Breathing
Water is necessary in the membranes of the lungs so that                                    diffusion can take place. Wate...
See the video:                               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sU_8juD3Y                               zQ&fea...
How Gas Exchange Occurs
Air is moved by pressure differences due to volume differences.
1. Diaphragm contracts   and intercostal   muscles contract.   Ribs move up.2. Volume of thoracic   cavity increases.3. Pr...
1. Diaphragm relaxes   and recoils.   Intercostal muscles   relax. Ribs move   down.2. Volume of thoracic   cavity decreas...
Mechanism of Breathing Explained:    Explained:    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMDEXGM-    87s    Simple breathing anim...
Lung Capacity
Fig. 15.5
Lung Capacity     5800 L     2900 L     2400 L     1200 L       0Lhttp://www.google.ca/imgres?q=inhaled+air+vs+exhaled+air...
Gas Exchange
External Respiration                                        Internal Respiration                                          ...
Transport of Gases
Oxygen TransportTwo ways:1. As a physical solution. (Dissolved in plasma.)2. As a molecule of hemoglobin.      Hb + O2    ...
Carbon Dioxide TransportThree ways:1. As a physical solution in plasma. (<5%) CO2 + H2                             H2CO3  ...
2. Carbaminohemoglobin. (10 – 30%)      Hb + O2          HbO2Rapid.Requires no enzyme.
http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=transport+of+oxygen&hl=en&safe=active&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=792&bih=...
3. As a bicarbonate ion (60 – 70%).Involves the plasma and red blood cells.
1. At the red blood cells, carbon dioxide and water react IN THE PRESENCE OF CARBONIC   ANHYDRASE, to produce carbonic aci...
4. Oxygen diffuses out of the capillary to the body cells.5. Cellular respiration. Oxygen reacts with glucose to produce c...
7. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillary.8. Oxygen displaces hemoglobin on reduced hemo...
Control of Breathing by the Nervous System                                     Breathing                 Chemoreceptors   ...
Breathing
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Breathing

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Breathing

  1. 1. Breathing
  2. 2. Water is necessary in the membranes of the lungs so that diffusion can take place. Water lost through breathing must constantly be replenished by taking in water.http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=composition+of+inhaled+air+vs+exhaled+air&hl=en&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1600&bih=639&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=KiwIIrShpgcxqM:&imgrefurl=http://budakpintar-zulaikha.blogspot.com/&docid=lbTWRCyBy-6lnM&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-SaThBr3gZ48/TZSnBrPGVoI/AAAAAAAAADM/dg2amBg4PVU/s1600/000.jpg&w=1221&h=745&ei=Y4PjTvX4I4jhiAKjuoS_Bg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=170&vpy=346&dur=22745&hovh=175&hovw=288&tx=193&ty=152&sig=112479492059546291295&page=1&tbnh=117&tbnw=192&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0
  3. 3. See the video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sU_8juD3Y zQ&feature=player_embeddedhttp://www.google.ca/imgres?q=inhaled+air+vs+exhaled+air&hl=en&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1600&bih=639&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=DXuImWah7HIOMM:&imgrefurl=http://www.webmd.com/lung/picture-of-the-lungs&docid=7F7zvNw2FVzXiM&imgurl=http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/image_article_collections/anatomy_pages/Lungs_AnatomyPage2.jpg&w=504&h=378&ei=1YHjTqvuCciQiALnvPnQBg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=577&sig=112479492059546291295&page=1&tbnh=137&tbnw=182&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0&tx=104&ty=58
  4. 4. How Gas Exchange Occurs
  5. 5. Air is moved by pressure differences due to volume differences.
  6. 6. 1. Diaphragm contracts and intercostal muscles contract. Ribs move up.2. Volume of thoracic cavity increases.3. Pressure of thoracic cavity drops to LESS than outside air pressure. (pressure outside > pressure inside)4. Air moves in through the mouth and nose.
  7. 7. 1. Diaphragm relaxes and recoils. Intercostal muscles relax. Ribs move down.2. Volume of thoracic cavity decreases.3. Pressure of the thoracic cavity rises relative to the outside pressure. (pressure inside > pressure outside) **THE LUNGS ARE PASSIVE. DIAPHRAGM AND4. Air moves out INTERCOSTAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT CAUSES through mouth and CHANGES IN VOLUME AND THEREFORE PRESSURE, nose. WHICH CAUSES THE LUNGS TO EMPTY OR FILL WITH AIR.
  8. 8. Mechanism of Breathing Explained: Explained: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMDEXGM- 87s Simple breathing animation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43jJGXude Ps&feature=related
  9. 9. Lung Capacity
  10. 10. Fig. 15.5
  11. 11. Lung Capacity 5800 L 2900 L 2400 L 1200 L 0Lhttp://www.google.ca/imgres?q=inhaled+air+vs+exhaled+air&hl=en&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1600&bih=639&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=oMyRkQg7Jrce0M:&imgrefurl=http://www.rcjournal.com/cpgs/slvcpg-update.html&docid=PRFksORYx0p7sM&imgurl=http://www.rcjournal.com/cpgs/i/05.01.0531.fig1.jpg&w=580&h=336&ei=1YHjTqvuCciQiALnvPnQBg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1258&vpy=159&dur=187&hovh=171&hovw=295&tx=186&ty=95&sig=112479492059546291295&page=1&tbnh=103&tbnw=178&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0
  12. 12. Gas Exchange
  13. 13. External Respiration Internal Respiration Cellular Respirationhttp://www.google.ca/imgres?q=gas+exchange+at+tissues&hl=en&rls=com.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1600&bih=639&tbm=isch&tbnid=6k-0bSngOQhPyM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ric.edu/faculty/jmontvilo/335files/335(27)respirationmech.htm&docid=Uf1ASTwnOH0U7M&imgurl=http://www.ric.edu/faculty/jmontvilo/335graphics/gas_exchange.GIF&w=502&h=346&ei=X5DjTuHgIa_-iQKmsYyfBg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=499&sig=112479492059546291295&page=5&tbnh=116&tbnw=169&start=101&ndsp=26&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:101&tx=110&ty=68
  14. 14. Transport of Gases
  15. 15. Oxygen TransportTwo ways:1. As a physical solution. (Dissolved in plasma.)2. As a molecule of hemoglobin. Hb + O2 HbO2
  16. 16. Carbon Dioxide TransportThree ways:1. As a physical solution in plasma. (<5%) CO2 + H2 H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-Very slow reaction. Carbonic anyhdrase is not present in plasma.
  17. 17. 2. Carbaminohemoglobin. (10 – 30%) Hb + O2 HbO2Rapid.Requires no enzyme.
  18. 18. http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=transport+of+oxygen&hl=en&safe=active&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=792&bih=450&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=E8W0rpVvx6T0oM:&imgrefurl=http://schoolworkhelper.net/2010/07/oxygen-carbon-transport/&docid=xwb_qPOsukdwRM&imgurl=http://schoolworkhelper.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/carbon-transport.jpg&w=480&h=360&ei=rBLQTrTBHqGMigL-g8X7Cw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=157&sig=116001018724518129899&page=1&tbnh=120&tbnw=160&start=0&ndsp=8&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0&tx=84&ty=82
  19. 19. 3. As a bicarbonate ion (60 – 70%).Involves the plasma and red blood cells.
  20. 20. 1. At the red blood cells, carbon dioxide and water react IN THE PRESENCE OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE, to produce carbonic acid.2. Carbonic acid dissociates into a hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion. Bicarbonate ion diffuseinto the plasma.3. Hydrogen ions displace oxygen on the oxyhemoglobin. Reduced hemoglobin and freeoxygen are produced.
  21. 21. 4. Oxygen diffuses out of the capillary to the body cells.5. Cellular respiration. Oxygen reacts with glucose to produce carbon dioxide and water.6. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood.
  22. 22. 7. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillary.8. Oxygen displaces hemoglobin on reduced hemoglobin to produce hydrogen ions andoxyhemoglobin.9. Hydrogen ions combine with bicarbonate ions (which diffuse from the plasma) to producecarbonic acid.10. Carbonic acid is converted to water and carbon dioxide in the presence of CARBONICANYHDRASE.11. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of capillaries and into alveoli.
  23. 23. Control of Breathing by the Nervous System Breathing Chemoreceptors centre on medulla Diaphragm / rib at aorta and Blood oblongata muscles carotid artery Stimulation Activity ActivityCarbon dioxideconcentration (-)

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