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Pedagogy and Learning with Mobile Phones, UNESCO 2011


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Pedagogy and Learning with Mobile Phones, UNESCO 2011

  1. 1. Appropriate Pedagogy andLearning with Mobile Phones Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, UK
  2. 2. Mobile devices used by Open Universitystudents to access course materials
  3. 3. As mobile technology becomes widespread, the emphasis shifts from access to...... what kind of learning do you want to achieve?
  4. 4. Learning by...Changing behaviour BehaviouristEnhancing skills PerformativeAcquiring information ReceptiveGaining knowledge ConstructivistMaking sense of the world SituatedInterpreting reality in a different Collaborativeway
  5. 5. Behaviourist learning • Shaping behaviour – Personal health, diet, social behaviour, financial behaviour • Important but difficult – Change attitudes -> modify behaviour -> reinforce changed behaviour patterns – Mobile technology to reinforce changed behaviour in situ“Expand early childhood care and education: The goal calls for better andmore possibilities to support young children, and their families andcommunities, in all the areas where the child is growing – physically,emotionally, socially and intellectually”
  6. 6. Glo-yoUniversity of Nottingham• An interactive toy that teaches children how to wash their hands properly.• Mobile hand washing device shaped like a ‘yo-yo’• Designed in collaboration with young children• One side contains lotion for washing hands• Other side has UV light to detect where lotion has not been washed off, and images showing 6 steps to wash• A one-year trial saw a sustained improvement in hand washing.• Manufacturing agreement with Ravencourt Ltd
  7. 7. Performative learning • Enhancing skills – Science, engineering, sport, music, social interaction • Developing a combination of skilled activity and meta-cognitive awareness – How to perform the skills – Understanding when to apply the skills – Self-evaluation of the outcomes“Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults: Thisgoal places the emphasis on the learning needs of young people and adultsin the context of lifelong learning”
  8. 8. Personal Inquiry• Three year project• University of Nottingham/ Open University• Aim: – To help children to become scientists, by developing their skills of effective science investigation
  9. 9. Inquiry toolkit • Calculator • Timer • Camera • Audio recorder • Accelerometer • Location tracker • Tilt sensor • Communicator • Anemometer
  10. 10. Myself My Environment My Community Personally meaningful investigations Food packaging Urban heat islands and decayFitness and heartrate Healthy eating Effect of noise pollution on birds Micro-climates
  11. 11. Record a daily food diary
  12. 12. For each meal – take a photo, describe themeal. Software computes nutritional content.
  13. 13. Compare to recommended daily intake
  14. 14. Powerful tools to create new inquiries
  15. 15. nQuire
  16. 16. Receptive learning • Acquiring information – Vocabulary, number, general knowledge • Repeated practice • ‘Just-in-time’ information“Increase adult literacy by 50 per cent: This goal calls for a certain levelof improvement in adult literacy by 2015 – it says that it should be 50 percent better than it was in 2000.”
  17. 17. Incidental vocabulary learningE-book Selected Personal Game Mobile words words vocabulary game Read story for Rehearsevocabulary Practise vocabulary sentence list construction Missing words
  18. 18. Product launch by Sharp in Autumn2011
  19. 19. Constructivist learning• Learning by constructing knowledge• Integrating new understanding with existing knowledge• Need to ensure that the new knowledge is correct and meaningful“Improve the quality of education: This goal calls forimprovement in the quality of education in all its aspects, aiming fora situation where people can achieve excellence.”
  20. 20. Mobile Computer Supported CollaborativeLearning (MCSCL): Eduinnova• MCSCL developed by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile• Wireless handheld computers• Tested in schools, teacher training, university students• Trials in other countries, including UK
  21. 21. Situated learning• Making sense of the world• Learning in locations• Learning about locations• Learning across locations• Context – a central topic of research in mobile learning
  22. 22. Learning about locations• Geology – E.g. rock formations, glaciation, erosion• Land use – Forestry, farming, wind farms, footpaths• Tourism – Local history, landmarks, literature
  23. 23. From simple mobile technology ...
  24. 24. ... to complex
  25. 25. Collaborative learning • Sharing understanding – Learning as conversation • Re-interpreting reality – Inter-subjectivity – Perspective taking“Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015: This goal callsfor an equal number of girls and boys to be enrolled in primary and secondaryschool by 2005 – this is what gender parity means.”
  26. 26. Sharing perspectives withbasic mobile phonesAnupama Roy, PhDSMS text gamefor peer You are in the drop-in of There are boxes of condoms andmale sex posters for fly- posting. What do you do?workers inIndia
  27. 27. Participatory design inKolkata, India with peereducators in the ‘maleshaving sex with males’community
  28. 28. You are at DIC. Keywords: There are some SINGARA (snack) on plates. Eat GO SINGARA. To eat, FIND PICKUP Singara,then USE Singara. SAY Your mission will PICKUPthen be successful USE HELP
  29. 29. You are at the Park now. It’s To accomplish, thetime for CONDOM player has to GO to demonstration. the DIC (drop-in Distribute some centre), PICKUP CONDOMS. the CONDOMS, then GO to a location where there are clients, and USE the CONDOMS
  30. 30. Process and outcomes of project• Design workshops with 16 peer educators in Kolkata, and at Nottingham• Trialled with 16 peer educators in Kolkata (some who were developers)• Usable, relevant, entertaining• Built a community amongst marginalised individuals.• Most continued to use SMS – 13 were in contact three months later
  31. 31. “ When there’s a problem in the field like from the police... I SMS the crisismanagement team or those I have cometo know from playing the game. This gamehas helped a lot in this crisis management ”
  32. 32. The 3C’s of effective learningConstruction relating experience to knowledge, creating new ideasConversation with teachers, with learners, with ourselves, and with the worldControl actively pursuing knowledge
  33. 33. Mobile learning challengesEnable effective 1 to 1 learning in theclassroomConnect learning inside and outside theclassroomManage children bringing their own powerfulpersonal technologies into schoolSupport learning through construction,conversation and control