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TRANSROYAL ICSI

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TRANSROYAL ICSI

  1. 1. International Conference on Sustainability Initiatives (ICSI) 2015 in conjunction with 8th ASEAN Environmental Engineering Conference (AEEC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 24-25 August 2015 –1 – TRANSROYAL: MULTI-INTER-TRANS-DISCIPLINARY GEO-BIOSPHERE RESEARCH INITIATIVES IN THE ROYAL BELUM AND TEMENGOR FOREST COMPLEX (RBTFC) GERIK PERAK Khamarrul Azahari Razak*, Rozaimi Che Hasan, Khairul Hisyam Kamarudin, Habibah @ Norehan Haron, Shamsul Sarip, Rudzidatul Akmam Dziyauddin, Sharihan Fathi UTM Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Kuala Lumpur Campus, Malaysia Corresponding author*: khamarrul.kl@utm.my SUMMARY: Integrated research on biosphere as a result of human and natural activities in the tropics is very challenging. This paper presents multi-inter-trans-disciplinary (MIT) research initiatives carried out by TRANSROYAL focusing on the terrestrial- and aquatic ecosystem including human livelihoods in the Royal Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, Perak. Despite its status as a mega-biodiversity area, only few attempts have been made to conduct a centralized and integrated research to support the resource management, sustainable developments and climate change. This study provides a better insight into MIT approaches for a better understanding of the ecological system and improving human interaction in a changing environment. Keywords—Royal Belum,Transroyal,Multi-inter-trans-disciplinary, Geo-Security, Geo-Biodiversity and Ecosystem, Geo- Sustainability, Rural Technology, INTRODUCTION The Royal Belum-Temenggor Forest Reserve Complex (RBTFC) covers 320,000 ha made the largest remaining contiguous forest landscape in Peninsular Malaysia. The area is known as one of the rich-megabiodiversity areas in Malaysia. It is one of the oldest tropical rainforests in the world and is remained as one of the largest untouched forest reserves with amazing flora and fauna in Malaysia. Based on the World Conservation Union (IUCN) management categories for protected areas, the Royal Belum State Park has a great potential to be listed as the World Heritage Site. Given Malaysia as one signatory of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), there is pressure on us to increase the number of protected areas, which IUCN target, at least 10% of their total area as protected areas. RBTFC is one of the promising areas contributing towards achieving the target of 10%. Despite being the largest continuous forest complex in Peninsular Malaysia, only few attempts have been made to conduct a centralized high impact research,particularly in applying modern geospatial technology that is coupled with engineering, social sciences, earth sciences, and applied sciences in addressing the real problems related to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem in support of the resource management, sustainable development and climate change studies. The lack of research of this nature contradicts with the continuous efforts from the government to internationalize local researches in dealing with the national mega-biodiversity and ecosystem. Traditional discipline-based research is often inadequate theoretically, conceptually, or methodologically in solving complex problems. All interdependencies of complex problems creating more stimulus for a new research approach [1]. Multi-disciplinary refers to the additive of two disciplines, each making their own contributions individually. Interdisciplinary research promotes cooperative workwhere methods, concepts, and research teams are collaboratively developed among two or more disciplines aiming at a holistic synthesis[2].Transdisciplinary research reflects the collaborative process involving active and direct engagement of stakeholders with multiple disciplines in order to solve the problems[3]-[4]. Transdisciplinary research dealt with new theoretical, conceptual, and/or methodological advancements that surpass discipline- specific contributions in addressing a solution for a common problem[5].Transdisciplinary research focuses on societal relevant problems, enables mutual learning from various disciplines and actors; and tries to create solution- oriented knowledge that is equally socially responsive [6]. This research promotes multi-inter-trans-disciplinary (MIT) research initiatives for understanding terrestrial- and aquatic ecosystem including human livelihoods in RBTFC. It is also aiming at providing baseline, technical and scientific data for supporting a comprehensive management plan especially for ecologically-sensitive area in RBTFC.
  2. 2. –2 – 2. ROYAL BELUM-TEMENGOR AREA Belum-Temengor area is located at north part of Perak with the size of 320,000 ha that includes lowland and hill dipterocarp and montane forest [7]. It consists of the Royal Belum State Park (17,500 ha), Temengor, Banding &Gerik Forest Reserves, Stateland Forests, Temengor Lake and the newly gazette (2013) Aman Jaya Forest Reserve [8]. Malaysia’s Royal Belum-Temengor Forest Complex and Ulu Muda Forest Reserve are sharing the common border within Thailand’s National Park, reservoir, waterfall and forest park [9]. Some areas have been managed by a state- owned company and selectively logged since 2001, using the Sustainable Forest Management with a moderate intensity of timber harvesting (39-55 m3 ha-1 ; [10]). A list of studies on biodiversity and ecotourism of the Belum Temengor Forest, since early 1990s, is reported in [11]. 3. PROBLEM, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES RBTFC is one important national mega-biodiversity area, yet intruders are a big threat to combat. The area is bordered with international and state borders, and it is easily accessible from the East-West Highway This has made enforcement of very challenging and even more difficult with the involvement of poachers and gaharu collecters given the limited time for action and evidence on- site[12][13].The highway provides a way for the logging expansion and the poaching threatens endangered species [14].Malaysia is one of the world’s largest exporters of tropical logs (International Tropical Timber Organization, 2012) and its commercial values pose great challenges. A high concentration of tree species, Dipterocarpaceae in the area [15] may attract international poachers. Regarding the aquatic issue, Tilapia Oreochromisniloticus found in the Royal Belum territory creates uncertainty and problems to the valuable indigenous species particularly cichlids; affecting the benthic communities [16]. An extensive study shall be carried out to reduce its impact and prevent this problem from occurring in the future. To date, paucity of information hampered the process of protecting aquatic species, environment and communities [17]. A baseline data to support the assessment of fish habitats and other aquatic plants is elusive. Also, quantifying of sediment types and lakebed characteristics is needed. Such aforementioned issues and valuable data could be used to support a habitat management plan to the relevant government agencies. It is required to prevent, minimize and mitigate the degradation of aquatic habitats from any lakebed alterations. Renewable energy resources for rural communities is a crucial issue. Settlements of indigenous people are equipped with basic amenities, e.g. energy source of electricity produced using solar panels and generator sets. However, poor maintenance, which led to the least- functionality and lack of knowledge on solar system repairing, which are amongst the local issues identified [18][19][20]. 4. INTEGRATED RESEARCH ACTIVITY The establishment of UTM TRANSROYAL has an objective to promote trans-, multi-, and interdisciplinary research in RBTFC region aiming at high impact contributions. We focus on four (4) research clusters, named as Geo-Security, Geo-Biodiversity and Ecosystem, Geo-Sustainability, and Rural Technology. Geo-Security cluster deals with the use of state-of-the-art and advancement of multistage processing sequence based on satellite-, airborne-, and ground-based remote sensing technology coupled with satellite positioning system, advanced GIS, and expert knowledge to support the border security, enforcement, and land-use monitoring[13][16]. This cluster provides a better platform and solution in developing sophisticated geo-mapping tool, securing and monitoring our national mega-biodiversity. In the Geo-Biodiversity and Ecosystem, we investigate the lakebed properties, water quality, and aquatic habitats, amongst the research activities. This cluster explores aquatic fauna, fish parasites, fish diversity, stratification composition of fresh water mussles, and macro invertebrates diversity[21][22][23].We emphasize the work on mapping forest inventory, estimating biomass and carbon using multi-sensory remote sensing and in-situ measurement [24][25][26] and also the space weathering system, observation and analysis[27]. Geo-Sustainability cluster focuses on community development, resilience studies and sustainable education. This cluster also addresses the potential and challenges of developing sustainable eco-culture tourism program for the indigenous community in RBTFC. Several publications have been published by Kamarudin et al.[28][29][30][31]. In the Rural Technology cluster, we also emphasize on the investigation of the current ICT facilities and technology by local communities. It also include the assessment of water infrastructure and services provided to Orang Asli in the area [19][20][32].We also evaluate the availability of implementing advanced solar technology and infrastructure. Current study investigates the feasibility and capability of using micro hydropower system in RBTFC. We focus on the design and features of the hydropower and an observation tower. Aspects such as site selection, tower design, shipping and transportation of the construction equipment and materials and the construction process are currently subjected to research [18]. 4. CONCLUSION This paper highlights an integrated research for mapping, monitoring and understanding biosphere and human activity in RBTFC. Significant progress has been made on promoting multi-inter-trans-disciplinary (MIT) research. We aim at advancing our single-disciplinary to MIT research with new knowledge, interaction and integration of various disciplines with new tools and techniques.
  3. 3. –3 – TRANSROYAL has taken a great step to expand its capacity and capability in promoting an integrated research at local, national, regional, up to global scales. REFERENCES [1] Clark, R.N., and Stankey, G.H. (2006). Integrated Research in Natural Resources: The Key Role of Problem Framing, General Technical Report PNW- GTR-678, Seattle, WA, 2006. [2] NRC (2006). NFC, Facing Hazards and Disasters: Understanding Human Dimensions, The National Acadamies Press, Washington, D.C, p. 388. [3] Stokols, D. (2006). Toward a science of transdisciplinary action research, Am. J. Community. Psychol. 38, 63–77. [4] Hadorn, G.H., Hoffmann-Riem, H., Biber-Klemm, S., Grossenbacher-Man- suy, WD. Joye, D., Polh, C., Wiesmann, U., Zemp, E. (2008). Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research, Houten, Springer, Netherlands, p. 506. [5] Gall, M., Nguyen, K.H., Cutter, S.L. (2015). Integrated research on disaster risk: Is it really integrated? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 12: 255-267. [6] Lang, D.J., Wiek, A., Bergmann, M. Stauffacher, M., Martens, P., Moll,
 P., Swilling, M., Thomas, C.J. (2012). Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science: practice, principles, and challenges, Sustain. Sci 7 (S1), 25–43. [7] Kaur, R., Ong, T., Lim, K.C., Yeap, C.A. (2011). A survey on mass movements of the vulnerable plain- pouched hornbill in the Belum–Temengor forest complex, Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles B. Zool. 24, 171–176. [8] MNS. (2013). Fact sheet: Conservation of Belum- Temengor Forest Complex. Malaysian Nature Society. [9] Chuan, A.S., Weng, C.N., Mapjabil, J.B. (2013). Sharing the common border. PSU-USM International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 91 (2013) 41- 47. [10]PITC. (2010). Second forest management plan Perak ITC concession area Temengor Forest Reserve 2010– 2020. The Perak Integrated Timber Complex. Perak, Malaysia. [11]Aik, Y.C. (2012). Belum-Temengor A Treasure Trove for Biodiversity and Ecotoursim by Malaysian Nature Society. International Seminar on Biodiversity and Toursim, 26-27 April, Ipoh. [12]Lim, T. W., &Noorainie, A. A. (2010). Wood for the trees:A review of the agarwood (gaharu) trade in Malaysia. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. [13]Razak, K. A., Kamarudin, K.H., Che Hasan, R., Idris, N. H., Haron, N. and Dziyauddin, R. A. (2014). Geo- Sustainable Tourism in the Lost World of Belum: A technological perspective. 5th Rural Research and Planning Group International Conference and Field Study in Malaysia 2014, 26-28 August, 2014, Bangi. [14] Abdullah, A., Weng, C., and Som, A. (2011). The potentials and perils of ecotourism in BelumTemengor forest complex. World App. Sci. Journal, 12(9), 1–9. [15]Whitmore, T. C. (1972). Tree flora of Malaya: A manual for foresters. London, England: Longman. [16]Razak, K.A., Che Hasan, R., Kamarudin, K.H., Haron, H., Harun, H., Dziyauddin, R., Omar, A.M. (Eds.) (2015). UTM High Impact Research @ Royal Belum- Temengor Forest Complex, Gerik Perak: A compilation of scientific expedition activities in 2014Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia,ISBN 978- 967-11814-9-2. [17]Che Hasan, R., Tajam, J., Fah, Y.K. (2014). Mapping lakebed cover types for aquatic habitat identification. In: Proceeding ofNational Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. Malaysia. [18]Sarip, S., Hassan, M.Z., Rahman, N.A., Aziz, S.A., Daud, M.Y.M., Abidin, M.A.Z. (2014). Renewable energy harness to uplift the prosperity of Royal Belum Forest. In: Proceeding ofNational Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [19]Dziyauddin, R.A., Ahmad, N., Izhar, M.A.M., Kaidi, H.M. (2014). Performances evaluation for satellite communication in rural area networks. In: Proceeding ofNational Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [20]Dziyauddin, R.A., Razak, K.A., MohdIzhar, M.A., Kamarudin, K.H., Che Hasan, R., Idris, N. H., Haron, N. (2014). A survey of rural wireless communication and networks development. 5th Rural Research and Planning Group International Conference and Field Study in Malaysia 2014, 26-28 August, 2014, Bangi,Malaysia. [21]Sam, W., Alexandra, Z., Suzanne, M. (2014). The freshwater mussels (unionida) of Lake Temengor. In: Proceeding ofNational Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [22]Sulaiman, M.H., Mokhtar, A.F., Adam, M.S., Muhammad, E., Mohamad, K. (2014). The diversity of macroinvertebrates as an indicator of water quality and ecosystem health: a case study for Kenarong stream. In: Proceeding ofNational Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [23] Adam, M.S., Muhammad, E., Walton, S.E., Mohamad, K., Sharoum, F.M. (2014). Prevalence and intensify of fish parasites in Temenggor Lake, Royal Belum, Perak. In: Proceeding ofNational Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [24]Kanniah, K.D., Pang, T.K., Rahman, Z.A., Shin, A.L.M., Rasib, A.W., Idris, N.H. (2014). High- resolution mapping of carbon stock in Royal Belum tropical forest. In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [25]Rahman, M.Z.A., Bakar, M.A.A., Rasib, A.W., Pang, T.K., Razak, K.A., Lehan, F.A.M., Yusof, H.H.M.,
  4. 4. –4 – Bakar, R.A., Latif, Z.A. (2014). Terrestrial laser scanning as a method for individual tree measurement: framework and challenges in tropical rainforest. In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [26]Kalwar, O.P.P., Hussin, Y. A.,Weir, M., Razak, K.A. (2014). Assessing potentiality of TLS for derivation of plot inventory parameters to estimate carbon for REDD-plus in tropical rain forest or Royal Belum, Malaysia In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak.
 [27]Lehan, N.F.M., Abu Bakar, F., Razak, K.A (2014). Weathering Satellite System in Royal Belum: A Methodological Framework and Challenges. In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [28]Kamarudin, K. H, Ngah, I. Mohamad Omar, A. (2014a). Sustainable eco-culture tourism in Royal Belum-Temenggor: Emerging prospects and challenges for Orang Asli. In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [29]Kamarudin, K. H., Ngah, I. Abd Wahid, S. N. (2014b). Framework considerations for a sustainable eco-culture tourism (ECT) development for Orang Asli of Royal Belum-Temenggor Forest Complex, Perak. In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NRCB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak. [30]Kamarudin, K.H., Ngah, I., Razak, K. A., Ibrahim, M. S., Harun, A. (2014c). Resilience in a community: A story of Orang Asli of Royal Belum – Temengor Forest Complex, Perak. 5th Rural Research and Planning Group International Conference and Field Study in Malaysia 2014, 26-28 August, 2014, Bangi, Malaysia. [31]Kamarudin, K.H., Ngah, I., Abd. Wahid, S.N., Razak, K.A. (2015). Readiness of Orang Asli Communities in Royal Belum-Temengor Forest Complex towards Sustainable Eco-Culture Tourism (ECT) Programme. Journal of Human Capital Development. [32]Ahmad, N., Dziyauddin, R.A., Izhar, M.A.M., Omar, A.M. (2014). A case study of solar technology in rural areas of Royal Belum. In: Proceeding of National Conference on Royal Belum (NCRB 2014), 9-10 December 2014, Gerik, Perak.

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