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes. Distance learningis also a feature of the Indian higher education system.Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have beenglobally acclaimed for their standard of undergraduate education in engineering . The IITs
enroll about 8000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of theprivate sector and the public sectors of India. However the IITs have not had significantimpact on fundamemtal scientific research and innovation. Several other institutes offundamental research such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science(IACS),Indian Institute of Science IISC), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR),Harishchandra Research Institute (HRI), are acclaimed for their standard of research in basicsciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce world class universities likeHarvard or Cambridge.Besides top rated universities which provide highly competitive world class education to theirpupils, India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the soleobjective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have beentrying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courseswithout any affiliation or recognition. Indian Government has failed to check on theseeducation shops, which are running by big businessmen & Politicians. Many private collegesand universities do not fulfill the required criterion by the Government and central bodies (UGC, AICTE, MCI, BCI etc.) and taking students for a ride. For example, Indian Institute ofPlanning and Management has been notified by the UGC that they have not right to awardany degrees, however, this has not deterred IIPM to issue full-page advertisement with"MBA" written in large font, which may mislead students who do not understand theregulatory fine-prints and implications of pursuing an unrecognized degree. Qualityassurance mechanism has failed to stop misrepresentations and malpractices in highereducation. At the same time regulatory bodies have been accused of corruption, specificallyin the case of deemed-universities.  In this context of lack of solid quality assurancemechanism, institutions need to step-up and set higher standards of self-regulation. Government of India is aware of the plight of higher education sector and has been trying tobring reforms, however, 15 bills are still awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament. One of the most talked about bill is Foreign Universities Bill, which is supposed tofacilitate entry of foreign universities to establish campuses in India. The bill is still underdiscussion and even if it gets passed, its feasibility and effectiveness is questionable as itmisses the context, diversity and segment of international foreign institutions interested inIndia.  One of the approaches to make internationalization of Indian higher educationeffective is to develop a coherent and comprehensive policy which aims at infusingexcellence, bringing institutional diversity and aids in capacity building.Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world’s top200 universities — Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, andJawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006. Six Indian Institutes of Technology andthe Birla Institute of Technology and Science – Pilani were listed among the top 20 scienceand technology schools in Asia by Asiaweek. The Indian School of Business situated inHyderabad was ranked number 12 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times ofLondon in 2010 while the All India Institute of Medical Sciences has been recognized as aglobal leader in medical research and treatment. Technical education
Main (Administrative) Building, IIT RoorkeeFrom the first Five Year Plan onwards Indias emphasis was to develop a pool ofscientifically inclined manpower. Indias National Policy on Education (NPE) provisionedfor an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which cameinto being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an actof the Indian parliament. At the Central(federal) level, the Indian Institutes of Technology,the National Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information Technology aredeemed of national importance.The Indian Institutes of Technology are among the nations premier education facilities.Since 2002, Several Regional Engineering Colleges(RECs) have been converted intoNational Institutes of Technology giving them Institutes of National Importance status.The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promotecommon research, e.g. the Nuclear Science Centre at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, NewDelhi. Besides there are some British established colleges such as Harcourt ButlerTechnological Institute situated in Kanpur and King George Medical University situated inLucknow which are important center of higher education.In addition to above institutes, efforts towards the enhancement of technical education aresupplemented by a number of recognized Professional Engineering Societies such as 1. Institution of Engineers (India) 2. Institution of Chemical Engineering (India) 3. Institution of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineers (India) 4. Indian Institute of Metals 5. Institution of Industrial Engineers (India) 6. Institute of Town Planners (India) 7. Indian Institute of Architectsthat conduct Engineering/Technical Examinations at different levels(Degree and diploma) forworking professionals desirous of improving their technical qualifications. Eleventh Plan- Targets for Technical EducationIn order to meet the growing demand for skilled man power in Indian economy, the intakes oftechnical education needs to grow at an estimated rate of 5% annually. In order to achievethis aim, the plan envisions the setting up of 8 new IITs, 7 new IIMs, 10 new NITs, 22 IIITs.This will widen the scope of Public Private Partnership. With adequate Central assistance, the
quality standards along with intake capacity of 200 state engineering institutions will beenhanced.The Eleventh Plan underlined the fact "The State Engineering Colleges suffer from severedeficiencies in academic infrastructure, equipment, faculty, and library facilities and otherphysical facilities......These institutions are supposed to be model for private sectorinstitutions to benchmark their standards. If standards and norms are insisted upon for privateinstitutions, the government cannot keep its institutions in unsatisfactory conditions." Vocational EducationJBG Tilak in his evaluation of the failure of vocational education remarks: "Vocationaleducation, did not really take off, particularly in secondary schools. It had no inter-connectivity, neither with higher education nor with the industrial or the agricultural sector.Employment opportunities have not been particularly better for vocational education schoolgraduates and as a result, economic rates of return to vocational education were generally lessthan those to secondary general education." Education Commission of India envisaged in1966 that 25 % of the students belonging to the secondary age bracket would accept avocational stream by 1986. But the National Sample Survey Organisation data for 2004-05,indicates that only 5% of the population of age-group 19-24 years in India has attained someform of skills through vocational education, which definitely highlights a completelydifferent scenario than what was envisioned. The Eleventh Plan aims at extending vocationaleducation to cover 20,000 schools with an intake capacity of 25 lakhs by 2011-12. Followinga more flexible approach, the Plan aims at designing the programmes in such a way thatagility between vocational, general and technical education becomes easy. Eleventh Plan hasvisualised that emphasis will be laid on demand determined vocational educationprogrammes in partnership with employees. Even after all these initiatives, it is possible totrain only 5% of the population through the formal system. The remaining workforce- bothskilled and semi-skilled may be trained through a variety of other delivery systems like openand distance learning systems, on the job training, part- time courses etc. Also, there is astrong possibility that strengthening computer literacy in the country will not only improveemployability but also ensure security of existing jobs. Open and Distance LearningAt school level, National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides opportunities forcontinuing education to those who missed completing school education. 14 lakh students areenrolled at the secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning. Athigher education level, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) co-ordinatesdistance learning. It has a cumulative enrolment of about 15 lakhs, serviced through 53regional centres and 1,400 study centres with 25,000 counsellors. The Distance EducationCouncil (DEC), an authority of IGNOU is co-coordinating 13 State Open Universities and119 institutions of correspondence courses in conventional universities. While distanceeducation institutions have expanded at a very rapid rate, but most of these institutions needan up gradation in their standards and performance. There is a large proliferation of coursescovered by distance mode without adequate infrastructure, both human and physical. There isa strong need to correct these imbalances.  Literacy
Main article: Literacy in IndiaAccording to the Census of 2011, "every person above the age of 7 years who can read andwrite in any language is said to be literate". According to this criterion, the 2011 survey holdsthe National Literacy Rate to be around 74%. Government statistics of 2001 also hold thatthe rate of increase in literacy is more in rural areas than in urban areas. Female literacywas at a national average of 65% whereas the male literacy was 82%. Within the Indianstates, Kerala has shown the highest literacy rates of 93% whereas Bihar averaged 63.8%literacy. The 2001 statistics also indicated that the total number of absolute non-literatesin the country was 304 million. AttainmentSchool children in Tamil NaduWorld Bank statistics found that fewer than 40 percent of adolescents in India attendsecondary schools. The Economist reports that half of 10-year-old rural children could notread at a basic level, over 60% were unable to do division, and half dropped out by the age14.An optimistic estimate is that only one in five job-seekers in India has ever had any sort ofvocational training.Higher educationAs per Report of the Higher education in India, Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness,Quality and Finance, the access to higher education measured in term of gross enrolmentratio increased from 0.7% in 1950/51 to 1.4% in 1960–61. By 2006/7 the GER increased toabout 11 percent. By 2012, (the end of 11th plan objective) is to increase it to 15%. Womens education
Girls in Kalleda Rural School, Andhra Pradesh.See also: Women in IndiaWomen have a much lower literacy rate than men. Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools,and many of them drop out. According to a 1998 report by U.S. Department of Commerce,the chief barrier to female education in India are inadequate school facilities (such as sanitaryfacilities), shortage of female teachers and gender bias in curriculum (majority of the femalecharacters being depicted as weak and helpless). Conservative cultural attitudes, especiallyamong Muslims, prevents some girls from attending school.The number of literate women among the female population of India was between 2–6%from the British Raj onwards to the formation of the Republic of India in 1947. Concertedefforts led to improvement from 15.3% in 1961 to 28.5% in 1981. By 2001 literacy forwomen had exceeded 50% of the overall female population, though these statistics were stillvery low compared to world standards and even male literacy within India. Recently theIndian government has launched Saakshar Bharat Mission for Female Literacy. Thismission aims to bring down female illiteracy by half of its present level.Sita Anantha Raman outlines the progress of womens education in India: Since 1947 the Indian government has tried to provide incentives for girls’ school attendance through programs for midday meals, free books, and uniforms. This welfare thrust raised primary enrollment between 1951 and 1981. In 1986 the National Policy on Education decided to restructure education in tune with the social framework of each state, and with larger national goals. It emphasized that education was necessary for democracy, and central to the improvement of women’s condition. The new policy aimed at social change through revised texts, curricula, increased funding for schools, expansion in the numbers of schools, and policy improvements. Emphasis was placed on expanding girls’ occupational centers and primary education; secondary and higher education; and rural and urban institutions. The report tried to connect problems like low school
attendance with poverty, and the dependence on girls for housework and sibling day care. The National Literacy Mission also worked through female tutors in villages. Although the minimum marriage age is now eighteen for girls, many continue to be married much earlier. Therefore, at the secondary level, female dropout rates are high.Sita Anantha Raman also maintains that while the educated Indian women workforcemaintains professionalism, the men outnumber them in most fields and, in some cases,receive higher income for the same positions.The education of women in India plays a significant role in improving livings standards in thecountry. A higher women literacy rate improves the quality of life both at home and outsideof home, by encouraging and promoting education of children, especially female children,and in reducing the infant mortality rate. Several studies have shown that a lower level ofwomen literacy rates results in higher levels of fertility and infant mortality, poorer nutrition,lower earning potential and the lack of an ability to make decisions within a household.Women’s lower educational levels is also shown to adversely affect the health and livingconditions of children. A survey that was conducted in India showed results which supportthe fact that infant mortality rate was inversely related to female literacy rate and educationallevel. The survey also suggests a correlation between education and economic growth.In India, it was found that there is a large disparity between female literacy rates in differentstates. For example, while Kerala actually has a female literacy rate of about 86 percent,Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates around 55-60 percent. These values arefurther correlated with health levels of the Indians, where it was found that Kerala was thestate with the lowest infant mortality rate while Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are the states withthe lowest life expectancies in India. Furthermore, the disparity of female literacy rates acrossrural and urban areas is also significant in India. Out of the 24 states in India, 6 of themhave female literacy rates of below 60 percent. The rural state Rajasthan has a female literacyrate of less than 12 percent. Rural educationA primary school in a village in Madhya Pradesh.Following independence, India viewed education as an effective tool for bringing socialchange through community development. The administrative control was effectivelyinitiated in the 1950s, when, in 1952, the government grouped villages under a CommunityDevelopment Block—an authority under national programme which could control education
in up to 100 villages. A Block Development Officer oversaw a geographical area of 150square miles (390 km2) which could contain a population of as many as 70000 people.Setty and Ross elaborate on the role of such programmes, themselves divided further intoindividual-based, community based, or the Individual-cum-community-based, in whichmicroscopic levels of development are overseen at village level by an appointed worker: The community development programmes comprise agriculture, animal husbandry, cooperation, rural industries, rural engineering (consisting of minor irrigation, roads, buildings), health and sanitation including family welfare, family planning, women welfare, child care and nutrition, education including adult education, social education and literacy, youth welfare and community organisation. In each of these areas of development there are several programmes, schemes and activities which are additive, expanding and tapering off covering the total community, some segments, or specific target populations such as small and marginal farmers, artisans, women and in general people below the poverty line.Despite some setbacks the rural education programmes continued throughout the 1950s, withsupport from private institutions. A sizable network of rural education had beenestablished by the time the Gandhigram Rural Institute was established and 5, 200Community Development Blocks were established in India. Nursery schools, elementaryschools, secondary school, and schools for adult education for women were set up.Parayar School ChildrenThe government continued to view rural education as an agenda that could be relatively freefrom bureaucratic backlog and general stagnation. However, in some cases lack offinancing balanced the gains made by rural education institutes of India. Some ideas failedto find acceptability among Indias poor and investments made by the government sometimesyielded little results. Today, government rural schools remain poorly funded andunderstaffed. Several foundations, such as the Rural Development Foundation (Hyderabad),actively build high-quality rural schools, but the number of students served is small. Issues Funding and infrastructure
Indian School-GirlsOne study found out that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of public sector medicalworkers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absencerates ranged from 15% in Maharashtra to 30% in Bihar. Only 1 in nearly 3000 public schoolhead teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence. A study on teachers byKremer etc. found that only about half were teaching, during unannounced visits to anationally representative sample of government primary schools in India..A study of 188 government-run primary schools found that 59% of the schools had nodrinking water and 89% had no toilets. 2003–04 data by National Institute of EducationalPlanning and Administration revealed that only 3.5% of primary schools in Bihar andChhattisgarh had toilets for girls. In Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, rates were 12–16%. Curriculum issuesModern education in India is often criticized for being based on rote learning rather thanproblem solving. BusinessWeek criticizes the Indian curriculum, saying it revolves aroundrote learning and ExpressIndia suggests that students are focused on cramming. Conspicuous Failure in EducationSome of the significant issues which need immediate attention are as follows: 1. One of the primary concerns in the field of education which needs to be addressed, is Universalization of Elementary education—an objective which was established by the constitution, to be accomplished by 1960. But even after six decades of development planning, a considerable number of children are unable to achieve elementary education. 2. In 2004-2005 a drop-out of 50.8% was observed up to the elementary education stage (I to VIII), which is quite high. 3. Even though Secondary level of education is not the ultimate stage in the education field, the Dropout rate for classes (I-X) was as high as 62-64% for girls and 60% for boys. 4. The combined Enrollment in Secondary education and Higher Secondary level was only 39.9% in 2004-05—44.3% for boys and 35.1% for girls which is very truncated. 5. While on one hand the Mid-day Meal Scheme, which covers almost 18 crore children in Primary and Upper Primary schools, has improved turnout and Retention rate, serious flaws in the implementation of the scheme have been accentuated by NGOs
periodically. The continual failure to provide a standard meal is something which needs to be rectified immediately. 6. In order to narrow down the glaring inter-state Disparities in enrollment, drop-out rates and access to Secondary and Higher Secondary level, remedial action by the government is required. 7. There has been a noticeable shift in the management pattern of the schools recently. The percentage of unaided Public sector school has doubled from 15% in 1993-94 to 30% in 2004-05. The share of government aided schools has dropped down from 85% in 1993-94 to 70% in 2004-05. This shift clearly points out that since parents are keen on spending for the quality education of their children, more investment in government aided schools is required. 8. The distribution of Technical education in the country is highly askew. Four states-- Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra alone account for approximately 55% of engineering colleges and 58% of technical enrollment in the country. 9. Instead of catering to the deprived section of the society, universities are using Distance education as a tool to increase their Surplus and consequently provide for their development. 10. An additional failure of Indias priorities towards education, which is a powerful method to stimulate an all-encompassing growth, has been its failure to achieve the set target of 6% GDP contribution towards Public expenditure in education. India has still only been able to reach a level of 3.49% of GDP in 2004-05. 11. Strengthening of school infrastructure (both physical and human) substantially, should be one of our prime goals to achieve the objective of universalization of Secondary education in the near future. 12. Even in government aided schools, a judicious amount of fees should be charged, so that the management is able to procure more Funds, to improve the standard of education. Initiatives
Non-formal education center in Udaipur, Rajasthan. Educational program by Seva Mandir, anNGO working for the development of the rural and tribal population in Udaipur andRajsamand districts of southern RajasthanThe madrasah of Jamia Masjid mosque in Srirangapatna.Elementary School in Chittoor. This school is part of the Paathshaala project. The schoolcurrently educates 70 students.Following Indias independence a number of rules were formulated for the backwardScheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes of India, and in 1960 a list identifying 405Scheduled Castes and 225 Scheduled Tribes was published by the central government. Anamendment was made to the list in 1975, which identified 841 Scheduled Castes and 510Scheduled Tribes. The total percentage of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribescombined was found to be 22.5 percent with the Scheduled Castes accounting for 17 percentand the Scheduled Tribes accounting for the remaining 7.5 percent. Following the reportmany Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes increasingly referred to themselves as Dalit, aMarathi language terminology used by B. R. Ambedkar which literally means "oppressed".The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are provided for in many of Indias educationalprogrammes. Special reservations are also provided for the Scheduled Castes andScheduled Tribes in India, e.g. a reservation of 15% in Kendriya Vidyalaya for ScheduledCastes and another reservation of 7.5% in Kendriya Vidyalaya for Scheduled Tribes.Similar reservations are held by the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in many schemesand educational facilities in India. The remote and far-flung regions of North East Indiaare provided for under the Non Lapsible Central pool of Resources (NLCPR) since 1998–1999. The NLCPR aims to provide funds for infrastructure development in these remoteareas.Women from remote, underdeveloped areas or from weaker social groups in Andra Pradesh,Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, fallunder the Mahila Samakhya Scheme, initiated in 1989. Apart from provisions for
education this programme also aims to raise awareness by holding meetings and seminars atrural levels. The government allowed 340 million (US$6.9 million) during 2007–08 tocarry out this scheme over 83 districts including more than 21, 000 villages.Currently there are 68 Bal Bhavans and 10 Bal Kendra affiliated to the National BalBhavan. The scheme involves educational and social activities and recognising childrenwith a marked talent for a particular educational stream. A number of programmes andactivities are held under this scheme, which also involves cultural exchanges andparticipation in several international forums.Indias minorities, especially the ones considered educationally backward by thegovernment, are provided for in the 1992 amendment of the Indian National Policy onEducation (NPE). The government initiated the Scheme of Area Intensive Programme forEducationally Backward Minorities and Scheme of Financial Assistance or Modernisation ofMadarsa Education as part of its revised Programme of Action (1992). Both these schemeswere started nationwide by 1994. In 2004 the Indian parliament allowed an act whichenabled minority education establishments to seek university affiliations if they passed therequired norms.In 1964, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Trichy Chapters Executive director R.S.Krishnanstarted R.S.Krishnan Higher Secondary School, Trichy based on the Central Board ofSecondary Education syllabus mainly for BHEL employees children. Central government involvement BudgetAs a part of the tenth Five year Plan (2002–2007), the central government of India outlinedan expenditure of 65.6% of its total education budget of 438.25 billion (US$8.89 billion)i.e. 287.5 billion (US$5.83 billion) on elementary education; 9.9% i.e. 43.25 billion(US$877.11 million) on secondary education; 2.9% i.e. 12.5 billion (US$253.5 million) onadult education; 9.5% i.e. 41.765 billion (US$846.99 million) on higher education; 10.7%i.e. 47 billion (US$953.16 million) on technical education; and the remaining 1.4% i.e.6.235 billion (US$126.45 million) on miscellaneous education schemes.According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO), India has the lowest public expenditure on higher education per student in theworld.See also: Education in India Five Year Plan Expenditure. Public Expenditure on Education in IndiaDuring the Financial Year 2011-12, the Central Government of India has allocated Rs 38,957crores for the Department of School Education and Literacy which is the main departmentdealing with primary education in India. Within this allocation, major share of Rs 21,000crores, is for the flagship program Sarva Siksha Abhiyan. However, budgetary allocation ofRs 21,000 crores is considered very low in view of the officially appointed Anil BordiaCommittee recommendation of Rs 35,659 for the year 2011-12. This higher allocation was
required to implement the recent legislation Right of Children to Free and CompulsoryEducation Act, 2009. In recent times, several major announcements were made fordeveloping the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones beingthe National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance(UPA) government. The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure oneducation to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure oneducation, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of aneducation cess over all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied ofeducation due to economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make right to education afundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize educationthrough its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.However, even after five years of implementation of NCMP, not much progress has beenseen on this front. Although the country targeted towards devoting 6% share of the GDPtowards the educational sector, the performance has definitely fallen short of expectations.Expenditure on education has steadily risen from 0.64% of GDP in 1951-52 to 2.31% in1970-71 and thereafter reached the peak of 4.26% in 2000-01. However, it declined to 3.49%in 2004-05. There is a definite need to step up again. As a proportion of total governmentexpenditure, it has declined from around 11.1 per cent in 2000–2001 to around 9.98 per centduring UPA rule, even though ideally it should be around 20% of the total budget. A policybrief issued by [Network for Social Accountability (NSA)] titled ―[NSA Response toEducation Sector Interventions in Union Budget: UPA Rule and the Education Sector]‖provides significant revelation to this fact. Due to a declining priority of education in thepublic policy paradigm in India, there has been an exponential growth in the privateexpenditure on education also. [As per the available information, the private out of pocketexpenditure by the working class population for the education of their children in India hasincreased by around 1150 percent or around 12.5 times over the last decade]. Legislative frameworkArticle 45, of the Constitution of India originally stated:“ The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. ”This article was a directive principle of state policy within India, effectively meaning that itwas within a set of rules that were meant to be followed in spirit and the government couldnot be held to court if the actual letter was not followed. However, the enforcement of thisdirective principle became a matter of debate since this principle held obvious emotive andpractical value, and was legally the only directive principle within the Indian constitution tohave a time limit.Following initiatives by the Supreme Court of India during the 1990s the Ninety-thirdamendment bill suggested three separate amendments to the Indian constitution: The constitution of India was amended to include a new article, 21A, which read:
“ ” The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in a such manner as the State may, by law, determine. Article 45 was proposed to be substituted by the article which read:“ Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years: The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of sixteen years. ” Another article, 51A, was to additionally have the clause:“ ” ...a parent or guardian [shall] provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, [a] ward between the age of six to fourteen years.The bill was passed unanimously in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian parliament,on November 28, 2001. It was later passed by the upper house—the Rajya Sabha—onMay 14, 2002. After being signed by the President of India the Indian constitution wasamended formally for the eighty sixth time and the bill came into effect. Since then thosebetween the age of 6–14 have a fundamental right to education.Article 46 of the Constitution of India holds that:“ The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation. ”Other provisions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes can be found in Articles330, 332, 335, 338–342. Both the 5th and the 6th Schedules of the Constitution also makespecial provisions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.