Rizal an OphthalmicSurgeon in Hong Kong (1891-1892)
After the publication of El Filibusterismo, Rizal left Europe for Hong Kong and stayed there for 7 months.He decided to leave Europe because of the following reasons: ◦ Political differences with Marcelo H. del Pilar and other compatriots in Spain. ◦ To be near the Philippines and his family
Two weeks after the publication of the El Filibusterismo, Rizal left Ghent for Paris where he stayed for a few days to bid good bye to his friends.From Paris, he rode a train to Marseilles where he boarded the steamer Melbourne, bound for Hong Kong.He brought with him a recommendation letter given by Juan Luna addressed to Manuel Camus, a compatriot living in Singapore plus 600 copies of the El Filibusterismo.Farewell Europe
There were 80 passengers, mostly Europeans and Rizal was the only Asian.There was an incident involving Rizal and the German ladies but eventually, the latter end up treating the former with admiration and respect.Melbourne
November 20, 1891Rizal was welcomed by Filipino residents headed by his friend Jose Maria Basa.He stayed in No. 5 D’ Aguilar Street, No. 2 Rednaxola Terrace where he opened his clinic.Rizal Arrived in Hong Kong
Sent a letter to Rizal informing him about the sad news of the deportation of 25 persons from Calamba, including Don Francisco, Saturnina, Narcisa Paciano and him.He also told Rizal that he wrote a letter addressed to the Queen Regent of Spain explaining their situation and if the Queen will not listen, then, he will ask Queen Victoria of England for help.Manuel Hidalgo
Before Christmas of 1891, Don Francisco, Paciano and Silvestre Ubaldo arrived in Hong Kong.Days after Doña Teodora, Lucia and Josefa and Trinidad also arrived.Doña Teodora – then 65 years old and almost blind. ◦ She suffered so much from the hands of the Spaniards ◦ In 1890, she was arrested on the flimsy charge of not using her surname Realonda, despite of her age and blindness she was forced by the officers to walk from Calamba to Santa Cruz.Rizal Family Reunited in HongKong
The Christmas of 1891 is the happiest celebration in Rizal’s lifeAsing – Rizal’s cook in Hong Kong
In order to earn a living for himself, Rizal practiced medicine.Dr. Lorenzo Marques – a Portuguese physician who became his friend and admirer, helped him to build up a wide clientele.In due time Rizal became a successful and well-known medical practitioner in the British Colony.Rizal the Ophthalmic Surgeon inHong Kong
He successfully operated his mother’s eyes so that she was able to read and write again.Aside from being an eye specialist, Rizal was also a general practitioner, because there was an epidemic
Because of the hardship of the Calamba folks under Gov. Gen. Valeriano Weyler, Rizal conceived the establishment of a Filipino colony in North Borneo (Sabah).He planned to move the landless Filipino families to that rich British owned island.On March 7, 1892, Rizal went to Sandakan on board the ship Menon to negotiate with the British authorities.Borneo Colonization Project
The British authorities of Borneo were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100,000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor and a good government for 999 years, free of all charges.Manuel Hidalgo – objected to the project
Replaced WeylerOffered a fine program of governmentRizaloffered his cooperation to him but he did not even acknowledged.Governor General Eulogio Despujol
His writings were published by Hong Kong Telegraph edited by Frazier Smith ◦ Ang Mga Karapatan Nang Tao – Rizal’s version of the Rights of Man, a historic document proclaimed in the French Revolution of 1789. ◦ A la Nacion Española (To the Spanish Nation) – this article was Rizal’s appeal to Spain to rectify the wrong done to the landless peasants of Calamba. ◦ Sa Mga Kababayan (To My Countrymen) – this article was Rizal’s exposition on the Calamba agrarian problem.Writings of Rizal in Hong Kong
La Liga Filipina – The Philippine LeagueRizal drafted its constitution while he was in Hong Kong with the help of Jose Maria Basa. ◦ Motto: One Like All (Unus Instar Omnium) ◦ Membership is based on endorsements and passing certain tests. ◦ Three levels of organizational councils: Popular Provincial SupremeRizal Lays Down the Basis of theLa Liga Filipina
Unificationof the whole archipelago into a vigorous, compact bodyMutual protection in every part and necessityDefense against all forms of violence and injusticeStimulation of instruction, agriculture and commerceUndertaking of study and application of reformsAims of the La Liga
To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization projectTo establish the La Liga Filipina in ManilaTo prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid that he, being comfortable and safe in Hong Kong, had abandoned the country’s cause. ◦ Published in La SolidaridadDecision to Return to Manila
Because of the said writing, Rizal told Mariano Ponce of his disappointment because Marcelo H. del Pilar is allowing such comments in the newspaperRizal’s relatives and friends opposed to his planTrinidad – warned her brother to remain in Hong Kong for he will be killed in the Philippines.
He evidently had a premonition of death because the day after his birthday, he wrote two letters, sealed and inscribed in each envelope ‘TO BE OPENED AFTER MY DEATH’He gave it to Dr. Marques for safekeepingThe first letter is addressed to Rizal’s parents, siblings and friends.The second letter is addressed to the FilipinosRizal spent his 31st Birthday
June 21, 1892 – another letter was made by Rizal addressed to Gov. Gen. Despujol.In this letter he informed the Governor of his homecoming and placed himself under the protection of the Spanish governmentRizal with his sister left Hong Kong for ManilaThey carried a special passport issued by the Spanish consul general in Hong Kong.
Immediately after the departure of Rizal, the consul general sent a cablegram to Gov. Despujol that the victim “is in the trap”On the same day, a secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitationRizal Falls into Spanish Trap
Luis de la Torre – secretary of Gov. Despujol was ordered to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen so that he might take proper action against one who had the protection of a strong nation.
June 26, 1892 – (12 noon) Rizal and his sister Lucia arrived in Manila.They stayed in Hotel de Oriente (Room 22), facing Binondo ChurchGovernor-General Despujol – was visited by Rizal ◦ Agreed to pardon his father, but not the rest of his familyRizal’s Second Homecoming
Rizalvisited his sisters Narcisa and Saturnina.He even visited his friends in Central Luzon ◦ He boarded a train on June 27 in Tutuban Station and went to Malolos, San Fernando, Tarlac and Bacolor.
July 3, 1892Doroteo Ongjungco – a Chinese Filipino mestizo who lives in Ylaya Street TondoHis house was the venue of the founding of the La Liga FilipinaFounding of La Liga Filipina
Pedro Serrano Laktaw – Panday PiraDomingo Franco – Felipe LealJose Ramos – SocorroAmbrosio Salvador –Bonifacio Arevalo – HaremDeodato ArellanoAmbrosio Flores – MusaAgustin de la RosaMoises Salvador - ArawMembers
July 6, 1892 – when Rizal came to visit the Gov. Gen. Despujol, suddenly, he was showed some printed leaflets which were allegedly found in Lucia’s pillow casesRizal arrested and jailed
Pobres Frailes (Poor Friars) – incriminatory leaflets under the authorship of Fr. Jacinto and printed by the Imprenta de los Amigos del Pais, Manila. ◦ A satire against the rich Dominican friars who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their monastic vow of poverty
Ramon Despujol – nephew of the Gov. Gen. who escorted Rizal in Fort SantiagoJuly 7, 1892 – Gaceta de Manila published the arrest of Rizal
Governor General Despujol ordered the deportation of Rizal in one of the islands in the South.Charges: ◦ Publication and introduction of various anti- monastic books and handbills ◦ Travelling through different provinces without permit from the Governor General ◦ Finding in his luggage the pamphlet Pobres Frailes which mocked the religious ordersRizal Deported to Dapitan
◦ Dedication of the El Filibusterismo to GOMBURZA ◦ Rizal’s attempts at de-Catholicizing and de- nationalizing the Filipino peopleRizal stayed in Fort Santiago for nine days before his deportation in DapitanJuly 15, 1892 – Rizal boarded the steamer Cebu, sailing to Dapitan