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Goal formulation and target setting


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A guide to goal formulation and target setting

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Goal formulation and target setting

  2. 2. Sectoral Goals are whatever it takes to close the visio n – reality gap identified in the specific sector.
  3. 3. Importance of Goals in Planning  As an end toward which all future actions specified in the plan are directed.  As a set of criteria for evaluating alternative strategies and approaches  As a standard against which the success or failure of each action is measured Goals serve at least three (3) purposes in the planning process:
  4. 4. Sources of Sectoral Goals Vision – Reality Gap Problem – Solution Finding Matrix Map Overlay Analysis Community-based Monitoring System Local Governance Performance Management System
  5. 5. The VRG as source of sectoral goals DESCRIPTORS SUCCESS INDICATORS CURRENT REALITY RATING VISION– REALITY GAP WHAT TO DO TO CLOSE THE GAP Peaceful 0% Crime rate 6 4 Highly skilled Full employment 4 6 Empowered Citizen participation 3 7
  7. 7. Map overlay analysis as source of sectoral goals Thematic Maps Overlaid Brief Description of Conflict Area Explanations for Conflict Implications when Unresolved Policy Options
  8. 8. FORMULATING SECTORAL GOALS THE SHORT METHOD  Treat the gap as a problem.  Invert, negate or reverse the negative condition to become a desirable state, hence, a goal. Goals Technically Derived Goal is the inverse of a problem GOAL = 1 PROBLEM Formulating Sectoral Goals
  9. 9. Squatting continues to exist Ad hoc approach to housing concerns Absence of permanent housing body Some settlements still exposed to environmental hazards Indigent families not a dequately served Existence of many private hospitals Incidence of drug abuse Loss of cultural artifacts Weak moral values Corruption prevalent Low-level appreciation for local culture and arts Weak promotion of culture and the arts High dependence on paid indoor recreation Some social issues not adequately addressed Limited space for public recreation Children/ youth play in the streets No scholarships for ordinary indigent students Most preschools and all colleges are privately owned Squatting stopped Housing concerns a ddressed regularly Permanent housing body created Settlements located in hazard-free areas Indigent families adequately served Existence of public and private hospitals Drug abuse eliminated Cultural artifacts preserved Strong moral values Corruption stopped or minimized Heightened appreciation for local culture and arts Sustained promotion of culture and the arts Reduced dependence on paid indoor recreation Social issues adequately addressed Ample space for public recreation Playgrounds provided for children/ youth Scholarships offered for or dinary indigent students Public and private preschools and colleges established
  10. 10. FORMULATING SECTORAL GOALS THE LONG METHOD 1. Follow the logic of the “Problem – Solution – Finding Matrix” a. Treat the vision – reality gap as an “observed condition” or new information created b. Subject the observed condition to the process of extracting intelligence and exploring policy implications FROMGAPSTO GOA LS
  11. 11. FORMULATING SECTORAL GOALS c. Proceed to complete the matrix by first determining the reasons for or causes of the observed gaps, then exploring the possible implications of the gaps if these continue to remain unfilled. d. Develop policy interventions targeting both implications and the explanations. 2. Formulate the policy interventions in the form of goal statements, i.e. “To + verb ...” Example: To make clean, safe water within reach of every household. foRMULATINGSECT ORAL GOALS
  12. 12. Sector Indicator Planning Area Larger Spatial Unit Smaller Spatial Uni ts A B C D Social Population growth rat e 2000 3.2% 2.8% 2.7% 2.0% 2.5% 3.0% 2003 3.0% 2.9% 3.0% 2.1& 2.5% 2.9% Literacy R ate 2000 95% 87% 98% 90% 88% 92% 2003 97% 88% 95% 92% 89% 94% Examples of Items, Statistics, Indicators What do these figures mean? 1
  13. 13.  This entails probing into the causes or explanations behind the observed condition s.  It asks the question, “Why?”  It provides the clue to finding more fundamental solutions by attacking the causes rather than the symptoms of the problems. 2
  14. 14. It asks the question, “So what?” if no significant intervention is made  Analysis can be extended further into determining appropriate policy interventions 3
  15. 15. Take NOTE! If positive implications predominate, then the observed condition may be regarded as a potential. If negative implications predominate, then the observed condition can be regarded as a problem. Formulate policies that either mitigate the inconvenience or solve the problem permanently.
  16. 16. Observed Conditions Explanations (Causes) Implications when unresolved Policy Options WHAT DO THESE FIGURES MEAN? WHY? SO WHAT? WHAT TO DO? SOLUTIONS
  17. 17. LDI System Map Overlays Observed Conditions Implications when no intervention is in troduced Explanations of Causative Fac tors Policy Interventions CBMS LGPMS Vision-Reality G ap Analysis Goal Statements
  18. 18. Observed Conditions Explanations (Causes) Implications when unresolved Policy Options GOAL
  19. 19. Thank you!