Shashank hardware workshop final

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Shashank hardware workshop final

  1. 1. PC Explorer<br />Course Content <br />Central Processing Unit<br />Input Devices<br />Output Devices<br />
  2. 2. History of the Computer<br />
  3. 3. How the Computer Evolved<br />1642 Blaise Pascal – mechanical adding machine<br />Early 1800’s Jacquard – uses punch cards to control the pattern of the weaving loom<br />1832 Charles Babbage - invents the Difference Engine<br />1890 Herman Hollerith – invents a machine using punch card to tabulate info for the Census<br />Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine<br />
  4. 4. ENIAC Computer<br />Miles of wiring<br />18,000 vacuum tubes<br />Thousands of resistors and switches<br />No monitor<br />3,000 blinking lights<br />Cost $486,000<br />100,000 additions per second<br />Weighed 30 tons<br />Filled a 30x50 foot room<br />Could be replaced today by one fingernail-size silicon chip<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Finish vacuum tube computer<br />
  7. 7.                                                  <br />Evolution (continued)<br />1910 Charles Watson Sr. – International Business Machines<br />1946 – Mauchly and Eckert created the ENIAC computer, first electronic computer is unveiled at U. of Pennsylvania<br />1970’s – Integrated circuits and silicon chips lead to smaller microprocessors<br />
  8. 8. CPU<br /><ul><li> Cabinet
  9. 9. Motherboard
  10. 10. Processor
  11. 11. RAM
  12. 12. Hard disk
  13. 13. Floppy disk
  14. 14. Optical Drive
  15. 15. Expansion Boards
  16. 16. SMPS (Switched-mode power supply)</li></li></ul><li> Cabinet <br /><ul><li> The cabinet is the outer casing of a PC
  17. 17. It is available either as Desktop or Tower Type
  18. 18. Whenever you open a PC, be sure to use a properly grounded anti-static wrist strap
  19. 19. If you do not have an anti-static wrist strap handy, you can discharge yourself on the PC’s metal chassis
  20. 20. Average sized cabinet typically offer for room for motherboard with 2 to 4 expansion slots, and provide space for 3 or 4 drives</li></li></ul><li>Cabinet<br />
  21. 21. Motherboard<br /><ul><li> The Motherboard (also known as the main board, system board, planar board)holds the majority of a computer’s processing power
  22. 22. It is a thin, flat piece of circuit board which contains the system CPU, Clock/Timer Circuit, Memory slots, Memory, Bios ROM, Chipsets, Ports, and Expansion slots
  23. 23. It has chips and other components soldered and connected by tiny copper wires or tracks which look like a network of streets across a city. These tracks are the connections that enable the chips, resistors and capacitors to talk to one another </li></li></ul><li>Motherboard Manufactures <br /><ul><li> Intel
  24. 24. Asus
  25. 25. VIA
  26. 26. Mercury
  27. 27. Giga Byte
  28. 28. MSI</li></li></ul><li>Motherboards<br />
  29. 29. Motherboard Components<br /><ul><li> CPU Socket
  30. 30. Chipsets
  31. 31. Bios
  32. 32. CMOS Cell
  33. 33. Chips
  34. 34. RAM Slot
  35. 35. Ports
  36. 36. Connectors
  37. 37. Expansion Slots</li></li></ul><li>HDD, FDD Connectors<br />BIOS<br />PCI SLOT<br />AGP Slot<br />Power<br />Connector<br />Chipsets<br />RAM slot<br />Audio Socketss<br /> LAN Port<br />Socket for cpu<br />COM, LPT Ports<br />PS2 K/B & Mouse<br />VGA Port<br />USB<br />
  38. 38. CPU Sockets<br /><ul><li> Each generation of CPU uses a different number of pins(and pin assignment), so a different physical socket must be used on the motherboard to accommodate each new generation of processor
  39. 39. Early CPUs were not readily interchangeable, and upgrading a CPU meant upgrading the motherboard
  40. 40. As CPUs advanced, socket types proliferated to support an ever-growing selection of compatible processors</li></li></ul><li>SLOT TYPE<br />SOCKET TYPE<br />
  41. 41. Sockets<br />PGA<br />PGA<br />mPGA<br />LGA<br />
  42. 42. CPU Sockets<br /><ul><li>Socket 1 - 80486
  43. 43. Socket 2 - 80486
  44. 44. Socket 3 - 80486 (3.3V and 5V) and Compatibles
  45. 45. Socket 4 - Intel Pentium 60/66 MHz
  46. 46. Socket 5 - Intel Pentium 75-133 MHz, AMD K5
  47. 47. Socket 6 - 80486</li></li></ul><li>CPU Sockets<br /><ul><li> Socket 7 – Intel Pentium, Pentium MMX; AMD K6
  48. 48. Super Socket 7 – AMD K6-2, AMD K6-III
  49. 49. Socket 8 – Intel Pentium Pro
  50. 50. Socket 370 – Intel Pentium III, Celeron; Cyrix III; VIA C3
  51. 51. Socket 423 – Intel Pentium 4
  52. 52. Socket 463 – (also known as Socket NexGen) – NexGen Nx586
  53. 53. Socket 478 – Intel Pentium 4, Celeron, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition</li></li></ul><li>CPU Sockets<br /><ul><li>Socket 479 – Intel Pentium M, Celeron M, Core Due & Core Solo
  54. 54. Socket 486 - 80486
  55. 55. Socket 563 – AMD low Power Mobile Athlon XP-M
  56. 56. Socket 603 – Intel Xeon
  57. 57. Socket 604 – Intel Xeon
  58. 58. Socket 754 – AMD Athlon 64, Sempron, Turion 64
  59. 59. Socket 771 – (also known as LGA 771) Intel Xeon</li></li></ul><li>CPU Sockets<br /><ul><li> Socket 775 – (also known as Socket T) Intel Pentium 4, D, Celeron, Core 2 Due, Core 2 Extreme
  60. 60. Socket 939 – AMD Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2 Opteron 100-series
  61. 61. Socket 940 – AMD multi Processor system</li></li></ul><li>Chipset<br /><ul><li> A chipset is a set of highly optimized, tightly inter- related ICs which, taken together, handle virtually all of them
  62. 62. As new CPUs and hardware support functions for a motherboard. Features are crammed into a PC, new chipsets must be developed to implement those function
  63. 63. For example, the Intel 810e chipset support the Pentium III CPU and SDRAM, the Universal Serial Bus, The Intel 945GV chipset supports Pentium 4 and DDR2,3 RAM, USB2,PCI Express and many more features </li></li></ul><li>Chipset<br />Set of chips on the motherboard <br />Controls memory cache, external buses, peripherals<br />Intel dominates the market for chipsets<br />Example: i800 series of chipsets<br />Intel 800 series Accelerated Hub Architecture <br />All I/O buses connect to a hub interface<br />The hub connects to the system bus<br />North Bridge: contains graphics and memory controller<br />South Bridge: contains I/O controller hub<br />Each bridge is controlled by a separate chipset<br />
  64. 64. Chipset Manufacture <br /><ul><li>Intel
  65. 65. AMD/ATI
  66. 66. VIA
  67. 67. SIS
  68. 68. NIVDIA</li></li></ul><li>Chipsets<br />
  69. 69. Usage of Chipsets<br />
  70. 70. AMD Chipset<br />
  71. 71. Memory Chip<br />ROM– Read Only Memory. ROM can typically be written once, but read many times. It is used to store BIOS (Basic Input/Output System-helps to load and locate an operating system), external to microprocessor, and computer instruction sets, internal to microprocessor<br />PROM(Programmable Read Only Memory)<br />EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)<br />EEPROM (Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)<br />Flash ROM<br />
  72. 72. <ul><li>EPROMs(Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) is a variation of PROM, and is rewritable. It can be erased by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light. It can then be programmed with an EPROM programmer
  73. 73. Flashmemoryis a type of PROM that can be easily altered by the user. They are also called EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Read Only Memory) because they can be electrically erased then written on to (flashed) without having to take them out of the computer, and without using ultraviolet light.
  74. 74. Since RAM can be read faster than most ROMs, the frequently used content of the ROM is sometimes copied to RAM (shadowed)</li></li></ul><li>BIOS<br />
  75. 75. CMOS Battery<br />All AT, ATX computers require a small battery on the system board that provides power to the complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor chip, even while the computer is turned off. This chip contains information about the system configuration (e.g., hard disk type, floppy drive types, date and time, and the order in which the computer will look for bootable disks). The CMOS battery allows the CMOS to preserve these settings <br />
  76. 76. CMOS Battery<br />
  77. 77. Chips<br />Sound Chip<br />Input Output Chip<br />Network Chip<br />Clock Chip<br />
  78. 78. Chips<br />Sound Chip<br />Input Output Chip<br />
  79. 79.
  80. 80. RAM Slots<br />SIMM (Single in line Memory Module)<br />DIMM (Dual in Line Memory Module)<br />RIMM (Rambus in Line Memory Module)<br />SODIMM(<br />
  81. 81. RAM Slots<br />
  82. 82. Ports<br />VGA (Video Graphic Adaptor)<br />LPT (Local Printer Terminal)<br />COM (Serial Port)<br />USB (Universal Serial Port)<br />LAN (RJ 45)<br />MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)<br />PS2 (Personal System 2)<br />
  83. 83. SERIAL PORT<br />Considered to be one of the most basic external connections to a computer, the serial port has been an integral part of most computers for more than 20 years. Although many of the newer systems have done away with the serial port completely in favor of USB connections, most modems still use the serial port, as do some printers, PDAs and digital cameras. Few computers have more than two serial ports.<br />
  84. 84. Parallel Ports<br />If you have a printer connected to your computer, there is a good chance that it uses the parallel port. While USB is becoming increasingly popular, the parallel port is still a commonly used interface for printers. Parallel ports can be used to connect a host of popular computer peripherals: <br />Printers<br />Scanners<br />CD burners<br /> External hard drives<br /> Iomega Zip removable drives<br />Network adapters <br /> Tape backup drives<br />
  85. 85. Universal Serial Bus (USB) Ports<br />The goal of USB is to end all of these headaches. The Universal Serial Bus gives you a single, standardized, easy-to-use way to connect up to 127 devices to a computer. <br />Just about every peripheral made now comes in a USB version. A sample list of USB devices that you can buy today includes: <br />PrintersScannersMiceJoysticks Flight yokes <br />Digital camerasWebcams Scientific data acquisition devices <br />ModemsSpeakersTelephones Video phones <br />Storage devices such as Zip drives Network connections<br />Connecting a USB device to a computer is simple -- you find the USB connector on the back of your machine and plug the USB connector into it.<br />
  86. 86. A typical "B" connection<br />The rectangular socket is a typical USB socket on the back of a PC.<br />A typical USB connector, called an "A" connection<br />
  87. 87. Ports<br />VGA<br />MIDI<br />USB<br />COM<br />PS/2<br />
  88. 88. Interface<br />Power <br />Hard disk<br />Floppy disk<br />
  89. 89. Interface<br />
  90. 90. Expansion Slots<br />ISA<br />PCI<br />AGP<br />PCI Express<br />
  91. 91. Expansion Slots<br />
  92. 92. CPU Manufactures<br /><ul><li> Intel
  93. 93. AMD
  94. 94. Cyrix
  95. 95. VIA</li></li></ul><li>CPU<br /><ul><li> The Central Processing Unit is also called a CPU, microprocessor, or simply a processor
  96. 96. A typical CPU only performs three general function: mathematical calculation, logical comparisons, and data manipulation.
  97. 97. To deal with high-performance floating-point math in hardware
  98. 98. The CPU is closely related to the overall speed and performance of personal computer</li></li></ul><li>History(of Intel microprocessors)<br /><ul><li>The 4-bit processors</li></ul>4004, 4040<br /><ul><li>The 8-bit processors</li></ul> 8008, 8080, 8085<br /><ul><li>The 16-bit processors: Origin of x86</li></ul> 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188, 80286<br /><ul><li>The 32-bit processors: Non x86</li></ul> iAPX 432, 80960, 80860, XScale<br /><ul><li>The 32-bit processors: The 80386 Range</li></ul> 80386DX, 80386SX, 80376, 80386SL, 80386EX<br /><ul><li>The 32-bit processors: The 80486 Range</li></ul>80486DX, 80486SX, 80486DX2, 80486SL, 80486DX4<br />
  99. 99. History(of Intel microprocessors)<br /><ul><li> The 32-bit processors: The Pentium (“I”)</li></ul>Pentium, Pentium MMX<br /><ul><li> The 32-bit processors: P6/Pentium M</li></ul>Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III, PII and III Xeon Celeron(PIII), Pentium M, Celeron M, Intel Core, Dual Core Xeon LV<br /><ul><li> The 32-bit processors: NetBurst microarchitecture</li></ul>Pentium 4, Xeon, Pentium 4 EE<br /><ul><li> The 64-bit processors: IA-64</li></ul> Itanium, Itanium 2<br /><ul><li> The 64-bit processors: EM64T-NetBurst</li></ul>Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition, Xeon<br /><ul><li> The 64-bit processors: EM64T- Core microarchitecture</li></ul>Xeon, Intel Core 2<br />
  100. 100. Silicon Chip<br />
  101. 101. Intel Processors<br />
  102. 102. Laser Etching<br />
  103. 103. AMD Processors <br />
  104. 104. Structure of the CPU<br />storage<br />input/output<br />memory<br />control unit<br />ALU<br />registers<br />registers<br />cache<br />memory<br />flags<br />
  105. 105. Microprocessor System Buses<br />RAM<br />ROM<br />Control Bus<br />Microprocessor<br />(CPU)<br />Data Bus<br />Input/Output<br />(I/O)<br />Address Bus<br />
  106. 106. System Buses<br /><ul><li>ABUS is an internal communications path consisting of a number of lines connecting the system components
  107. 107. Controlbus–The control bus synchronizes system events like memory access, system interrupts, I/O, etc.
  108. 108. Addressbus– Source and destination addresses are sent over the address bus to identify a particular location in memory or input/output port.
  109. 109. Databus– two way path for transferring data and instructions in and out of the microprocessor </li></li></ul><li>Intel Core 2 models<br /><ul><li>Allendale, Conroe- 65 nm process technology</li></ul>Desktop CPU<br />Introduced on July 27, 2006<br />Number of Transistors 291 Million on 4 MB Models<br />Number of Transistors 167 Million on 2 MB Models<br />Variants <br />Core 2 Duo E6700 - 2.67 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo E6600 - 2.40 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo E6400 - 2.13 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo E6300 - 1.86 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo E4200 - 1.60 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB) <br />
  110. 110. Intel Core 2 models<br /><ul><li>Woodcrest- 65 nm process technology</li></ul>Server optimized CPU<br />Introduced on July 26, 2006<br />Same features as Conroe<br />Variants <br />Xeon 5160 - 3.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 80 W) <br />Xeon 5150 - 2.66 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 65 W) <br />Xeon 5140 - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 65 W) <br />Xeon 5130 - 2.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 65 W) <br />Xeon 5120 - 1.86 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB, 65 W) <br />Xeon 5110 - 1.60 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB, 65 W) <br />Xeon 5148LV - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2,1333 MHz FSB,40 W)<br />
  111. 111. Intel Core 2 models<br /><ul><li>Merom- 65 nm process technology</li></ul>Mobile CPU<br />Introduced on July 27, 2006<br />Same features as Conroe<br />Variants <br />Core 2 Duo T7600 - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo T7400 - 2.16 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo T7200 - 2.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo T5600 - 1.83 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo T5500 - 1.66 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) <br />Core 2 Duo T5200 - 1.60 GHz (2 MB L2, 533 MHz FSB) <br />
  112. 112. Intel Core 2 Duo<br />
  113. 113. 45nm Qardcore<br />
  114. 114. Memory<br />Primary Memory<br />Secondary Memory<br />
  115. 115. Primary Memory<br /><ul><li> A collection of cells
  116. 116. Each cell has an address and a value
  117. 117. Random Access Memory (RAM)</li></ul> Cells can be accessed randomly<br /><ul><li> Ram is volatile Memory
  118. 118. All data stored in binary format
  119. 119. Bit, byte and word are the unit of data </li></li></ul><li>Main Memory<br /><ul><li>RAM – Random Access Memory. Temporary read/write memory. Applications are typically loaded into RAM during computer use. Types of RAM include:
  120. 120. SRAM (static)
  121. 121. DRAM (dynamic )
  122. 122. EDO RAM (extended data out)
  123. 123. SDRAM (synchronous dynamic)
  124. 124. RDRAM (Ram Bus Dynamic)
  125. 125. DDR 1, 2, 3 (Double Data Rate synchronous dynamic)</li></li></ul><li>Vacuum Tube Memory Module <br />
  126. 126. Types of RAM<br />
  127. 127. Secondary Storage<br /><ul><li> Magnetic disk
  128. 128. Hard disk (80 GB to 500 GB)
  129. 129. Floppy disks (1.44 MB, 2.88 MB)
  130. 130. Zip disks (100 MB, 200 MB)
  131. 131. Optical media
  132. 132. CD (700 MB)
  133. 133. DVD (4.7 GB, 8.5 GB)
  134. 134. BD ROM (25 GB, 50 GB)
  135. 135. Magnetic tape (used primarily for long term archive)</li></li></ul><li>Hard Disk Drive Basics <br />
  136. 136. The ATA Interface Standards <br /><ul><li>Parallel ATA
  137. 137. Allows two connectors for two 40-pin data cables
  138. 138. Ribbon cables can accommodate one or two drives
  139. 139. Four parallel ATA devices can attach with two cables
  140. 140. Serial ATA (SATA) cabling
  141. 141. Use a serial data path rather than a parallel data path
  142. 142. Types of SATA cabling: internal and external </li></li></ul><li>ATA Standard<br />
  143. 143. IDE Interface<br />
  144. 144. SATA Interface<br />
  145. 145. HDD and Cables<br />
  146. 146. Floppy Drive<br />
  147. 147. FDD Interface<br />
  148. 148.
  149. 149. Optical Drive and Disk<br />
  150. 150. CD DRIVE<br />
  151. 151. Optical Drive<br /><ul><li>VHS: analogDVD: digitalBD: high-definition
  152. 152. Enables recording, rewriting, and playback of high-definition video
  153. 153. Capable of storing information that the DVD and CD are not capable of holding</li></li></ul><li>Disc Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Single layer: 25 GBDual layer: 50 GB
  154. 154. Diameter: 120 mm
  155. 155. Thickness: 1.2 mm
  156. 156. Center hole diameter: 15 mm
  157. 157. Uses GaN laser of wavelength 400 nm
  158. 158. The smaller laser, compared to the DVD and CD, keeps the process more efficient (~5 mW)</li></li></ul><li>Disc Characteristics<br />
  159. 159. Enhancements<br /><ul><li>Error rates increased in reading and writing after the original BD suffered scratches and fingerprints
  160. 160. For protection, the prototype BD was enclosed in a case
  161. 161. The case increased the size of the disc drive</li></li></ul><li>Expansion Boards<br />Graphic Card<br />Sound Card<br />LAN Card<br />Modem<br />TV Tuner Card<br />SCSI Card<br />
  162. 162. Expansion Boards<br />
  163. 163. SMPS <br />
  164. 164. Input Devices<br /><ul><li> Keyboard
  165. 165. Mouse
  166. 166. Joystick
  167. 167. Scanner
  168. 168. Web Cam</li></li></ul><li>Keyboard<br />In computing, a keyboard is an input device<br />The keyboard is used to type text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or other program <br />Standard keyboards, such as the 101-key US traditional keyboard 104-key Windows keyboards <br />
  169. 169. Keyboard<br />
  170. 170. Mouse<br />In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface <br />The first marketed integrated mouse – shipped as a part of a computer and intended for personal computer navigation – came with the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981 <br />
  171. 171. Mouse<br />
  172. 172. Joystick<br />A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. <br />Joysticks are also used for controlling machines such as cranes, trucks, underwater unmanned vehicles and zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones<br />
  173. 173. Joystick<br />
  174. 174. Scanner <br />Scanner is a input device<br />
  175. 175. Scanner<br />
  176. 176. Web Cam<br />Webcam is a input device<br />
  177. 177. Webcam<br />
  178. 178. Output Devices<br /><ul><li> Monitor
  179. 179. Printer
  180. 180. Speakers</li></li></ul><li>Monitor<br />Monitor is a out put device<br />
  181. 181. Monitor<br />
  182. 182. Printer<br />Printer is a out put device<br />
  183. 183. Printer<br />
  184. 184. Speaker<br />Speaker is a output Device<br />
  185. 185. Speaker<br />

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