Frantz fanon intro


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Frantz fanon intro

  1. 1. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952) The Negro and Language 1952 Frantz Fanon1 March 23, 2011 Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  2. 2. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)About Frantz Fanon 1 Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and author who supported the Algerian struggle for independence and joined the Algerian National Liberation Front. 2 His work remains influential in the fields of post-colonial studies and critical theory. 3 As well as being a Marxist, Fanon is known as a radical humanist thinker on the issue of decolonization and the psychopathology of colonization. 4 His works have incited and inspired anti-colonial liberation movements for more than four decades. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  3. 3. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)Biography: Martinique and World War II 1 Frantz Fanon was born on the Caribbean island of Martinique, which was then a French colony and is now a French d´partment. e 2 After France fell to the Nazis in 1940, Vichy French naval troops were blockaded on Martinique. Forced to remain on the island, French soldiers became ”authentic racists.” 3 The abuse of the Martiniquan people by the French Army influenced Fanon, reinforcing his feelings of alienation and his disgust with colonial racism. 4 At the age of eighteen, Fanon fled the island as a ”dissident” (the coined word for French West Indians joining Gaullist forces) and traveled to British-controlled Dominica to join the Free French Forces. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  4. 4. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued.. 1 After qualifying as a psychiatrist in 1951, Fanon did a residency in psychiatry at Saint-Alban under the radical Catalan psychiatrist Francois Tosquelles, who invigorated Fanon’s thinking by emphasizing the role of culture in psychopathology. 2 His service in France’s army (and his experiences in Martinique) influenced Black Skin, White Masks. 3 On his return to Tunis, after his exhausting trip across the Sahara to open a Third Front, Fanon was diagnosed with leukemia.He died in Bethesda, Maryland, on December 6, 1961 under the name of Ibrahim Fanon. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  5. 5. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)About: The book “ Black Skin, White Masks ” 1 While in France, Fanon then wrote his first book in 1952, Black Skin, White Masks, an analysis of the psychological effects of colonial subjugation on people identified as black. 2 This book was originally his doctoral thesis submitted at Lyon and entitled, ”The Disalienation of the Black Man”. 3 Fanon uses psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical theory to explain the feelings of dependency and inadequacy that Black people experience in a White world. 4 Fanon’s works are directly influenced by the N´gritude e movement, Fanon reformulated the theory of C´saire and e L´opold Senghor by positing a new theory of consciousness. e 5 He speaks of the divided self-perception of the Black Subject who has lost his native cultural originality and embraced the culture of the mother country. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  6. 6. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued... 1 As a result of the inferiority complex engendered in the mind of the Black Subject, he will try to appropriate and imitate the cultural code of the colonizer. 2 The behaviour, Fanon argues, is even more evident in upwardly mobile and educated Black people who can afford to acquire the trappings of White culture. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  7. 7. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)A brief overview of the contents of essay 1 Discourse: It generally refers to “written or spoken communication or debate”. The following are three more specific definitions: (1) In semantics and discourse analysis: A generalization of the concept of conversation to all modalities and contexts. (2) “The totality of codified linguistic usages attached to a given type of social practice. (E.g.: legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse.)” (3) In the work of Michel Foucault, and social theorists inspired by him:“an entity of sequences of signs in that they are enouncements (enonc´s)” (Foucault 1969: 141). e Enouncements are often translated as statements. Note:Discourse can be observed in multimodal/multimedia forms of communication including the use of spoken, written and signed language in contexts spanning from oral history to instant message conversations to textbooks. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  8. 8. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued.. 1 Double consciousness : It deals with the nature of the colonized subject, and the way in which they must simultaneously embrace two different cultural identities. It also means a “sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  9. 9. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)Connection between Discourse and Fanon’s Idea in Blackskin white mask Fanon states, “The black man has 2 dimensions. One with his fellows other with white man. A Negro behaves differently with Negro and white man. He holds colonial subjugation to be solely responsible for the self-division among the black man. Struggle between master and slave or the struggle between colonizer and colonized is the struggle for power. Power over the resources, existence of self-identity, recognition. Fanon advocates for the complete freedom where no desire is obstacled. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  10. 10. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued.. What do we think might be the reason behind Dis-alienation, self-divison among black men (Negro) No one would dream of doubting that its major artery is fed from the heart of those various theories that have tried to prove that the Negro is a stage in the slow evolution of monkey into man.This is an objective evidence that expresses reality. Worst Part But one has taken into account of the above situation, when understands it, one considers the job completed. Worst part: One then becomes deaf to that voice rolling down the stages of the history:“ What matters is not to know the world but to change it”. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  11. 11. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued.. Language bears the weight of whole civilization Different signs, words, sentences their context has a rich cultural history. Embracing any langugage implies embracing the whole culture that comes along with the langugage. This justifies the reason why we feel that white culture is superior. The struggle between colonizer and colonized for the power, recognition would imply being superior. Superiority in all aspect: culturally, linguistically, religiously etc. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  12. 12. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued.. Use of metaphor: White for Human being-civilized, Black for Animal-uncivilized The Negro of the Antilles will become proportiontely whiter, if he has mastery over the French language. In this way he will come closer to being a real human being. This is man’s attitude face to face with Being. Mastery of language affords remarkable power. A man who has a language possesses the world expressed and implied by that language. In French colonial Army, the black officers serve first of all as interpreters. They used to convey masters orders to their fellows, and they too enjoy certain position of honor. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language
  13. 13. Introduction: The Negro and the Language(1952)continued.. Colonized people have a jungle status. In order to get accepted by the civilizing nations, the colonized people embraces the culture of the mother country. This sense of acceptance induces the feeling of inferiority complex, that has been created by the death and burial of his local cultural originality. The colonized is elevated above his jungle status in proportion to his adoption of the mother’s country cultural standards. Sharique Arshi The Negro and Language