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PhoneCALL: EuroCALL 2011 keynote


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PhoneCALL: Incidental Language Learning on Mobile Devices. Edited version of presentation to EuroCALL 2011.

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PhoneCALL: EuroCALL 2011 keynote

  1. 1. Phone CALLIncidental Language Learning with Mobile TechnologiesMike Sharples<br />with Tony Fisher, Richard Pemberton, Tommy Sweeney<br />University of Nottingham<br />Hiroaki Ogata, Noriko Uosaki<br />University of Tokushima<br />Phil Edmonds, Anthony Hull, Patrick Tschorn<br />Sharp Labs, Europe<br />
  2. 2. Mobile language learning is boring <br />
  3. 3. ...but important <br />¼ of the population of China is learning English (300 million people)<br />In the next 5 years all Chinese schools will teach English in kindergarten<br />All state employees younger than 40 will be required to master 1,000 English phrases<br />“ Numerous obstacles stand in the way of China’s quest, including a shortage of good English teachers and the country’s test-oriented education system”<br />1 billion people in China use mobile phones (67% of the population) of which 100 million are smartphones<br />Indianapolis Business Journal, <br />“Report from China”, March 2011<br />
  4. 4. How can we design language learning for a smartphone that is engaging and effective?<br />
  5. 5. Initial vocabulary and grammar<br />Direct instruction<br />In a context<br />Creating a context<br />Context<br />Fluency<br />Social interaction<br />Vocabulary acquisition<br />Incidental<br />learning<br />
  6. 6. Initial vocabulary and grammar<br />Direct instruction<br />BBC Janala in Bangladesh<br />English teaching on mobile phones<br />Dial 3000 to access three minute audio lessons<br />Content linked to youth TV show and news<br />Over 3.5 million calls<br />Context<br />
  7. 7. Initial vocabulary and grammar<br />Direct instruction<br />Learn vocabulary in context<br />Rehearse<br />Use vocabulary to create new contexts<br />Share the contextualised vocabulary<br />Context<br />Vocabulary acquisition<br />Incidental learning<br />
  8. 8. Research project by the Learning Sciences Research Institute in association with the University of Tokushima andSharp Laboratories of Europe<br />
  9. 9. Incidental second language learning<br />Self-directed learning of vocabulary in the context of reading from books<br />Fits into gaps in everyday life<br />Adaptive tutoring<br />Motivating: e-book & e-game<br />E-book<br />Read<br />story for vocabulary<br />E-game<br />Practise sentence construction<br />Selected <br />words<br />Personal vocabulary<br />Rehearse vocabulary<br />list <br />Game<br />words<br />Missing<br />words<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Elmo Mark 2 for smartphones<br />Smartphones: Sharp WS004SH (3.7 inch colour TFT screen, 480x640 resolution) and Sharp WS007SH (2.8 inch colour TFT screen, 480x640 resolution). <br />
  13. 13. Research question<br />Are there differences in the learning of English vocabulary through reading novels, depending on the mode of mobile interaction?<br />
  14. 14. Three modes of interaction<br />Paper book<br />e-book reader with English dictionary<br />‘ELMO’: e-book reader with enhanced software, including adaptive user modelling and additional interactivity<br />Paper book<br />E-book<br />Elmo <br />adaptive system<br />
  15. 15. Participants<br />Class of 39 students (24 female, 15 male) aged 15-17 at a Japanese high school<br />Class divided on the basis of a pre-test into 3 comparison groups balanced in terms of English vocabulary and gender, enabling a crossover design to be employed for the study<br />
  16. 16. Crossover design<br />Survey and focus groups<br />Post-test three<br />Base-line test<br />Post-test two<br />Post-test one<br />
  17. 17. Conduct of the study<br />Pre-test: test of specific vocabulary from the three novels<br />Two weeks to read a novel – students could decide how much, when and where<br />Discussion of novel allowed, but no swapping<br />Help-sheet and local advice in case of a problem with a device<br />No school implications of results<br />Post-test: the same words as in pre-test (scored out of 30)<br />
  18. 18. Results for adaptive handheld learning device<br />9.5<br />9<br />8.5<br />8<br />7.5<br />7<br />6.5<br />6<br />5.5<br />5<br />Pre<br />Post<br />Vocabulary score<br />
  19. 19. 9.5<br />9<br />8.5<br />8<br />Adaptive<br />7.5<br />7<br />Book<br />6.5<br />6<br />5.5<br />5<br />Pre<br />Post<br />Vocabulary score<br />Comparison with paper book<br />
  20. 20. 9.5<br />9<br />8.5<br />8<br />Adaptive<br />7.5<br />Ebook<br />7<br />Book<br />6.5<br />6<br />5.5<br />5<br />Pre<br />Post<br />Comparison with e-book<br />Vocabulary score<br />
  21. 21. Log data<br />
  22. 22. Interview data<br />“Made my eyes tired, so I recommend ‘paper book’”<br />“It is good to write down whatever I want on ‘paper book’”<br />“I do not want to bring another device with me other than my mobile phone to read novels”<br />“Many say that if a small and light device with a satisfactory English-Japanese dictionary, smooth scrolling, less charging is possible, then Adaptive Device would be best” (Teacher)<br />
  23. 23. Conclusions<br />The study was carefully set up and rigorously conducted<br />It didn’t show any particular technology to be effective in enhancing incidental learning of English vocabulary<br />
  24. 24. Conclusions<br />The study was carefully set up and rigorously conducted<br />It didn’t show effectiveness of any particular technology to enhance incidental learning of English vocabulary<br />But... Sharp Labs Europe is developing a new version of Elmo with an attractive interface, pictorial e-book and vocabulary games<br />
  25. 25. Elmo Mk3 for Android devices<br />Product launch in Autumn 2011<br />(NB – these are screenshots from an early prototype version, not the market product)<br />
  26. 26. Initial vocabulary and grammar<br />Direct instruction<br />Context<br />Fluency<br />Social interaction<br />Vocabulary acquisition<br />Incidental<br />learning<br />Research prototypes for contextual vocabulary acquisition and fluency<br />
  27. 27. MiLexicon – Joshua UnderwoodPhD, Institute of Education, London<br /><br />
  28. 28. miLexicon: connecting vocabulary<br />Share<br />Look up on favourite sites<br />Scroll for self-assessment prompts & item history <br />
  29. 29. Toponimo– TommySweeney<br />PhD, University of Nottingham<br />
  30. 30. Initial vocabulary and grammar<br />Direct instruction<br />Creating a context<br />In a context<br />Context<br />Fluency<br />Social interaction<br />Vocabulary acquisition<br />Incidental<br />learning<br />