• Examining trees in past contexts enables students to appreciate their importance, sustainable future. develop historical perspectives, link the past with the present, and practise active citizenship in preserving their heritage. Science Society and EnvironmentScience Understanding Science Understanding Science as a Human Science Inquiry Skills Curriculum Framework Curriculum Framework Historical Knowledge & Historical SkillsLiving things have life Living things, including Endeavour Communicating ideas, explanations NSS 2.1 TCC 3.1 Understanding • Pose a range of questions aboutcycles (ACSSU072) plants and animals, Science knowledge helps and processes in a variety of ways, Understands that Understands there have The journey of at least one the past (ACHHS083)-making and recording depend on each other people to understand the including multi-modal texts elements of natural been significant events, world navigator, explorer or • Locate relevant information from thobservations of living and the environment to effect of their actions (ACSIS093) systems form people and ideas in trader up to the late 18 sources provided (ACHHS084)things as they develop survive (ACSSU073) (ACSHE062) Curriculum Framework: communities in which communities/societies at century including their • Identify different points of viewthrough their life cycles. -investigating how plants --exploring how science Earth & Beyond (EB3) each element depends particular times in the past. contacts with other societies (ACHHS085)-recognising provide shelter for has contributed to a Understands changes and patterns on another. TCC 3.3 and any impacts • Develop historical texts,environmental factors can animals. discussion about an issue in different environments and relates NSS 2.3 Understands that different (ACHHK078) particularly narrativesaffect life cycles such as -recognising that such as loss of habitat for them to resource use. Understands that groups perspectives on people, (ACHHS087)fire and seed germination. interactions between living things or how Life & Living (LL2) and communities obtain events and ideas at a • Use a range of communication living things may be human activity has Understands needs, features, goods and services to particular time can be forms (oral, graphic, written) and competitive or mutually changed the local functions of living things are related meet their needs and gained from historical digital technologies (ACHHS087) beneficial. environment. and change over time. wants. accounts.Science Understanding: Living things have life cycles Natural and Social Systems/ Historical Skills• Investigating Trees: What is a tree? Produce a class KWL chart (linked to Art) • Introduce Topic - What am I? Ask some students to select clues from a mystery bag and read Text: Burnie, D. (2010). Tree: From Seed to Mighty Forest. Five Mile Press. Australia. pg 1-27. them to the class: I exist in every country on the earth, but I am sightly different in each; I often live Investigate the history of trees – 350 million years, 2 types of trees remaining: Angiosperms for longer than people, but my heart is dead; I collect food and give out food; I live above the (have seeds and flowers) and Gymnosperms (have seeds but no flowers). Research the ground and below the ground etc function of different parts of the tree: roots, trunk, bark, seeds. Clarify vocabulary associated with • Why are trees important? What do we use them for? trees e.g. pollination, deciduous, transpiration, chlorophyll, germination, roots (epidermis, xylem, Texts: Burnie, D. (2010). Tree: From Seed to Mighty Forest. The Five Mile Press. Australia. Page phloem etc for high ability students). 38-34 ‘Treasure from Trees’.• http://video.about.com/forestry/Why-Do-Leaves-Change-Color-.htm. Work in pairs: Brainstorm as many items in your life as you can which have been produced using• Carl Linnaeus’ scientific naming system: 250 years ago, based on two word Latin names: trees. Look around the classroom to start. Share ideas with the class, using Inspiration (Graphic Genus, followed by Species. Record keeping-compare modern day techniques with historical – Organiser Software) to help classify items with the class e.g. Food, Furniture, Shelter, Educationa Darwin’s descriptions, naming system (new species named after discoverers), Bank’s drawings. Recreational, Tools, Fibres, Warmth, Memorials, Medicine.• Tree hunt (pairs): Examine the school grounds for different types of trees. Identify whether • Country Trading Game (Groups of 4-6) Provide each group with a description of their ‘country’ they are angiosperms or gymnosperms, and which sub-class they belong to: Monocots, Dicots, and its resources in an A4 envelope. Ensure some are ‘richer’ in certain resources than others. Cycads, Ginko, Conifers, Primitive Angiosperm. Take photos and create a classification display. Explain that students must work out ways to supply their own basic needs for food, shelter, water, Extension Text: Beattie, A. (1995). Australia’s Living Wealth: Biodiversity: Exploring Australia’s clothing etc. Discuss the needs for co-operation and trade to ensure survival (2012: UN Plants, animals and micro-organisms. National Library of Australia. Australia. International Year of Co-ops), and the responsible use of resources.• How did the boab tree get to Australia? Create salt water solution and soak seeds for 2 days. • Investigate ways in which Aboriginal people traded between groups, including Macassans and Plant seeds and see if they can still grow. Carefully document the procedure and findings. Papuans on the north coast, and managed their natural resources before European settlement. Texts: Tucker, A. (1994). Too Many Captain Cooks. Omnibus Books. Sydney.Science Understanding: Living things depend on each other and the environment Lowe, P. & Pike, J. (1990). Jilji, Life in the Great Sandy Desert. Magabala Books, Broome.• Why are they important for our ecosystems? • What is an explorer? What were they looking for? Why were they exploring the world? Photosynthesis, producers, food chain, oxygen release, habitat providers, soil retention. Discuss exploring unknown territory, past and present, in different contexts.• Investigate the habitat supported by a tree at home/school. How do living things interact? Text: Macinnis,P. (2009). Australian Backyard Explorer. National Library of Australia. Australia. Text: Cherry, L. (1990). The Great Kapok Tree. Gulliver Books, San Diego. Websites: http://www.ndlrn.edu.au; http://www.thelearningfederation.edu.au Pyers, G. (2006). Australia’s Ecosystems. Echidna Press. Victoria. Tonkin, R. (2006). Leaf Litter: Exploring the Mysteries of a Hidden World. HarperCollins. USA.• Discuss the effect of climate on trees around the world and the Biomes. Distribute forest classification cards to the students and ask them to identify where in the world these forests occur, describing tree types and climates e.g Boral, Temperate Coniferous, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Rainforest, Tropical Rainforest, Tropical Seasonal. Display locations on the Blue Planet Artwork. Texts: Johnson, H. (1993). The International Book of Trees. Mitchell Beazley. London. Allen, R. & Baker, K. (2009). Australia’s Remarkable Trees. The Miegunyah Press. Victoria. Burnie, D. (2010). Tree: From Seed to Mighty Forest. Five Mile Press. Australia. pg 46-53.• People helping trees help people: Gordon H. Sato’s work involving modification of environments to cultivate tree growth in Eritrea and Morocco, positively impacting world poverty and hunger. Discuss the impact of personal experiences and science in this story. Text: Roth, S. & Trumbore, C. (2011). The Mangrove Tree: Planting Trees to Feed Families. Lee & Low Books Inc. New York.
Text: Baker, J. (1988). Where the Forest Meets The Sea. Walker Books. UK. discovered? Why did they need/want to discover it? http://nfsa.gov.au/collection/film-australia-collection (Short film, 10 mins). Discuss the impact of • What role did trees have in encouraging early world exploration? Explore reasons for humans on the Daintree Rainforest and the effects of urban development on wildlife. exploration, including trade, new timbers for shipbuilding, new plants for use as spices, medicines• Introduced species: Use texts to demonstrate how introduced species ‘adapt’ to the local foods. How did explorers rely on trees for shelter, food, communication (i.e. ‘leave evidence of climate and conditions, and can severely affect local ecosystems: landing’ was often done by engraving trees: Mermaid Tree, The Dig Tree, Leichhardt Tree.) Plants: Baker, J. (1995). The Story of Rosy Dock. Random House. Australia. • Jigsaw: Students to use provided texts to create a short, group poster-presentation of a - www.filmaust.com.au/programs/default.asp?sn=3922 designated world explorer: Marco Polo, Columbus, Magellan, Amundsen, Mary Kingsley. - www.filmaust.com.au/programs/teachers_notes/3922_rosydock.pdf Texts: Freedman, R. (2006). The Adventures of Marco Polo. Arthur A. Levine Books. New York. Animals: Lester, A. (2011) One Small Island: Maquarrie Island. Rogers, D. (1993). Famous Explorers. Wayland Publishers. England. -http://www.penguin.com.au/educationcentre/pdf/teachers_notes/PDF/9780670072361.pdf • Who were/are some female explorers? Alison Hargreaves, Gertrude Bell, Amy Johnson, Ellen Animals: Kendall, S. (2008). Quoll. Windy Hollow Books. Victoria. MacArthur, Harriet Chalmers Adams. What are the additional challenges they may have faced? Discuss the importance of the Gumurr Marthakal Rangers’ contribution to the Island Ark project. Do you think these challenges are still present today? Are they present in the• Use the differentiated texts to discover important events in Charles Darwin’s life. Contribute school/sports/classroom environment? What do you think needs to happen for this to change? facts/drawings which show his contribution to current scientific thinking: Theory of Evolution etc. www.pioneerwomen.com.au; www.distinguishedwomen.com; Sis, P. (2003). The Tree of Life: Charles Darwin. Walker Books. London. • Who were some key Australian explorers and what was their relationship with Aboriginal Lawson, K. (2003). Darwin and Evolution for Kids: His Life & Idea. Chicago Review Press. US. guides? Use fishbone templates to show joint achievement of key events. Stewart, R. ( 2005). Charles Darwin’s Big Idea: The Revolutionary Theory of Evolution. Hyland Texts: Tucker, A. (1998). Side by Side. Omnibus Books. Sydney. House, Victoria. Bingham, J. (2008). Captain Cook’s Pacific Explorations. Heinemann. UK. Moore, H. (2009). Great Naturalists: Charles Darwin. Heinemann. UK. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/australia.shtml Gamlin, L. (1993). Eyewitness Books: Evolution. Dorling Kindersley. UK. • Create a summary scroll for an Australian explorer and link it to places of discovery on the map. Schanzer, R. (2009). What Darwin Saw: The Journey that Changed the World. National i.e. mark highways/ places that have been named after them e.g. Eyre highway. Geographic. US. • Drama/Role Play: Seat the class in a circle, and select students to act out the story of Burke and• Deforestation – investigate effects on soil and habitats. Create 2 identical geological strata Will’s journey in the centre (Teacher directs, narrates and explains, using the pictures in the text to models in glass trays using dark soil, light soil, cement powder, salt, flour, crushed pasta, dried assist students visualising the journey). Pre-prepare spoken text for key parts of the story. lentils, hot chocolate, cereal, small pebbles. Place plasticine tree trunks and roots in one tray, Teacher text: Burke & Wills: Text: Jensen, J. & Barrett, P. (1996). Burke and Wills. Future leaving the other empty. Investigate the effects of wind and water on the top soil. Horizons Publishing, Queensland. - The Learning Federation:R7215 Paper Trail, the Life and Times of a Woodchip, 1991: Student text: Harvey, R. (1985). Burke and Wills. Five Mile Press. Victoria. Unprotected forests in danger – video. These texts can also be used by the students to produce a written retell, using graphic organisers• Elimination Draw: Discuss how we can use science to minimise our impact on trees and the or timelines. Higher ability students can use the teacher text. environment and reduce paper consumption. Use an elimination draw to decide ways to assist • Compare Captain Cook’s and Joseph Banks’ journals to gain different perspectives of the same the school community become ecowarriors. event. How important were the journals to our current knowledge? Text: Child. L (2001). Clarice Bean: What Planet Are You From? Orchard Books. London. http://southseas.nla.gov.au/journals; and Macinnis, P. (2009). Australian Backyard Explorers. NLA • Photograph: Captain Cook’s Chest – what was in it? Give one/get one to produce a list of possible items. Research actual items taken on long exploration journeys: th Website: www.thelearningfederation.edu.au: R6267 Captain Cook’s Travelling Chest, mid-18 Century. • Students then create their own ‘exploration adventure’, past/present, detailing the purpose, duration of journey, destinations, and documenting different climate, plants and animals observed in each place in a journal. Students can use a blog to describe their adventures and display photos/videos of trees/habitats observed.
arts works & to engage in making responses. (ACMNG090) tables, column, line and without digital technologies. arts activities with others. Use scaled instruments picture graphs. (ACMNA080) to measure and (ACMSP096) compare lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures (ACMNG084) Art Geometry• Create a class tree, modelled on observed trees in the school or at Kings Park: Use cardboard • Latitude and Longitude – co-ordinate mapping on map of the world and map of Australia. Use and paints/textured fabric for the trunk. Use various coloured paints/fabrics to create different ordinates to identify explorers’ routes, and link to climate of biomes in science. coloured/textured leaves for the tree. Write questions that the class wants to know in the trunk • Create leaf tessellations. See website: www.tessellations.org of the tree, and some known facts on the leaves. Students can contribute items to the class tree any time during the unit e.g. words, poems, songs, stories, drawings, pictures, sculptures. Data Representation:• Explore the school grounds and collect several leaves from trees. Produce a leaf rubbing using • Conduct a survey of the amount and type of goods recycled in the classroom and produce a charcoal, then enlarge the outline using scale grids. Use the templates to produce 5-6 plain pictograph. paper leaves, using artists pencils to produce different colours and shades of the leaf. As the • Plant a dried chick pea and plot a line graph of growth over time. Use the line graph to unit progresses, write answers to some of the questions on each leaf and place it on the investigate the growth rate. Compare growth rates with a partner’s graph and investigate the branches of the KWL tree. relationship between the slope of the line and the rate of growth.• Explore the paintings of Marianne North, an explorer who began her travels in 1871, at the age of 40, and travelled for 13 years to produce 832 paintings detailing plants from North America, Jamaica, Brazil, Japan, Australia, Java and more, which are on display at Kew Gardens. Measurement: http://www.kew.org.collections/art-images/marianne-north/marianne-and-kew/index.htm• Intentional drawing: life cycle of a tree, growth of a seed. Timelapse: 1 Year in an Oak Tree’s • Estimate and calculate accurately the distance travelled by explorers. Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bUDylndVoY&feature=fvwrel • Calculate the perimeter and area of world temperate forests and rainforests, and/or different siz• Collect a plant specimen from the school grounds. Draw original specimen using lead and leaves. coloured pencils/watercolours; press and display dried specimen, and create plant record.• Produce a tree collage to contribute to a class forest collage. Use a combination of natural and synthetic materials (Jeannie Baker and Mangrove Tree style). Financial Maths:• Use ‘The Blue Planet’ template of the world map and atlases showing natural landforms and • Problems involving the value of goods produced from trees. E.g. fruit, fabric, tea. features. Assign each student a square of the map to represent using paint and creating colour • Calculate the cost of food requirements for a planned exploration trip. and texture with plaster, sawdust, acrylic paint, thickener, tools for creating lines/scratches/dots. • Create a set budget for an exploration trip to specific destinations. Estimate the cost based on Assemble textured world map. given prices (i.e. fuel, food and medical supplies, labour, etc) Text: Strong, D. ( 2004). Focus on Art in Society and Environment. MacMillan Ed. Australia.• ‘Return of Burke and Wills to Coopers Creek’, Nicholas Chevalier (1828-1902_(sourced from Ross, J & Booth, A. (2008). Every Picture Tells A Story: Adventures in Australian Art. Craftsman House. Victoria). Why has the artist chosen to use engraving? What does the material choice Number and Algebra (Problem solving): say about the longevity of this story? How does it contribute to the overall mood of the picture? • Multiplication and Division problems – tree planting arrays; tree usage data per capita.• ‘Rabbits Plague Round-up Into Old Mine’, Sam Byrne (1883-1978) (sourced from Ross, J & • Fibonacci Numbers (The Rabbit Problem). Booth, A. (2008). Every Picture Tells A Story: Adventures in Australian Art. Craftsman House. • Addition and Subtraction – tree usage and tree planting problems; Victoria). • Rates of deforestation, estimates of time taken for reforestation of given areas of forest, rates o Discuss how the picture tells the story of the impact of the rabbit on Australian farming after its paper consumption. introduction (for hunting) by Thomas Austin in 1859, including the life-cycle of a rabbit (48 bunnies per year per female) and the various methods and technologies used to control their spread (The Patent Rabbit Extractor, the engineered diseases myxomatosis and calicivirus, using natural predators as well as netting and shooting).Music• Learn the Traditional Welsh song “The Ash Tree” and perform it as a class during an assembly.• Learn “The Little Birch Tree” on the recorder. Play in rounds and perform as a class at an assembly.• If it is near Christmas, learn “O Christmas Tree’ and discuss symbolism of the evergreen tree.• Investigate music which has been inspired by Trees. e.g.Schubert’s ‘Der Lindenbaum’, Respighi’s ‘Pines of Rome’, Sibelius: 5 pieces for Piano: When the Rowan Tree Flowers, The Solitary Fir Tree, The Aspen, The Birch Tree, The Spruce. -Link it to the country the composer was in (or thinking of) when he/she composed the piece,