SEMESTER	  2	     2011   	   SSEH7689	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                	     SSEH7689	  	  	  	...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                                      	 ...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                             	          ...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                                        ...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                    	       SSEH7689	  	...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                              	       SS...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                                      	   SSEH7689	  	  ...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                                             	       SSEH7689	  	  ordin...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	               	     SSEH7689	  	  References	  Atherton, J.S. (2011). T...
Physical	  Development,	  Movement	  and	  Health	                	     SSEH7689	  	  Kirby, A. & Drew, S. (2003). Guide t...
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Stay in Step FMS Assessment Report

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Analysis of Stay in Step Assessment Data, and rationale for follow-up lesson.

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Stay in Step FMS Assessment Report

  1. 1. SEMESTER  2   2011   SSEH7689                                                                           Physical  Development,  Movement   and  Health   Assignment  2     Fundamental  Movement  Skills  ‘Stay  in  Step’   Assessment  Report       Due:  Friday  November  18th  2011   Sharon  McCleary   19113469      Unit  Co-­ordinator:  Julia  Creasy        
  2. 2. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689        List  of  Tables:  Table  1:  Summary  of  Stay  in  Steps  FMS  Rating  Categories  Table  2:  Methods  Used  To  Reinforce  Key  Skill  Criteria          List  of  Appendices:    Appendix  1:  Stay  in  Step  Test  Procedure  and  Rating  Category  Charts  Appendix  2:  Stay  in  Step  Lesson  Plan  and  Test  Results  Appendix  3:  Intervention  Lesson  Plan  Sharon  McCleary   2    
  3. 3. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689      Contents    Introduction .........................................................................................................................4  Stay  in  Steps  Screening  Test  Administration..........................................................................4  Analysis  of  Results .....................................................................................................................................4  Identification  of  Areas  of  Need .............................................................................................5  Intervention  Lesson  Plan.......................................................................................................5  Intervention  Lesson  Plan  Rationale ...........................................................................................................5  Reflection  of  Testing  and  Intervention  Process .....................................................................7  Implementation  of  Stay  In  Steps  Screening  Test .......................................................................................7  Implementation  of  Intervention  Lesson ....................................................................................................7  Conclusion ............................................................................................................................9  References..........................................................................................................................10  Sharon  McCleary   3    
  4. 4. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    Case  Study  Report  from  Stay  in  Steps  Screening  TestIntroduction  This  report  outlines  findings  generated  using  the  Stay  in  Steps  Screening  Test  as  a  method  of   identifying   Fundamental   Movement   Skills   (FMS)   requiring   intervention/further  consolidation   with   Pre-­‐Primary   age   students.     The   test   procedure   is   included   for  reference  in  Appendix  1.  Stay  in  Steps  Screening  Test  Administration  The   Stay   in   Steps   Screening   Test   was   administered   to   two   Pre-­‐Primary   aged   children   in   a  West   Australian   primary   school   on   21st   October,   2011.     The   first   child   (male,   5yrs)   was  affected   by   autism   and   did   not   complete   the   testing;   consequently   testing   was   carried   out  with   a   second   child   (female,   5yrs).     The   lesson   plan   and   test   results   are   included   for  reference  in  Appendix  2.  Analysis  of  Results  The  results  for  the  second  child  were  analysed  and  a  rating  allocated  to  each  skill  using  the   Rating   Categories   for   5-­‐year-­‐old   Girls   (Martin,   Hands   &   Lynch,   2001,   see   Appendix   1).    The  test  results  are  summarised  below:     Fundamental   Movement   Skill  Type   Overall  Rating   Skill   Balance  on  One  Leg   Body  Management   High   Bounce  and  Catch   Object  Control   Very  Low   Hop  for  Distance   Locomotor   Low   50m  Sprint  Run   Locomotor   Medium      TABLE  1:  Summary  of  Stay  in  Steps  FMS  Rating  Categories  Sharon  McCleary   4    
  5. 5. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    Identification  of  Areas  of  Need  The  child’s  main  area  of  need  is  the  Bounce  and  Catch  skill,  as  evidenced  by  the  ‘Very  Low’  rating  category.    A  secondary  area  of  need  is  the  Hop  for  Distance,  which  achieved  a  ‘Low’  rating.    The   results   for   Balance   produced   a   ‘High’   overall   rating,   however   the   figures   have   been  skewed   by   the   figure   for   the   right   leg.     The   low   result   for   the   left   leg   indicates   it   would  benefit  from  intervention.  Intervention  Lesson  Plan  The   intervention   lesson   plan   (see   Appendix   3)   focuses   on   the   main   area   of   need;  secondary  areas  are  used  in  transitions,  in  order  to  provide  variety,  maintain  confidence  and  ensure  success  in  some  areas.  Intervention  Lesson  Plan  Rationale  The   child   is   in   the   Elementary   Stage   of   the   Fundamental   Movement   Phase   of   Motor  Development,  as  indicated  by  her  age  and  performance  during  the  test  (control,  rhythm  and   temporal/spatial   sequencing).     Although   this   stage   is   age-­‐related,   the   acquisition   of  FMS  is  not  age-­‐dependent,  but  related  to  numerous  factors  within  the  task,  individual  and  environment,   specifically   opportunities   for   practise,   encouragement,   instruction   and  ecological  context  (Gallahue  &  Ozmun,  2006).  The   lesson   aimed   to   provide   these   opportunities,   in   order   to   build   knowledge   and  understanding  of,  and  consolidate,  the  main  focus  skill  in  an  enjoyable  context,  supporting  the   aim   of   promoting   positive   values   towards   physical   education   (Curriculum   Council,  1998).     The   warm-­‐up   exercises   targeted   pre-­‐requisite   skills,   increasing   the   chances   of  success   when   practising   the   main   skill   (i.e.   balancing   on   fingertips   prior   to  throwing/catching  the  ball).  The  body  of  the  lesson  consisted  of  four  activities  related  to  the  focus  skill,  increasing  in  difficulty  as  the  lesson  progressed.    It  used  the  Practise  Style  (Mosston  &  Ashworth,  1986)  because  it  provides  clear  role  expectations,  efficient  use  of  time  and  productive  learning  conditions  for  average-­‐ability  children  (Goldberger  &  Gerney,  1986),  as  well  as  games  and  Sharon  McCleary   5    
  6. 6. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    open-­‐ended   skills.     Links   to   other   curriculum   areas   were   also   made   (i.e.   Mathematics:  estimating,  counting  the  number  of  bounces;  English:using  letter  sounds  to  create  words).  Research   on   the   effectiveness   of   intervention   indicates   that   “skill   acquisition   emerges  from   the   interaction   of   the   child,   the   task   and   the   environment”   and   indicates   that  interventions   concentrating   on   the   underlying   motor   skills   and   those   focused   on   teaching  functional   tasks   specifically   aimed   at   the   deficient   area,   both   produce   significant  improvements  (Kirby&Drew,  2003,  pg  166).    Both  of  these  strategies  were  used,  as  can  be  seen   by   the   Balance   on   One   Foot   practise   incorporated   in   the   warm-­‐up,   which   is   a  supporting   skill   for   Hop   for   Distance,   and   the   “Popcorn”   game,   which   uses   direct  instruction  to  identify  key  components  of  the  Bounce  and  Catch  skill.  The   lesson   concluded   with   assessment   of   the   child’s   achievement   of   the   main   outcome,  through  questioning  and  re-­‐administering  the  20s  Bounce  and  Catch  Test,  as  a  game.    This  form   of   Ipsative   assessment   (i.e.   comparison   with   previous   personal   results)   (Atherton,  2011)   emphasises   the   link   between   quality   practise   and   positive   outcomes,   increasing  self-­‐efficacy.  Sharon  McCleary   6    
  7. 7. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    Reflection  of  Testing  and  Intervention  Process  Implementation  of  Stay  In  Steps  Screening  Test    The   demonstrations   in   the   screening   test   were   the   child’s   first   exposure   to   formal  instruction  for  several  of  the  skills,  directly  illustrating  the  common  misconception  among  educators   that   FMS   abilities   are   maturationally   determined   and   be   will   learned  automatically  (Gallahue  &  Ozmun,  2006).    The  ‘task-­‐analysis’  (Krause,  2010)  nature  of  the  instructions  allowed  her  to  easily  ‘learn’  the  correct  procedure,  however  she  was  clearly  operating   in   the   Cognitive   Stage   of   motor   learning   (Hill,   1993)   while   attempting   to  perform  some  skills;  as  a  result  her  performance  in  these  areas  was  highly  variable  and  characterised  by  a  large  number  of  errors  (Lay,  2011,  Slide  2).  I   was   surprised   at   the   low   results   for   some   of   the   tests,   and   related   it   to   limited    opportunities  for  practise,  one  of  the  main  factors  affecting  FMS  development.    The  child  regularly   participates   in   gymnastics,   and   displayed   relatively   strong   results   for   Balance,  reinforcing   the   validity   of   exposure   to   practise   influencing   skill   acquisition.     I   realised  integrated,  quality  physical  activity  experiences  are  a  crucial  requirement  for  students  to  progress   to   the   next   stage   of   motor   development   (i.e.   Mature   Stage),   and   that   these  opportunities   are   essential   for   their   social,   physical   and   emotional   development   and  should  be  provided  as  part  of  their  education  (CPAC,  2008).  Implementation  of  Intervention  Lesson    The  warm  up  games  and  transitions  were  effective  ways  of  increasing  lesson  FMS  content  and  providing  positive  experiences  which  maintained  engagement,  maximised  enjoyment  and  influenced  student  affect  positively.    The  affective  and  cognitive  domains  of  student  behaviour   have   the   potential   to   influence   motor   development   and   learning   (Gallahue   &  Ozmun,   2006;   Subramaniam   &   Silverman,   2007),   therefore   maintaining   high   levels   of  student  affect  is  essential  to  ensuring  motor  development.  Practising   the   skill   in   varied   contexts   with   increasing   degrees   of   difficulty   allowed   the  child   to   build   on   each   new   skill   learned   to   develop   the   next,   more   complex   skill,   as  described   by   Keogh   and   Sugden   (cited   in   Kirby&Drew,   2003),   providing   the   necessary  challenge   required   to   maintain   engagement.     The   child   actively   displayed   perseverance,  Sharon  McCleary   7    
  8. 8. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    one   of   Carroll’s   five   factors   influencing   learning   (cited   in   Ennis,   2009).     Using   games,  variety   of   activities   and   incorporating   a   strong   skill   focus   at   the   appropriate  developmental  level  are  effective  strategies  in  ensuring  sucessful  learning.  Repeated   reminders   of   the   skill   criteria   using   different   methods   directly   contributed   to  the   child   understanding   key   criteria,   re-­‐inforcing   links   between   the   Cognitive   and  Associative  stages  of  motor  development.    These  are  listed  in  Table  2  and  can  be  used  in  future  lessons.  Methods  Used  To  Reinforce  Key  Skill  Criteria:  Directly  stating  key  elements  during  demonstration  Questioning  during  practise  to  encourage  self-­‐assessment  and  metacognition  Using  specific  positive  feedback  e.g.  “I  like  the  way  you’re  looking  at  the  ball!”  Using  directed,  goal-­‐oriented  corrective  feedback  “Make  sure  you  keep  your  eyes  on  the  ball  when  it  comes  back  up.”  Demonstrating  incorrectly  and  requesting  corrective  feedback  from  the  child    (i.e.  identify  missing  elements,  or  incorrectly  performed  skill  components.  Using  fingers  as  memory  pegs  when  stating  each  criteria  in  sequential  order  of  performance.   TABLE  2:  Methods  Used  To  Reinforce  Key  Skill  Criteria  The   High   Ball   Throw   was   not   productive   because   the   child’s   ability   to   throw   vertically  was   insufficiently   developed,   resulting   in   excessive   intertrial   variability   i.e.   the   skill  practise   was   no   longer   closed/performed   in   a   predictable   environment.     During   the  lesson,   the   ball   was   thrown   for   the   child,   however,   it   still   proved   difficult   for   her   to   catch.    A  less  demanding  activity  (Ball  Rolling)  was  introduced  to  encourage  her  to  visually  track  the  ball.    Reducing  the  degree  of  difficulty  by  controlling  the  intertrial  variability  assisted  her  confidence,  allowing  the  level  of  difficulty  to  be  gradually  increased.  If  I  were  to  re-­‐deliver  this  lesson,  I  would  begin  with  rolling  the  ball,  and  using  Gentiles’s  Skill   Categories   gradually   vary   the   Environmental   Context   (ball   speed,   direction)   to  provide  controlled  intertrial  variability,  progressing  visual  tracking  to  a  speed  similar  to  that  of  the  bouncing  ball.    I  would  then  incorporate  tactile  learning  by  using  scarves  for  throwing/catching   (i.e.   introducing   the   vertical   element,   encouraging   hand-­‐eye   co-­‐Sharon  McCleary   8    
  9. 9. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    ordination),   before   progressing   with   the   Popcorn   Bounces.     I   would   also   use   pictorial  teaching-­‐cards  to  reinforce  key  elements.  Conclusion  The  Stay  in  Steps  Test  procedure  provides  an  efficient  and  effective  method  of  assessing  children’s   levels   of   performance   for   key   FMS.     The   rating   categories   give   quantitative  performance  guidelines  for  children  aged  between  4  and  7;  it  is  therefore  a  valuable  tool  for  identifying  FMS  in  need  of  improvement.    Deficiencies  can  be  rectified  early  through  tailored   intervention   programmes,   allowing   children   to   consolidate   key   skills,   progress  motor  development  and  meet  their  movement  skill  potential.                         (1208  words)    Sharon  McCleary   9    
  10. 10. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    References  Atherton, J.S. (2011). Teaching and Learning: Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/assessment.htmCPAC. (2008). Charter for Active Kids: A Blueprint for active and healthy children in Western Australia. Perth.Curriculum Council (Ed.). (1998). Curriculum Framework, Kindergarten to Year 12 Education in Western Australia (Health and Physical Education Learning Area Statement). Curriculum Council of Western Australia. Perth. WA. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.wa.edu.auEnnis, C., & Chen, A. (1993). Domain Specifications and Content Representiveness of the Revised Value Orientation Inventory. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 64(4). 436-446.Gallahue, D.L. & Ozmun, J.C. (2002). Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, adolescents, adults. 5th Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.Griffin, L., Dodds, P., Rovegno, I. (1996). Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teachers: Integrate everything you know to help students learn. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 67(9). P58-61.Goldberger, M. & Gerney, P. (1986). The Effects of Direct Teaching Styles on Motor Skill Acquisition of Fifth Grade Children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 57(3). 215-219.Hill, D. (1993). Taking Action: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education, Longman Cheshire, Australia.Housner, L., Metzler, M., Schempp, P. & Templin, T. (Ed.). (2009). Historic Traditions and Future Directions of Research on Teaching and Teacher Education in Physical Education. Fitness Information Technology. West Virginia.Sharon  McCleary   10    
  11. 11. Physical  Development,  Movement  and  Health     SSEH7689    Kirby, A. & Drew, S. (2003). Guide to Dyspraxia and Developmental Coordination Disorders, David Fulton Publishers, London.Landy, J. & Burridge, K. (2000). Ready-to-Use Motor Skills and Movement Station Lesson Plans for Young Children: Teaching, Remediation and Assessment, The Center for Applied Research in Education, USA.Landy, J. & Burridge, K. (1997). 50 Simple Things You Can Do To Raise a Child Who Is Physically Fit, Macmillan, USA.Lay, B. (2011). Introduction to Motor Learning & Motor Skills, Powerpoint Slides, 16/08/2011, School of Sport Science, Exercise & Health, UWA.Lees, A. & Lees, R. (2006). Personal Development, Health and Physical Education, Book 2, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill Education, NSW, Australia.Martin, M., Hands, B. & Lynch, P. (2001). Fundamental Movement Skills Learning, Teaching and Assessment: Preparing Children for an Active and Healthy Lifestyle. Steps Professional Development. Western Australia.Mosston, M. & Ashworth, S. (1986). Teaching Physical Education. 3rd Edition. Merrill Publishing Company. Sydney.Pangrazzi, R. & Beighle, A. (2011). Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children. 16th Edition. Pearson Education Inc.. California.Prusak, K. (2005). Teacher Talk. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 76(5). p21-25.Rink, J. & Hall, T. (2008). Research on Effective Teaching in Elementary School Physical Education. The Elementary School Journal. 108(3).p207-218.Silverman, S., Tyson, L. & Krampitz, J. (1992). Teacher Feedback and Achievement in Physical Education: Interaction with Student Practice. Teaching & Teacher Education 8(4). p333-344.Subramaniam, P. & Silverman, S. (2007). Middle School Studentsʼ Attitudes Toward Physical Education. Teaching & Teacher Education. 23. P602-611.Sharon  McCleary   11    

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