Operating Systems & Utility ProgramsChapter 8<br />By Amr Aborig.<br />
What is System Software?<br />System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices.<br />Two types of system software . <br />Operating systems<br />Utility programs.<br />An operating system (OS)is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources . <br />
Operating systems<br />Operating systems are divided in to three basic categories :<br />1.Stand-alone OS: is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer ,notebook computer, or mobile computing device.<br />Names of Stand-alone operating systems: DOS /Early Windows Versions (Windows 3.x,Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, Windows 98, Windows 2000 professional, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows XP)/Windows Vista/ Mac OS X/UNIX/Linux.<br />2.Server OS: is an operating system that is designed specifically to support a network.<br />Names of Server operating systems: Early Windows server versions(Windows NT Server, Windows 2000 server, Windows Server 2003)//Windows Server 2008 /UNIX /Linux /Solaris/ Netware.<br />
-Embedded OS :The operating system on mobile devices and many consumer electronics.<br />-Names of embedded OS :Windows Embedded CE/Windows Mobile/ Palm OS / i Phones OS /BlackBerry/ Embedded Linux /Symbian OS.<br />~The Boot Process~<br />-Is the process of starting or restarting a computer is called booting.<br />-When turning on a computer that has been powered off completely, you are performing a cold boot. A warm boot is the process of using the operating system to restart a computer.<br />-Steps of the boot process:-<br />1-The power supply sends a signal to the components in the system unit.<br />2-The processor finds the ROM chips(s) that contains the BIOS (basic input/output system.<br />
3-The BIOS performs the POST (power on self test) ,which checks components ,such as the mouse , keyboard &adapter cards.<br />4-The results of the POST are compared with data in a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) chip.<br />5-The BIOS may look for the system files on a USB flash drive or on an optical disc drive or may look directly on drive C (hard disk). <br />6-The system files and the kernel of the operating system load into memory (RAM) from storage (i.e., hard disk).<br />7-The operating system loads configuration information , may request user information , starts several background processes , and displays the desktop on the screen<br />
Functions of operating systems <br />-Starting and shutting down a computer (cold or warm boot).<br />-Providing a user interface.<br />-Managing computers & Memory.<br />-coordinating Tasks.<br />-Configuring Devices.<br />-Establishing an Internet connection.<br />-Monitoring Performance.<br />-Providing file management & other utilities.<br />-And automatically updating itself &certain utility programs.<br /><ul><li>-Control a network & administer security.</li></li></ul><li>What is a utility program?<br /><ul><li>A utility program , also called a utility, is a type of software that allows a user to perform maintenance- type tasks ,usually related to managing a computer , its devices or its programs.
& Maintaining a personal computer.</li></li></ul><li>Q?<br />1-What is system software? Name the types of system software.<br />2-What does POST ,BIOS & CMOS stand for and name their functions?<br /> <br /> <br />