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VERTEBRAL COLUMN 
By 
Sharmin Susiwala 
FY BPT
•Vertebral column consists of a number of separate 
irregular bones called VERTEBRAE 
•Forms the central axis of the body....
• Vertebrae are named according to region in which they lie. 
• There are 33 vertebrae but only 31 spinal nerves. 
Vertebr...
Characteristics of a vertebrae: 
• A typical vertebrae has two parts: 
1. Body- anterior or ventral part. 
2. Arch-posteri...
1. Body of vertebrae: 
• It is nearly cylindrical in shape, the size and shape varying in vertebrae of different regions. ...
2. Vertebral (neural) arch: 
• The vertebral arch consists of: 
I. A pair of pedicles. 
II. A pair of lamina. 
III. Seven ...
Surfaces: 
Medial---forms lateral boundary of vertebral column. 
Lateral---free and rough. 
Borders: 
Anterior—united with...
Lamina: 
• Broad plates of bone lying behind and medial to pedicles. 
• They fuse behind in the median plane into the spin...
B. Articular process: 
 4 in number, 2 superior and 2 inferior. 
 Arise from the junction of pedicles and laminae. 
Supe...
C. Transverse processes: 
• 2 in number. 
• Project laterally from the junction of pedicle and lamina. 
• In thoracic regi...
Anatomy of Vertebral Column
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Anatomy of Vertebral Column

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Anatomy of Vertebral Column

  1. 1. VERTEBRAL COLUMN By Sharmin Susiwala FY BPT
  2. 2. •Vertebral column consists of a number of separate irregular bones called VERTEBRAE •Forms the central axis of the body. •Functions: Protects spinal cord. Supports and transmits body weight. Provides attachment to axial muscles. Provides movement of the trunk.
  3. 3. • Vertebrae are named according to region in which they lie. • There are 33 vertebrae but only 31 spinal nerves. Vertebrae Number Spinal Nerve Number Cervical 7 Cervical 8 Thoracic 12 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral 5 Sacral 5 Coccygeal 4 Coccygeal 1 • In adults, 5 sacral vertebrae fuse together to form ‘sacrum’ 4 coccygeal vertebrae fuse together to form ‘coccyx’.
  4. 4. Characteristics of a vertebrae: • A typical vertebrae has two parts: 1. Body- anterior or ventral part. 2. Arch-posterior or dorsal part (also called neural arch). • Vertebral foramen: lies between the body and arch. • Vertebrae are placed one above the other with intervertebral discs between them and forms a vertebral canal(spinal canal) which lodges the spinal cord with its meninges and blood vessels.
  5. 5. 1. Body of vertebrae: • It is nearly cylindrical in shape, the size and shape varying in vertebrae of different regions. • It possesses 6 surfaces: Upper, Lower, Anterior, Posterior and two Lateral. i. Upper and Lower surfaces – Rough and provide attachment to intervertebral discs. ii. Anterior surface – convex fom side to side; concave from above downwards; it also bears few small openings for passage of veins. iii. Posterior surface – flat from above downwards; slightly concave side to side; it also bears one or more large openings of exit of basi-vertebral vein and a no of small foramina for nutrient arteries. iv. Lateral surface – continuous with anterior surface and has the same features. • Bodies of vertebrae lie one above another separated by intervertebral disc and form the central axis.
  6. 6. 2. Vertebral (neural) arch: • The vertebral arch consists of: I. A pair of pedicles. II. A pair of lamina. III. Seven processes: o Spinous ---- one o Articular ---- four o Transverse --- two  The arch is connected to the body by pedicles. Pedicles: • Short, thick processes pass backward from the junction of lateral and posterior surfaces of the body. • Possess 2 surfaces and 4 borders.
  7. 7. Surfaces: Medial---forms lateral boundary of vertebral column. Lateral---free and rough. Borders: Anterior—united with the body. Posterior—united with the lamina. Superior---concave which forms superior vertebral notch. Inferior---concave which forms inferior vertebral notch. Intervertebral foramen: When two vertebrae articulate with each other the inferior vertebral notch of the vertebrae above together with the superior vertebral notch of the vertebrae below form the intervertebral foramen. Transmits: Spinal nerves and vessels.
  8. 8. Lamina: • Broad plates of bone lying behind and medial to pedicles. • They fuse behind in the median plane into the spinous process. • They form posterior boundary of vertebral foramen. Processes: A. Spinous process----  Passes backwards and downwards from the junction of the two laminae.  Shape and size varies in vertebrae of different regions.  Gives attachment to muscles and ligaments.
  9. 9. B. Articular process:  4 in number, 2 superior and 2 inferior.  Arise from the junction of pedicles and laminae. Superior articular process: i. Project upwards from the junction of laminae and pedicles. ii. Articular surface faces more or less backwards. iii. Articulate with inferior articular processes of the vertebrae. Inferior articular process: i. Project downwards. ii. Articular surface faces more or less forwards. iii. Articulate with superior articular processes of the vertebrae below.
  10. 10. C. Transverse processes: • 2 in number. • Project laterally from the junction of pedicle and lamina. • In thoracic region they articulate with ribs. The most important distinguishing feature of vertebrae of different regions is----- Cervical: Presence of a foramen in the transverse process, called Foramen Transversarium. Thoracic: Presence of costal facets on the body Lumbar: No foramen transversariumand no costal facets on the body.

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