Development Journalism Talk At Uplb

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Development Journalism Talk At Uplb

  1. 1. Development Journalism It’s time to map, measure and model …
  2. 2. Mapping Development Journalism: Key Areas <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Faults </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mapping Development Journalism: Location <ul><li>Where is it practiced? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mapping Development Journalism: Location <ul><li>Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>India, Indonesia, </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia, Singapore, China … </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mapping Development Journalism: Location <ul><li>Africa: </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroun, Zaire, Kenya … </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mapping Development Journalism: Location <ul><li>Latin America: </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cube, Mexico, Peru … </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mapping Development Journalism: Media <ul><li>Is it practiced in community news media only? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mapping Development Journalism: Media <ul><li>Mainstream news media </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative news media </li></ul><ul><li>Other media outlets </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mapping Development Journalism: Content <ul><li>Is it practiced in agriculture only? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mapping Development Journalism: Content <ul><li>Science journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Health journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental journalism </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mapping Development Journalism: Approach <ul><li>How is it practiced? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mapping Development Journalism: Approach
  13. 13. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Process <ul><li>Should support </li></ul><ul><li>and contribute to </li></ul><ul><li>the process of development, </li></ul><ul><li>the name of the game </li></ul><ul><li>in development journalism </li></ul><ul><li>(Chalkley, 1980) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Participation <ul><li>More emphasis on </li></ul><ul><li>participation of </li></ul><ul><li>the ordinary people </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Participation <ul><li>Power should be given to </li></ul><ul><li>the ordinary people </li></ul><ul><li>to allow them </li></ul><ul><li>to participate </li></ul><ul><li>in collective decisions </li></ul><ul><li>at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>(Servaes, 1999) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Government <ul><li>Dominant: </li></ul><ul><li>geographical spread </li></ul><ul><li> political and professional impact </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Government <ul><li>Emphasis: </li></ul><ul><li> constructive cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>between the press and the government </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Government <ul><li>Emphasis: </li></ul><ul><li> education role of the press </li></ul><ul><li>in nation building and </li></ul><ul><li>economic construction </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mapping Development Journalism: Pro-Government <ul><li>Emphasis: </li></ul><ul><li> responsible exercise of press freedom </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mapping Development Journalism: Research <ul><li>How much research has been done? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Mapping Development Journalism: Research Name of Journal 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Total JOC (1951) 1 1 Gazette (1955) 2 3 2 1 8 JODC (1990) 3 2 5 AJC (1990) 1 1 Media Asia (1974) 2 5 1 8 APME (1996) 1 1 CT (1991) 1 1 JQ (1928) 1 3 4 WC (1971-2001) 1 1 AMR (1986) 2 2 AJR (1978) 2 2 Total 1 5 11 13 4 34
  22. 22. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>What has gone wrong? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Lack of understanding of </li></ul><ul><li>what development journalism is all about </li></ul>
  24. 24. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Coverage of </li></ul><ul><li>development news </li></ul><ul><li>too much politicized </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Lack of interest in </li></ul><ul><li>development news </li></ul><ul><li>among journalists </li></ul><ul><li>due to deadline and business pressure </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Lack of interest in </li></ul><ul><li>development news </li></ul><ul><li>among readers </li></ul><ul><li>due to entertainment-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>content consumption </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Too conventional </li></ul><ul><li>lack of creativity </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Overemphasis on economic development </li></ul>
  29. 29. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Limited coverage of </li></ul><ul><li>social, cultural and political development </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Insufficient studies on </li></ul><ul><li>development journalism </li></ul><ul><li>in different media </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Lack of studies on </li></ul><ul><li> effectiveness of development journalism </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Limited research on </li></ul><ul><li>different development journalism </li></ul><ul><li>principles and practices </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mapping Development Journalism: Faults <ul><li>Few studies on </li></ul><ul><li>the gap </li></ul><ul><li>between </li></ul><ul><li> normative development journalism and </li></ul><ul><li> empirical development journalism </li></ul>
  34. 34. Mapping Development Journalism: A Brief Sumaary <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Faults </li></ul>
  35. 35. Measuring Development Journalism: Key Areas <ul><li>Designing indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting comparative content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Locating differences </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring normative-empirical gap </li></ul>
  36. 36. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>What should be done? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Designing a set of development journalism indicators </li></ul>
  38. 38. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Measuring the extent to which development journalism is practiced </li></ul>
  39. 39. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Locating differences in development journalism principles </li></ul>
  40. 40. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Locating differences in development journalism practices </li></ul>
  41. 41. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Measuring the gap between the normative development journalism and empirical development journalism </li></ul>
  42. 42. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Survey reporters, editors and publishers </li></ul>
  43. 43. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Survey media educators and students </li></ul>
  44. 44. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Survey different segments of the public </li></ul>
  45. 45. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Survey policy-makers, NGOs and government officials </li></ul>
  46. 46. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Comparative studies of media policies </li></ul>
  47. 47. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Content analysis of newspaper news stories </li></ul>
  48. 48. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Content analysis of radio news stories </li></ul>
  49. 49. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Content analysis of television news stories </li></ul>
  50. 50. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Content analysis of online news stories </li></ul>
  51. 51. Measuring Development Journalism: Missions <ul><li>Content analysis of mobile news stories </li></ul>
  52. 52. Measuring Development Journalism: Indicators
  53. 53. Indicator: News Topics Development Journalism Non-Development Journalism 1. Economic development 1. Government affairs 2. Agricultural development 2. Power politics 3. Political development 3. Business 4. Education and literacy 4. Military affairs 5. Employment and labor welfare 5. Consumerism 6. Family planning 6. Investment 7. Health, hygiene and medicine 7. Finance 8. Housing 8. Lifestyle 9. Industrial, sci-tech development 9. Trade
  54. 54. Indicator: News Topics Development Journalism Non-Development Journalism 10. National integration 10. Religions 11. Rural development 11. Foreign relations 12. Urban development 12. Sports 13. Social change 13. Legal affairs 14.Telecom and transport development 14. Crimes 15. Cultural development 15. War and conflict 16. Environmental protection 16. Celebrity affairs 17. Check between plan and achievement 17. Travel & living
  55. 55. Indicator: News Sources Development Journalism Non-Development Journalism 1. Grass-root institutions 1. Elite institutions 2. Ordinary people 2. Elite people 3. Other bottom-up sources 3. Other top-down sources
  56. 56. Indicator: News Actors Development Journalism Non-Development Journalism 1. The poor 1. Government officials 2. Women 2. Public figures 3. Farmers 3. Celebrities 4. Children 4. Professionals 5. Elderly 5. Businessmen 6. Other ordinary people 6. Other elite people
  57. 57. Indicator: News Orientations Development Journalism Non-Development Journalism 1. Emphasis on solution 1. Emphasis on problem exposure 2. Emphasis on process 2. Emphasis on events 3. Participation of the ordinary people 3. Participation of the elite 4. Empowerment of the ordinary 4. Empowerment of the elite 5. Emphasis on stability 5. Emphasis on conflict 6. Emphasis on harmony 6. More interested in chaos 7. Emphasis on collectivism 7. Emphasis on individualism 8. Emphasis on consensus 8. Emphasis on differences 9. Emphasis on partnership 9. Emphasis on adversary 10. Impact on the ordinary people 10. Impact on the elite people
  58. 58. Indicator: News Presentations Development Journalism Non-Development Journalism 1. Informative 1. Entertaining 2. Mindful of consequences 2. Not mindful of consequences 3. Ordinary people friendly 3. Elite people friendly
  59. 59. Measuring Development Journalism: Normative-Empirical Gap
  60. 60. Measuring Development Journalism: A Brief Summary <ul><li>Designing indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting comparative content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Locating differences </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring normative-empirical gap </li></ul>
  61. 61. Modeling Development Journalism: Describe, Explain, Predict <ul><li>How to describe, explain and predict </li></ul><ul><li>differences in development journalism? </li></ul>
  62. 62. Development Journalism: An Orientation Model
  63. 63. Development Journalism: An Operation Model
  64. 64. Development Journalism: A Difference Model
  65. 65. Modeling Development Journalism: A Brief Summary <ul><li>An Orientation Model </li></ul><ul><li>An Operation Model </li></ul><ul><li>A Difference Model </li></ul>
  66. 66. Development Journalism: Wrapping Up <ul><li>Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul>
  67. 67. Thank you!

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