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  1. 1. Power sharing Meaning –a technique to reduce the possibility of conflict .every social group is given share in administration/Govt and included in decision making.
  2. 2. Belgium <ul><li>Ethnic- Social division based on culture. People of social group believe in common descent perceived in language complexion appearance etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic composition of Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch speaking=59% </li></ul><ul><li>French speaking= 40% </li></ul><ul><li>German speaking= 1% </li></ul><ul><li>BRUSSELS </li></ul><ul><li>French speaking =80% </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch speaking= 20% </li></ul>
  3. 4. Sri Lanka <ul><li>Ethnic Composition= </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese =74% </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil = 18% </li></ul><ul><li>Christian = 7% </li></ul>
  4. 6. Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka Independent =1948. <ul><li>Meaning=number theory of ruling.[Majority community can rule the country according to it’s wish neglecting minority]. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps taken= </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhale declared National language. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese are given priority in jobs colleges and universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism has been declared state religion. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Tamil feels <ul><li>Neglected and isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>Devoid of equal political rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminated in jobs and other facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>TAMIL FORMED THEIR OWN POLITICAL PARTIES. </li></ul><ul><li>DEMANDED= </li></ul><ul><li>TAMIL as national language. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunities in the field of education and jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1980 demanded independent TAMIL ELAM in north eastern area. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to civil war .[CIVIL WAR;=A VIOLENT CONFLICT BETWEEN OPPOSING SOCIAL GROUPS WITHIN A COUNTRY]. </li></ul>
  6. 8. POWER SHARING IN BELGIUM <ul><li>1970-1993 amended constitution four times. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Equal number of French speaking ministers and Dutch speaking ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>2 State governments are not subordinate to central government . </li></ul><ul><li>3 Separate government for Brussels = equal representation to both communities. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Third level of government known as community government. </li></ul><ul><li>community government has right to take decision regarding CULTURE , EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE . </li></ul>
  7. 9. WHY POWER SHARING <ul><li>Prudential reasons = reasons given after calculating gains and losses. </li></ul><ul><li>1 POWER SHARING is desirable because it reduces the possibility of conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>2 CHECKS violence and political instability . </li></ul><ul><li>3 ENSURES unity and integrity of NATION. </li></ul><ul><li>MORAL REASONS = REASONS given after considering right and wrong and what is desirable . </li></ul><ul><li>POWER SHARING is according to the spirit of Democracy. </li></ul>
  8. 10. DIFFERENT FORMS OF POWER SHARING <ul><li>1 POWER SHARING among different organs of Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature takes decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive implements decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary provides justice. </li></ul><ul><li>2 POWER SHARING among different levels of Govt Central Govt, State Govt and Local Govt </li></ul><ul><li>3 POWER SHARING by different social groups e .g. community Govt in Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>4 . POWER SHARING by different political parties e.g. coalition Govt.[Coalition Govt –Govt formed by more than one political party. </li></ul>
  9. 11. exercises <ul><li>QUESTION NUMBER </li></ul><ul><li>1 What do you understand by power sharing ? </li></ul><ul><li>2 What do you understand by prudential reason ? </li></ul><ul><li>3 What is majoritarianism ? </li></ul><ul><li>4 What is civil war ? </li></ul><ul><li>5 What is coalition Govt ? </li></ul><ul><li>6 What are the different forms of power sharing in modern Democracies ? Give an example of each of these . </li></ul><ul><li>7 State one Prudential reason for power sharing with an example from Indian context . </li></ul><ul><li>8 State one moral reason for power sharing . </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>9 The Mayor of Merchtem,a town near Brussels in Belgium ,has defended a ban </li></ul><ul><li>On speaking French in town’s school’s .He said this would help all non Dutch speakers integrate in the Flemish town . </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangement ? Give reasons. </li></ul>