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Test 1


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part 1 of Dr. Hurley's notes for Gross anatomy at D'Youville College

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Test 1

  1. 1. Test 1
  2. 2. curvatures: two primary (concave anteriorly) & two secondary (concave posteriorly) -primary (fetal) curvatures persist as thoracic & sacral -secondary curvatures develop as individuallearns to hold head erect (cervical curvature) and assumes erect posture (lumbar curvature)
  3. 3. abnormal curvatures:• kyphosis: "dowagers hunch", exaggerated thoracic curvature• lordosis: "swayback", exaggerated lumbar curvature• scoliosis: lateral distortion - rib/vertebrae angle > 30, then brace
  4. 4. 24 individual vertebrae :• 7 cervical• 12 thoracic• 5 lumbar
  5. 5. • Body• pedicles• vertebral notches• laminas• vertebral foramen• spinous process• transverse process• articular processes- superior & inferior
  6. 6. Atlas inferior viewAtlas superior view
  7. 7. Sacrum (5 fused):• - sturdy triangular bone wedges between pelvic bones to transmit weight from vertebral column to lower limbs• - anterior edge of the body is the sacral promontory• - lateral surface is auricular surface, for synovial sacroiliac joint• - auricular surfaces form slightly movable joint with ilia of pelvis• - fusion has resulted in: - spinous processes - median sacral crest - articular processes - intermediate sacral crests• - transverse processes - two lateral sacral crests• - intervertebral foramina - 4 pair of sacral foramina - pelvic (for ventral primary rami) - dorsal (for dorsal primary rami)• - vertebral foramina - sacral canal with cauda equina• - incomplete fusion of lowest laminas - sacral hiatus
  8. 8. sacral promontory
  9. 9. auricular surface (Posterior view; highlighted in green)
  10. 10. Joints of Vertebral Column:• a. Intervertebral Joints: symphysis type between vertebral bodies - fibrocartilaginous disk - outer anulus fibrosus and central gelatinous nucleus pulposus (for shock absorber); subject to herniation
  11. 11. herniation
  12. 12. • - intervertebral joints, collectively, are stabilized by: - anterior longitudinal ligament (only ligament that prevents hyperextension) connects anterior side of bodies from the pelvic surface of the sacrum to the occipital bone
  13. 13. - posterior longitudinal ligament (on floor of vertebral canal), narrow band attached primarily to the IV discs - becomes the tectorial membrane attaching to occipital bone)
  14. 14. Joints of Vertebral Column (Cont’):• b. Zygapophysial Joints: synovial, plane gliding joints between superior & inferior articular processes of neighboring vertebrae - enclosed in capsular ligaments
  15. 15. • Ligaments that stabilize vertebral arches: i. supraspinous ligaments (posterior to spinous processes) ii. interspinous ligaments (between spinous processes) - These are thickened to form ligamentum nuchae of neck iii. ligamenta flava -yellow elastic fibers between laminae of neighboring vertebrae
  16. 16. Joints of Vertebral Column (Cont’):• c. Atlanto-occipital and Atlantoaxial Joints:i. atlanto-occipital joint : synovial hinge joint between occipital condyles and superior articular processes of atlas, stabilized by three ligaments:1. anterior atlanto-occipital membrane -continuation of anterior longitudinal ligament2. posterior atlanto-occipital membrane -from arch of atlas to posterior margin of foramen magnum3. tectorial membrane or membrana tectoria - continuation of posterior longitudinal ligament into internal periosteum of occipital bone
  17. 17.  Anterior viewPosterior view 
  18. 18. Joints of Vertebral Column (Cont’):• ii. atlantoaxial joint : synovial pivoting joint between dens of axis and interior anterior surface of atlas, stabilized by:1. cruciform ligament - consisting of transverse, superior and inferior fibrous bands - attaches atlas to foramen magnum, provides "socket" for dens2. apical and alar ligaments provide attachment from dens to foramen magnum and secure dens within its "socket"
  19. 19. Regional Anatomy of the Back1. Bony Landmarks:a. Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage made of the ribs & sternum
  20. 20. b. Appendicular skeleton: limbs and attachment girdles Pectoral girdle includes scapulas and clavicles:Pectoral girdle 
  21. 21. c. Scapula: spine, acromion and vertebral border
  22. 22. d. Clavicle
  23. 23. How do we differentiate left from right clavicle?• the acromial must always be pointed superior and posterior (up and back) and that determines right or left
  24. 24. • Pelvic girdle includes 2 pelvic bones (os coxae):• e. Os coxa: crest of ilium - attachment for latissimus dorsi m. and some deep back muscles (mm.)
  25. 25. f. Humerus: intertubercular sulcus
  26. 26. g. typical vertebra: spinous and transverse processes
  27. 27. h. Occipital region of skull: occipital bone - superior and inferior nuchal lines & external occipital protuberance (inion)
  28. 28. • i. temporal bone (mastoid process)
  29. 29. STOPPED2. Pattern of the Back Musculature: Extrinsic Back Muscles: