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Final Content Review

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Final Content Review

  1. 1. BY 123 Content Review<br />FINAL EXAM<br />
  2. 2. Question 1<br />Use the picture above to explain the lytic cycle.<br />
  3. 3. Question 2<br />Use the picture above to explain the lysogenic cycle.<br />
  4. 4. Question 3<br /><ul><li>The fact that the majority of human newborns weigh around 7 pounds is reflective of ________________. </li></ul>directional selection <br />stabilizing selection <br />disruptive selection <br />None of these is correct.<br />All of the above are possibilities<br />
  5. 5. Question 4<br />Describe the structure of a virus. <br />
  6. 6. Question 5<br />What is natural theology?<br />
  7. 7. Question 6<br />Which statement most accurately reflects what population geneticists refer to as &quot;fitness&quot;? <br />Fitness is the measure of an organism&apos;s adaptability to various habitats. <br />Fitness reflects the number of mates each individual of the population selects. <br />Fitness refers to the relative health of each individual in the population. <br />Fitness is a measure of the contribution of a genotype to the gene pool of the next generation. <br />
  8. 8. Question 7<br />What is a mass extinction? How are mass extinctions related to adaptive radiation?<br />
  9. 9. Question 8<br />Summarize the flow of genetic information during replication of a retrovirus. Indicate the enzymes that catalyze this flow.<br />_____________  ____________ __________<br />Enzymes: (where does the RNA polymerase come from—virus or host?)<br />
  10. 10. Question 9<br /><ul><li>Bacteria can undergo genetic recombination. Which of the following is NOT a mechanism by which bacteria can obtain extra novel DNA?</li></ul>Transformation<br />Conjugation<br />Translocation<br />Transduction<br />All of the above<br />
  11. 11. Question 10<br />How do viruses get into cells?<br />#1________<br />#2________<br />
  12. 12. Question 11<br />What is a deme? <br />Differentiate between intraspecific variation and interspecific variation. <br />
  13. 13. Question 12<br />Who was Cuvier? What theory was he a proponent for? <br />
  14. 14. Question 13<br />Using the Hardy-Weinberg Principle, which expression represents the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype? <br />p2<br />2pq<br />q2<br />q<br />2pq2<br />
  15. 15. Question 14<br />Why can’t natural selection fashion perfect organisms?<br />
  16. 16. Question 15<br />What is gradualism? Who proposed it?<br />
  17. 17. Question 16<br />What killed the dinosaurs? (Both theories)<br />
  18. 18. Question 17<br />What is Pangea? How long ago did it come together? What did it eventually separate to form?<br />
  19. 19. Question 18<br /><ul><li>Transfer of genes by viruses is called ________.</li></ul>Conjugation<br />Mutation<br />Transduction<br />Transformation<br />Transposon<br />
  20. 20. Question 19<br />What is allometric growth?<br />
  21. 21. Question 20<br />Two species of dragons are mated at Hogwarts and produce viable, but sterile offspring. What type of reproductive barrier is this? <br />
  22. 22. Question 21<br />What is uniformitarianism? Who proposed it and what was his influence?<br />
  23. 23. Question 22<br />Differentiate between allopatric and sympatric speciation. <br />
  24. 24. Question 23<br /><ul><li>When harmless Streptococcus pneumoniae are mixed with heat-killed, broken-open cells of pathogenic bacteria, live pneuomonia-causing bacteria are found in culture. </li></ul>Conjugation<br />Mutation<br />Transduction<br />Transformation<br />Transposon<br />
  25. 25. Question 24<br />Embryos of two species of unicorns bred in the forest usually abort. <br />
  26. 26. Question 25<br />Compare/contrast how Aristotle and Linnaeus felt about species and their ability to change. <br />
  27. 27. Question 26<br />What is the niche rule? What could happen if two species in a the same niche try to compete (give all possibilities)?<br />
  28. 28. Question 27<br />Differentiate between the gradual model and punctuated equilibrium model for the tempo of speciation. <br />
  29. 29. Question 28<br /><ul><li>It is possible to artificially induce all virally infected cells to simultaneously lyse by exposing them to UV light or X-rays.Which of the following phases did the viruse occupy prior to UV exposure?</li></ul>Growth lag phase<br />Lytic phase<br />Initiation phase<br />Lysogenic phase<br />Lytic-lysogenic intermediation phase<br />
  30. 30. Question 29<br /><ul><li>For evolution to occur, we have to have a production of genotypic variation that is expressed in the phenotype. (Recessive genes can hide for years because they are not expressed to the environment). How do we get this variation?</li></li></ul><li>Question 30<br />Once we get the variation, we reduce it. (Natural selection: “what combination of genes is best for the environment?”) Reduction happens through….<br />
  31. 31. Question 31<br />So far, we have gotten variation, reduced it, and NOW we want to maintain it. How do you maintain variation?<br />
  32. 32. Question 32<br />One species of bunny rabbit hops around when trying to mate with the female, while the other species eats five carrots while standing on one leg when trying to mate with the male. What reproductive barrier is seen in this example?<br />
  33. 33. Question 33<br /><ul><li>The source of most of the genetic variation found in bacterial populations is ________. </li></ul>Conjugation<br />Mutation<br />Transduction<br />Transformation<br />Transposon<br />
  34. 34. Question 34<br />Distinguish between allopolyploidy and autoploidy. <br />
  35. 35. Question 35<br />Describe/say everything you must know about the equations/variable involved in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to effectively solve problems given on the test. <br />
  36. 36. Question 36<br />What is continental drift?<br />
  37. 37. Question 37<br />A virus killed most of the seals in the North Sea (e.g., dropped the population from 8000 to 800). In an effort to help preserve the species, scientists caught 20 seals and used them to start a new population in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Which of the following factors would most likely have the least impact in this new population?<br />Founder effect<br />Random mating<br />Genetic drift<br />Bottleneck effect<br />None of the above<br />
  38. 38. Question 38<br />What are the three modes of natural selection? Describe them. <br />
  39. 39. Question 39<br />Two species of lemurs mate at different times during the summer. What reproductive barrier is seen here?<br />
  40. 40. Question 40<br /><ul><li>Drifting alleles can disappear all together from the population gene pool. If all but one allele for a given gene disappears, the proportion of individuals who carry it will never stray from 100 percent, unless which of the following occurs?</li></ul>Genetic drift<br />Spontaneous mutation<br />Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is satisfied<br />Forced selection<br />None of the above<br />
  41. 41. Question 41<br />What is cline? What are the two biological rules that relate to varying geographical areas?<br />
  42. 42. Question 42<br /><ul><li>Define species ($50 definition)</li></li></ul><li>Question 43<br />How does comparative biology support Darwin’s theory of evolution?<br />
  43. 43. Question 44<br />What conditions are necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?<br />
  44. 44. Question 45<br /><ul><li>Two species of piggies mate and produce offspring but the hybrid’s offspring are sterile. </li></li></ul><li>Question 46<br />Describe the basic structure of HIV and how it works (in as much detail as Dr. Cusic explained it). <br />
  45. 45. Question 47<br />What was Lamarck’s theory of evolution? Describe this in as much detail as Dr. Cusic did during lecture!<br />
  46. 46. Question 48<br />What is coevolution?<br />
  47. 47. Question 49<br />What is an exaptation? <br />
  48. 48. Question 50<br />What are prions and what kinds of conditions do they cause? Describe these. <br />
  49. 49. Question 51<br />What is heterochrony? <br />
  50. 50. Question 52<br />What is “descent with modification”?<br />
  51. 51. Question 53<br />A scientist measures the circumference of acorns in a population of oak trees and discovers that the most common circumference is 2 cm. What would you expect the most common circumference(s) to be after 10 generations of stabilizing selection? <br />2 cm<br />greater than 2 cm or less than 2 cm <br />greater than 2 cm and less than 2 cm <br />can&apos;t tell from the information given<br />
  52. 52. Question 54<br />A scientist measures the circumference of acorns in a population of oak trees and discovers that the most common circumference is 2 cm. What would you expect the most common circumference(s) to be after 10 generations of disruptive selection? <br />2 cm<br />greater than 2 cm or less than 2 cm <br />greater than 2 cm and less than 2 cm <br />can&apos;t tell from the information given<br />
  53. 53. Question 55<br />A scientist measures the circumference of acorns in a population of oak trees and discovers that the most common circumference is 2 cm. What would you expect the most common circumference(s) to be after 10 generations of directional selection? <br />2 cm<br />greater than 2 cm or less than 2 cm <br />greater than 2 cm and less than 2 cm <br />can&apos;t tell from the information given<br />
  54. 54. Question 56<br /><ul><li>In the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the term 2pq represents the frequency of the</li></ul>dominant homozygotes <br />recessive homozygotes <br />dominant allele <br />recessive allele <br />heterozygotes<br />
  55. 55. Question 57<br />Define the following: <br /><ul><li>Analogous structures
  56. 56. Homologous structures
  57. 57. Vestigial structures</li></li></ul><li>Question 58<br />What things are necessary to have natural selection?<br />
  58. 58. Question 59<br />What was the Cambrian explosion? How long ago did it occur?<br />
  59. 59. Question 60<br /><ul><li>Which of the following factors is most likely to contribute to gene flow between populations?</li></ul>Random mating<br />Migration<br />Mutation<br />Genetic drift<br />inbreeding<br />
  60. 60. GOOD LUCK STUDYING!<br />

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