osteoporosisActivity 1.10Understanding dietary requirements and investigating modifications to food preparationAs you have read, some diet-related conditions are caused by either a deficiency or excess of a particular nutrient. Other diet-relatedconditions include osteoporosis, diabetes and iron deficiency anaemia.Research one of these conditions and present your findings using a web 2.0 strategy. In your presentation include the following:• The cause (risk factors) and symptoms of the condition• Statistics of the prevalence of the condition• Recommendations for suitable foods* (and quantities where applicable) to be included in the diet (include the amount ofthe nutrient required in the diet and how this differs across the life span)• At least two recipes which would be suited to people with iron deficiency anaemia, diabetes or osteoporosis. *• Two commercially based products that would be suitable for people to consume who may be at risk of osteoporosis,diabetes or iron deficiency anaemia. Justify why these are suitable for reducing the risk of the condition
The cause (risk factors) and symptoms of the conditionOsteoporosis is a condition where bones become fragile and brittle. People with this conditionconsequently have a higher risk of. “Osteoporosis as it occurs when bones lose minerals, such ascalcium, more quickly than the body can replace them, leading to a loss of bone thickness (bonedensity or mass)”.As bones lose minerals they become thinner, less dense and thus weaker. Minor bumps or a slightfall can cause serious fractures in people who have osteoporosis. The fractures that are suffered as aresult of a bump or fall can cause the bone being either completely or partially broken. Due to thebreak or fracture, the bones can then be prone to further breaks and fractures because they havebeen weakened. All bones within the body can be affected by osteoporosis , but some seem moreprevalent than others. The hip, spine, wrist, upper arm, ribs and forearm seem to be the mostcommon bones that suffer from osteoporosis.Often we see people with a seriously hunched spine. In most cases older people who have hunchedspines suffer from osteoporosis. Their spines become hunched due to several fractures or breaks intheir back bones. As these breaks and fractures mend it result in the person losing height and theirposture changes.Osteoporosis is often called the silent disease’ as it does not usually present with symptoms until afracture occurs.There are some other factors that make select individuals more at risk of suffering from osteoporosis.If Osteoporosis is suffered by other family members there is a greater risk that you could suffer fromit too.Some medical conditions and medications can also effect your bone health eg Corticosteroids thatare prescribed for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Low hormonelevels , delayed puberty and early menopause are conditions that can make women more susceptibleto osteoporosis. Bone density can reduce more rapidly in men with low testosterone levels and thusmake them more at risk of osteoporosis.Select lifestyle factors can also make individuals more prone to osteoporosis. Little physicalactivity, smoking, and excessive drinking have been found to increase a person’s chances of sufferingfrom osteoporosis too.
Statistics of the prevalence of the condition.Osteoporosis is considered to be a very common medical problem in Australia. According to OsteoporosisAustralia this condition affects over 1 million Australians.Statistically women are more prone to Osteoporosis than men. This is due to the fact that women experience arapid decline in estrogen levels during menopause. Unfortunately for women when oestrogen levels decrease aside effect is that their bones lose calcium and other minerals at a much faster rate. Scientific findings indicatethat women lose 2% of bone per year occurs for several years after menopause. Thus making their bonesbecome weak very quickly.Men are more at risk of osteoporosis as they become older. Although men also lose bone as they becomeolder, their testosterone levels decrease much more gradually than women’s estrogen levels. This effectivelymeans that their bone mass reduces much more gradually and that their bones tend to be more stable forlonger.
Recommendations for suitable foods (and quantities whereapplicable)to be included in the diet (include the amount ofthe nutrient in the diet and how this differs across the lifespan).Adults require 1,000 mg per day of calcium (preferably through diet)and this increases to 1,300 mg per day in women over 50 and menover 70.A lack of sun exposure can mean you are not getting enough vitaminD, which your body needs to absorb calcium. 400IU of vitamin D eachday is recommended.Foods recommended to include in your diet to assist with theprevention of Osteoporosis include: Dairy foods like milk, cheese andyoghurt, and dark leaf and green vegetables rich in calcium, as aretinned salmon and sardines (with edible bones).Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and adolescentboys, need even more calcium in their diets. This is because thegrowing fetus draws on the calcium within the woman’s body and abreast feeding baby draws the calcium from their mother whenfeeding. Adolescent boys grow at a rapid pace and they requireadditional calcium to support their fast growing bones.
Two commercially based products that would be suitable for people to consume who maybe at risk of osteoporosis, diabetes or iron deficiency anemia. Justify why these aresuitable for reducing the risk of the condition.OSTEOPOROSISPura Tone Milk – 1 glass gives you 44% RDI of calciumBega Tasty Cheese - Block 25 grams gives you 25% RDI of calciumDIABETESUncle Toby’s Vita Brits – This product is made from wholegrains which is a high fibre complex carbohydrate. It is a slowrelease carbohydrate and assists in controlling glucose levels.Barilla Whole Grain Pasta – contains 51% wholewheat. Wholewheat is a high-fiber complex carbohydrates—also knownas slow-release carbs. Slow-release carbs help keep blood sugar levels even because they are digested more slowly, thuspreventing your body from producing too much insulin.IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIANutri- grain- 30grams equates to 25%RDIKellogg’s Sultana Bran - 45 grams equates to 25% RDI
Breakfast Recipe for Osteoporosis SufferersBreakfast CasseroleThis is a great breakfast or brunch option - a wonderful spin on the traditional bacon and egg, and full of cheesy calcium goodness!Ingredients4 rashes of bacon, chopped1 medium brown onion, diced6 eggs, lightly beaten2 cups shredded cheddar cheese2 cups shredded swiss cheese1 cup of red capsicum, diced2 cups of grated potatoMethod1. In a large frying pan, cook bacon and onion until bacon is crisp and onion is translucent. Drain the excess fat/oil and sit aside.2. Combine the remaining ingredients in a bowl, and add the bacon mixture.3. Transfer to a greased baking issue (about 13 inches x 9 inches)4. Bake (uncovered) at about 180 degrees celcius for roughly 35 minutes. It should be golden brown on the outisde and a knife inserted inthe middle should come out clean.Serves Eight602 mg Calcium per serve
Cannelloni – for Osteoporosis SufferersIngredientsFresh lasagna sheets (found in the cool section at the supermarket)500g of low-fat ricotta500g of spinach (if you use fresh spinach remember to finely dice and cook it first!)2 cloves of garlic, finely diced or minced.1 small brown onion, finely diced.1 handful of fresh oregano, chopped roughly.Olive oilSauce2 x 400g tins of finely diced tomatoes1 x small jar of diced black olives1 x handful of fresh basil, coarsely chopped.1 x small zucchini, grated200 grams of grated Mozzarella CheeseMethod1. Preheat the oven to 180 degrees2. Add a dash of olive oil to a pan and sautee the onion, one of the cloves of garlic and oregano.3. Let the onion and garlic mixture cool, and then mix it with the ricotta and spinach. Leave the mixture to sit.4. Add a dash of olive oil to a pan and add the second clove of garlic, basil and zucchini. When the zucchini has soften up, add the tins of choppedtomatoes and stir through.5. Pour half the tomato mixture into a large, deep oven tray.6. Spoon mixture into the middle of your lasanga sheets, and roll them up (similar to burritos).7. Place the cannellonis on top of the tomato mixture in the pan, then pour the remaining mixture over the top and sprinkle with mozzarella. Cover withfoil and bake for about 25 minutes (the canneloni should look golden).8. Let rest for 25 minutes, then enjoy!Serves 4623mg Calcium per serve
SPRING LAMB AND VEGETABLE STEW – Suitable for a DiabeticServe with a dish of freshly cooked spring greens, then hand round a basket of crusty French bread. Serves: 4 Ingredients 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil 1 large onion, chopped 1 garlic clove, finely chopped 500 g lean boneless leg oflamb, trimmed of all excess fat and cut into cubes 150 ml dry white wine 2 cups (500 ml) chicken stock, preferablyhomemade 1 bay leaf 1 sprig of fresh thyme 1 kg baby new potatoes, scrubbed 250 g baby carrots 150 g pickling onionsor shallots Salt and pepper 200 g small turnips, cut into small cubes 250 g fresh peas, shelled, or 3⁄4 cup (115 g) frozenpeas 2 tbsp chopped fresh parsleyMethod1. Preheat the oven to 180ºC. Heat the oil in a large flameproof casserole dish, add the chopped onion and garlic andcook, stirring, for 5 minutes or until softened. Add the cubes of lamb and cook for 5 minutes or until browned on allsides, stirring so they colour evenly. 2. Add the wine, stock, bay leaf, thyme, potatoes, carrots and pickling onions. Seasonwith salt and pepper to taste. Bring to the boil, then cover with a tight-fitting lid and transfer the dish to the oven. Cook for1 hour. 3. Add the turnips and stir together. Cover the casserole dish again and continue cooking for 30–45 minutes or untilthe meat and vegetables are tender, adding the peas 10 minutes before the end of the cooking time. 4. Add the parsley andstir well. Taste and add more salt and pepper if needed.Nutritional Information - Each serving provides: 2030 kJ, 31 g protein, 17 g fat (of which 5 g is saturated fat), 46 gcarbohydrate (of which 12 g are sugars), 12 g fibre, 502 mg sodium. GI estimate high.
THAI BEEF NOODLE SALAD- Suitable for a DiabeticIngredientsDRESSING ¼ cup fresh lime juice ¼ cup water ½ teaspoon crushed garlic ½ teaspoon crushed ginger 2 teaspoons soy sauce 1tablespoon Thai chilli stir fry paste 2 teaspoons lemongrass chopped 1 tablespoon fresh coriander leaves chopped 1 tablespoonsugar SALAD 100g dried vermicelli noodles 400g raw lean rump steak 4 teaspoons Thai seasoning cooking spray 4 cups gourmetlettuce 125g Lebanese cucumber sliced 20 cherry tomatoes cut in half ¾ cup capsicum sliced 1 carrot thinly sliced 15 snow peasthinly sliced on angle ⅓ cup shallots thinly sliced on angle Method To make dressing: 1. Place all dressing ingredients in asmall mixing bowl and combine well. To make salad: 1. Divide salad ingredients equally over 4 dinner plates. 2. Toprepare noodles follow instructions on packet. 3. Coat steak with Thai seasoning. 4. In a non-stick fry pan that hasbeen generously coated with cooking spray, fry steak until cooked to your liking. 5. Cut into thin strips and leave to one side. 6. Place noodles on top of salad then put rump slices over top. Pour dressing over salad. Nutritional Information: Eachserving provides: Total fat (g) 3.4, Saturated fat (g) 1.2, Fibre (g) 3.5, Protein (g) 26.8, Carbs (g) 19.3, Sugar (g) 8.5, Sodium (mg)235, Energy (kj) 915, G.I. Estimate LOW
Filet Mignon with Madeira-Prune Sauce– for Iron Deficiency Anaemia SufferersINGREDIENTS5 large shallots, peeled and halved3 teaspoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided1 tablespoon coarsely chopped fresh thyme1/2 teaspoon kosher salt1/2 teaspoon freshly ground pepper4 4-ounce filet mignon or sirloin steaks, 1 1/4 inches thick, trimmed3/4 cup Madeira, (see Note)1 14-ounce can reduced-sodium beef broth1 teaspoon butter, softened1 teaspoon all-purpose flour1 teaspoon tomato paste1/4 cup pitted prunes, coarsely choppedPREPARATIONPreheat oven to 425°F.Toss shallots with 1 teaspoon oil in a small baking pan. Roast until beginning to brown, about 25 minutes.Meanwhile, combine thyme, salt and pepper in a small bowl; rub the mixture all over steaks. Heat theremaining 2 teaspoons oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add the steaks andcook, adjusting the heat as necessary to prevent burning, 4 to 6 minutes per side for medium-rare. Transferto a plate; tent with foil to keep warm.Add Madeira to the pan and cook for 1 minute. Add broth and bring to a boil; continue cooking until theliquid is reduced by about half, 10 to 12 minutes.Combine butter and flour in a small bowl. Stir tomato paste into the pan until dissolved, then add the butter-flour paste in small bits, breaking up any lumps with a wooden spoon, until it’s dissolved. Add prunes andcontinue cooking until the sauce has thickened, about 3 minutes more. Add the roasted shallots and steaksto the pan along with any accumulated juices. Turn to coat and cook until heated through, 1 to 2 minutes.Serve the steaks with the pan sauce.
STEAK , CORN and RED BEAN SALAD– for Iron Deficiency Anaemia SufferersINGREDIENTS500g piece lean sirloin steak, trimmed of excess fat 1 tbs Worcestershire sauce 2 tsp ground cumin 1 tbs olive oil 1 cup frozen corn kernels 800g canned red kidney beans, rinsed, drained Juice of 1 lemon 2 spring onions, sliced on the diagonalMETHODPlace the steak in a bowl and sprinkle over the Worcestershire sauce and 1 teaspoon of the ground cumin. Toss to coat the steak in themixture.Step 2 Heat the olive oil in a frypan over medium-high heat. When the pan is hot, add the steak and cook for about 5 minutes each sidefor medium, or until cooked to your liking. Remove from the heat and set the steak aside in a warm place for a few minutes to rest, thenslice.Step 3 Meanwhile, blanch the corn kernels in a pan of boiling water. Combine the drained kidney beans and corn in a bowl. Add thelemon juice and the remaining teaspoon of ground cumin to the bean mixture and toss to combine.Step 4 Add the sliced steak and the sliced spring onion to the salad and toss gently to combine.