Designing effective assessment tools for higher learningAssessing factual Do lecturers teach students to or applied cut down jungles or to irrigate deserts? knowledge?
QUALITY LEARNING Learner-centric content Quality T&L Meeting national and globalOutcome based Learning needs
Words of Wisdom ALI (A.S)Assessment is not about finding faults from students but to ensure all succeed
Change the way we perceive on assessmentAssessment becomes a celebration of learningStudents will look forward for EXAMStudents are assessed fairly from all aspects.Students can solve real life problemsStudents become skillful
Why assessment?guides and encourages effective approaches to learning;validly and reliably measures expected learning outcomes,that reflects the higher-order learning that suits highereducation; andThrough grading, it will define and protects academicstandards.
Traditional way of test revealonly whether the student can recognize, recall what was learned limited to paper-pencil, one answer question. ask the student to select or write correct responses, irrespective of reasons. standardizes objective "items" with one right answer for each multiple-choice test is determined merely by matching items to the curriculum content.
Authentic orperformance test Conducting research; writing, revising and discussing papers; providing an engaging oral analysis of a recent political event; collaborating with others on a debate Student can construct, with justifiable answers, performances or products. Emphasizing and standardizing the appropriate criteria for scoring such (varied) products with the use of a rubric The test simulates real world tests of ability
Authentic or performance assessment GROUP INDIVIDUAL WORK • Apply the principles of classroom assessment • Construct and administer various types of classroom assessment • Interpret and analyze test scores • Conduct item analysis and forming item bank • Describe other forms of classroom assessment • Identify latest trend development on current issues in testing and evaluation
Example:Performance assessment• Portfolio 10%• Article/seminar paper review 10%• Case study (assessment practices) 20%• Project (test construction and evaluation) 40%• Test 20%
Modes ofassessmentMode Area of learning assessedEssay type: essay exam, open book, Rote learning, question spotting, coverageassignment, take home reading widely, organize, apply and copy.Objective:multiple choice Recognition, comprehension, coverage hierarchies of understandingPerformance assessment: practicum, Real life context,, application andpresentation, critical reviews, case study, professional skills reflected.portfolio
How to grade performance assessment?• List the criteria for A, A-,B+,B, C+,C, C-, ….• Then the grade is awarded that describes students’ performance. RUBRICS example: A: clearly met all the objectives and display deep knowledge, original. Critical thinking. B: all objectives have been met C: all objectives are satisfied and effective. Less than C, work plagiarism.
Creating test questionsMust be parallel with the objectives;Address the cognitive, psychomotor , affectiveand social domains.Questions are clear and correct
Bloom’s Cognitive Processes Create – put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize into new pattern or structure (Generating, planning, producing, designing, constructing, inventing) Evaluation - make a judgment based on criteria & standards (Checking, critiquing, hypothesizing) Analyze - break material into parts & determine how they relate to one another & to overall structure or purpose (differentiating, organizing, attributing, deconstructing, integrating) Apply – carry out or use a procedure (concept) in a given (new ) situation (execute, implement) Understand – construct meaning from instructional messages [oral, written & graphic communication](Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining Remember - retrieve facts, concepts, definitions from LTM (Recognizing, Recalling, listing, describe)
Cognitive domainOBJECTIVES describe the underlying Islamic economic principles relevant to Islamic Finance; explain the meaning and concept of riba and why it is prohibited;QUESTIONS What? (Knowledge and Concepts) How? (Procedures and Performances) Why? (Problem Solving and Reasoning)
Affective domain• Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings.• Describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living things pain or joy• There are 5 levels:Receiving, responding valuing, organizing and internalizing
Affective domains (attitude or feelings)objectives Example of questions’ key verbsReceiving giving, following, replying etc. (student passively pays attention )Responding reading, answering, selecting (student actively participates in the learning process)Valuing Demonstrating, studying, justifying. (student attaches a value to an object)Organizing values comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned (student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema)Internalizing Performing, modifying, discriminating (student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behaviour)
Social domainObjectives Example of questions’ key verbsCollaborating Inviting interactions, performing a team, living in societyEmpowering Leadership Envisioning, maintaining commitment,Managing Managing people, managing communication, managing resourcesCommunicating Preparing message, receiving message, delivering message
Exercise 1Which level of cognitive domains involve in the following questions?1.How does the Murabaha contract avoid Riba elements?2. Elaborate on what Islamic finance is and give examples of how it differs from conventional finance.3. Has the financial crisis affected Islamic finance? Discuss.
Exercise 2Identify which learning domain is involved.1. Produce a management report .2. Use the computer software to produce business account.
Multiple choice questionsMultiple choice items consist of a stem and a set of optionsMultiple choice tests are best adapted for testing well-defined or lower-order skills.Problem-solving and higher-order reasoning skills are better assessed through short- answer and essay tests.
Common practice among the expertsExperts keep changing their minds No time to prepare questions.Confusing students with toomany negatives in a question. All statements are not true except: Just like giving clues for studentsUsing incomplete sentences to answer easily Lacking current knowledgeAsking yesterday’s knowledge
SummaryQuestions given to our students must be at higher level of cognitive domain as it will ensure the students to think beyond the text. BUT….not too many.Ensure students are assessed from different types of tests.We are trying to ensure student mastery of the subject content. Thus, only test students on what has been taught.