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Big Issues In Mobile Learning - VDS 2007 - November 2007


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Slides for Kaleidoscpe Virtual Doctoral School

Published in: Economy & Finance, Education

Big Issues In Mobile Learning - VDS 2007 - November 2007

  1. 1. Big Issues in Mobile Learning Mike Sharples Learning Sciences Research Institute University of Nottingham
  2. 2. 1974 1997 2002 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
  3. 3. <ul><li>Seeing No Progress, Some Schools Drop Laptops </li></ul><ul><li>LIVERPOOL, N.Y. — The students at Liverpool High have used their school-issued laptops to exchange answers on tests, download pornography and hack into local businesses… </li></ul><ul><li>So the Liverpool Central School District, just outside Syracuse, has decided to phase out laptops starting this fall, joining a handful of other schools around the country that adopted one-to-one computing programs and are now abandoning them as educationally empty — and worse. </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times, May 4 th , 2007 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Big Issues in Mobile Learning
  5. 5. Big Issues <ul><li>What is mobile learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Is mobile learning effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of mobile learning </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between mobile technology and school </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership and copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy, in an always-connected world </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is mobile learning? <ul><li>Learning with portable technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be in a fixed location, such as a classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning across contexts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could use portable or fixed technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How people learn across locations and transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning in a mobile world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the mobile society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to understand people and technology in constant mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to design learning for the mobile society </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Is mobile learning effective? <ul><li>Classroom response systems (Draper, Dufresne, Roschelle) </li></ul><ul><li>Group learning with wireless mobiles and phones (Nussbaum et al., Dillenbourg) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom handheld simulation games (Collella, Virus Game) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile guides (Tate Modern, Caerus, Mobile Bristol) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting learning in formal and informal settings (Butterfly Watching, MyArtSpace) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>User centred </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Networked </li></ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Durable </li></ul>Mobile Technology
  9. 9. Personalised Learning <ul><li>Learner centred </li></ul><ul><li>Individualised </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Situated </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>User centred </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Networked </li></ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Durable </li></ul>Mobile Learning <ul><li>Learner centred </li></ul><ul><li>Individualised </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Situated </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conflict between learning outside and inside the classroom <ul><li>Everyday learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centred </li></ul><ul><li>Individualised </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Situated </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher centred </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalised </li></ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Decontextualised </li></ul><ul><li>Located </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do we connect and
  13. 13. Extend the classroom into everyday learning? <ul><li>Podcast lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Learning environments on mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Home access to the school intranet </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of learning outside the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via email or SMS which can then be auto-responded to with feedback” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School laptops at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The students at Liverpool High have used their school-issued laptops to exchange answers on tests, download pornography and hack into local businesses.” New York Times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boring, doesn’t connect with everyday learning </li></ul>
  14. 14. Extend everyday learning into the classroom? <ul><li>Internet safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewalls, ‘white web’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ban on personal devices </li></ul><ul><li>“ In class I have to power down ” (Guardian, May, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;At school, you do all this boring stuff, really basic stuff, PowerPoint and spreadsheets and things. It only gets interesting and exciting when you come home and really use your computer. You're free, you're in control , it's your own world.” (Guardian, May, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous, loss of teacher control </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: Eduinnova <ul><li>Mobile CSCL developed by Pontificia Universidad Cat ólica de Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless handheld computers </li></ul><ul><li>Individual, group, whole class </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher monitors and supports </li></ul><ul><li>Tested in schools, teacher training, university students </li></ul><ul><li>Significant differences in learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Trials in other countries including UK (Wolverhampton) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Connect learning inside and beyond the classroom <ul><li>MyArtSpace </li></ul><ul><li>PI: Personal Inquiry </li></ul>
  17. 17. School Museum Visits <ul><li>Should guide students towards development and contrasting of their own ideas (Guisasola et al. , 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But how to guide students while allowing them to engage with authentic artefacts and discover their own responses to the exhibits? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should connect with learning in the classroom (Guisasola et al. , 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But how to recall and continue the rich experience of the museum visit back in the classroom? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. MyArtSpace <ul><li>Service on mobile phones for enquiry-led museum learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through structured enquiry, exploration, connection </li></ul><ul><li>Students create their own interpretation of a museum visit which they explore back in the classroom </li></ul>
  19. 19. MyArtSpace <ul><li>Combines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical space (museum, classroom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual space (online store and gallery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal space (mobile phones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Museum test sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbis (Manchester) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The D-Day Museum (Portsmouth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Study Gallery of Modern Art (Poole) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 3000 children during 2006 </li></ul>
  20. 20. How it works <ul><li>In class before the visit, the teacher sets an inquiry topic </li></ul><ul><li>At the museum, children are loaned multimedia phones </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits in the museum have 2-letter codes printed by them </li></ul><ul><li>Children can use the phone to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type the code to ‘collect’ an object and see a presentation about it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See who else has ‘collected’ the object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All the information collected or created is sent automatically to a personal website showing a list of the items </li></ul><ul><li>The website provides a record of the child’s interpretation of the visit </li></ul><ul><li>In class after the visit, the children share the collected and recorded items and make them into presentations </li></ul>
  21. 22. Lifecycle evaluation <ul><li>Micro level: Usability issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual and group activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meso level: Educational Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning experience as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom-museum-home continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical incidents: learning breakthroughs and breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macro level: Organisational Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effect on the educational practice for school museum visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emergence of new practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take-up and sustainability </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Evaluation At each level <ul><li>Step 1 – what was supposed to happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-interviews with stakeholders (teachers, students, museum educators), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>documents provided to support the visits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2 – what actually happened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observer logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>post-focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of video diaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3 – differences between 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflective interviews with stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical incident analysis </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Summary of results <ul><li>The technology worked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, information on exhibits, notes, automatic sending to website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minor usability problems </li></ul><ul><li>Students liked the ‘cool’ technology </li></ul><ul><li>Students enjoyed the experience more than their previous museum visit </li></ul><ul><li>The students indicated that the phones made the visit more interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers were pleased that students engaged with the inquiry learning task </li></ul>
  24. 25. Usability Issues <ul><li>Appropriate form factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device is a mobile phone, not a typical handheld museum guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collecting and creating items was an easy and natural process </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phone connection </li></ul><ul><li>Text annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of website with commercial software, e.g. PowerPoint </li></ul>
  25. 26. Educational Issues <ul><li>Supports curriculum topics in literacy and media studies </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages meaningful and enjoyable pre- and post-visit lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages children to make active choices in what is normally a passive experience </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for teacher to understand the experience and run an appropriate pre-visit lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where to impose constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and restrict the collecting activity, or learn from organising the material back in the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support for collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ X has also collected” wasn’t successful </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Organistional issues <ul><li>Museum appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attracting secondary schools to the museum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students spent longer on a MAS visit (90 mins compared to 20 mins) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Museum accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to engage with museum content after the visit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems of museum staff engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burden on museum staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition with other museum media </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Future <ul><li>Multimedia company The SEA has developed a commercial service, OOKL </li></ul><ul><li>Deployed at Kew Gardens and other sites </li></ul>
  28. 29. PI: Personal Inquiry <ul><li>Support for inquiry science learning between formal and informal settings, KS3 </li></ul><ul><li>School for introducing and framing issues, and planning inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Outside, home and science centres for semi-structured investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students design the methods of inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In classroom, at home, with peers, with experts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Scripted’ inquiry learning (dynamic lesson plans supported by mobile devices) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Ownership of mobile learning <ul><li>Who owns the technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns the learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Where next? <ul><li>Linking classroom and workplace learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Dual-T’ project, Switzerland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Powerful opposing forces : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In loco parentis vs learner control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard curriculum and accreditation vs flexible workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of exploration and reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Let us start a serious public debate about how and whether we can bridge this gap between children's experiences inside and outside school… should education and entertainment remain on entirely separate tracks ?” (David Puttnam, Guardian, May 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious research and innovation </li></ul></ul>