Context in Mobile Learning

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Context-aware mobile learning

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Context in Mobile Learning

  1. 1. Context in Mobile Learning<br />Mike Sharples<br />Learning Sciences Research Institute<br />University of Nottingham<br />www.nottingham.ac.uk/lsri/msh<br />
  2. 2. What is context?<br />How can context-based technology support learning?<br />CAGE<br />MyArtSpace<br />PaSAT<br />Are there learning benefits from context-based technology?<br />
  3. 3. What is context?<br /> “that which surrounds us”<br />“that which weaves together”<br />Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.<br />
  4. 4. Mirrors a distinction in human-computer interaction between:<br />context as a ‘shell’ that surrounds the human user of technology <br />context created by the constructive interaction between people and technology <br />
  5. 5. A “shell” view of context<br />Data filtering and integration<br />Data filtering and integration<br />ComputerUser<br />Context<br />
  6. 6. A “shell” view of context<br />Learning as knowledge acquisition<br />Technical issues of information filtering and data integration<br />
  7. 7. An interaction view of context<br />Learning as social knowledge construction<br />Technical issues of modelling interaction over time<br />
  8. 8. An interaction view of context<br />Context is adynamic and historical process<br />to enable appropriate action (learning)<br />constructed through interaction between people, settings, technologies, objects and activities<br />
  9. 9. Modelling context<br />
  10. 10. How can context-based technology support learning?<br />CAGE<br />Learning through exploration of context<br />MyArtSpace<br />Learning through connecting contexts<br />PaSAT<br />Learning through engagement and reflection in contexts<br />
  11. 11. CAGE at Nottingham Castle museum<br />
  12. 12. CAGE system<br />Navigation in a conceptual space through physical movement<br />Location-based content delivery<br />Ultrasound tracking system<br />Context awareness:<br />which painting?<br />how long?<br />been there before?<br />
  13. 13. CAGE Architecture<br />Content<br />Server<br />Content<br />Environment<br />XML<br />Sensors<br />Content<br />recommendations<br />Content<br />metadata<br />XML<br />XML<br />Context<br />Awareness<br />Subsystem<br />XML<br />User profile<br />XML<br />User input<br />
  14. 14. Visitor study<br />Baseline: normal visitors<br />Control: visitors with printed guide<br />Experimental: visitors with handheld guide<br />
  15. 15. Observations<br />Paper guide promoted a more ‘rigid’ pattern of movement<br />Visitors with the PDA were more likely to move around the gallery according to what interested them<br />
  16. 16. Interface challenges<br />Navigation by physical movement through a knowledge space<br />Keeping the user in control<br />Balance between manual and automatic functionality<br />
  17. 17. MyArtSpace<br />How to connect learning in museums and classrooms?<br />Service on mobile phones for enquiry-led museum learning<br />Students in pairs create their own interpretation of a museum visit which they explore back in the classroom<br />They view multimedia in context, create images, sounds, text, notes<br />Automatically sent to personal website<br />3000 children in three museums<br />
  18. 18. Prepare enquiry in the classroom<br />MyArtSpace<br />Create and collect in the museum<br />View and share in the classroom<br />Present a personal perspective<br />
  19. 19. Summary of findings<br />The technology worked<br />Photos, information on exhibits, notes, automatic sending to website<br />Students spent longer (90 mins compared to 20 mins)<br />Supported enquiry learning<br />Encouraged children to make active choices <br />Connected school and museum<br />Need for more teacher preparation<br />Managing the amount of collected material back in the classroom <br />
  20. 20. OOKL<br />Commercial service from MyArtSpace<br />
  21. 21. PaSAT<br />Learning through engagement and reflection across contexts<br />Custom software to author and run location-based games<br />Laptop server, PDA clients, GPS positioning, wireless-LAN<br />
  22. 22. Web-based authoring tool <br />PDA client with GPS positioning<br />
  23. 23. Build-IT game<br />Choose the best locations for 3 new buildings<br />Have to be at the site to estimate<br />Factors to consider: <br />Minimise Cost<br />Minimise Risk (e.g. environmental impact)<br />Cost and Risk both vary depending on location and size of building<br />
  24. 24. Factors that affect cost and risk are visible in the environment<br />Slopes cause flood risks<br />Micro-sites for learning<br />Soft land needs more expensive foundations<br />Being outdoors in the environment is part of the game<br />Houses nearby lead to planning objections<br />
  25. 25. Initial results<br />Highly engaging<br />Engagement and reflection outdoors<br />Structured learning<br />Need more support to use data gathering tools and strategies effectively<br />Need more connection back to the classroom<br />To share and present results<br />
  26. 26. Successful context-based learning<br />Learning through exploration of augmented physical space<br />Inquiry learning that connects formal and non-formal settings<br />Cycle of engagement and reflection across contexts<br />Creating location-based micro-sites for learning<br />
  27. 27. Creating context<br />Traditional classroom learning is founded on an illusion of stability of context, by setting up a fixed location with common resources, a single teacher, and an agreed curriculum that allows a semblance of common ground to be maintained from day to day. If all these are removed, as may be the case with learning in the mobile age, then creating temporary islands of relatively stable context is a central concern. In this respect, the historic construction of context, the process by which we arrive at current understanding, assumes greater importance.<br />Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007) A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age. In R. Andrews and C. Haythornthwaite (eds.)The Sage Handbook of Elearning Research. London: Sage, pp. 221-47. <br />
  28. 28. Credits<br />CAGE<br />MOBIlearn IST Framework 5 project<br />Systems design by Peter Londsale<br />MyArtSpace<br />Funded by Department of Culture Media and Sport<br />Evaluation team: Peter Lonsdale, Julia Meek, Paul Rudman, Mike Sharples, Giasemi Vavoula<br /> Systems design by The SEA<br />PaSAT<br />PhD project, Peter Lonsdale<br />

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