Cincinnatus was a Roman farmer, dictator, and consul from the legendary period of Roman history. He gained fame as a model of Roman virtue. He was a farmer above all, but when called to serve his country he did so well, efficiently, and without question, even though a prolonged stay away from his farm could mean starvation for his family. When he served his country, he made his stint as dictator as brief as possible. He was also admirable for his lack of ambition.
The National Vision
All is not well. Shay’s Rebellion.
Early National<br />What do you know?<br />
Govt. gets its authority from the citizens.<br />A selfless, educated citizenry.<br />Elections should be frequent.<br />Govt. should guarantee individual rights & freedoms.<br />Govt.’s power should be limited [checks & balances].<br />The need for a written Constitution.<br />“E Pluribus Unum.” [“Out of many, one”]<br />An important role for women raise good, virtuous citizens.[“Republican Womanhood”].<br />Classical view of a model republic<br />EnlightenmentThinking<br />The“VirtuousRepublic”<br />“City on a hill”[John Winthrop]<br />Ideal citizen[Cincinnatus]<br />Slide credit: Susan Pojer Horace Greeley HS<br />
Articles of Confederation National Government<br />
Articles of Confederation<br />Strong points<br />First Constitution- set in motion a nat’lgov’t<br />Pwr to the states (debatable)<br />Gov’t closer to the ppl<br />Weak points<br />Could not tax<br />No regulation of interstate trade <br />Unanimous consent required in order to make changes<br />
Adam Smith<br />Wealth of Nations<br />Argued that social order and progress were the natural result of individualism and self-interest<br />
John Dickinson<br />Known for his stance prior to the War of Independence and writing Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania<br />Believed that a republic required virtuous people<br />
Differences on the meaning of republicanism<br />John Dickinson<br />The new gov’t could only succeed if people placed the good of the nation above their personal interests<br />Adam Smith<br />If a gov’t allowed independent citizens to pursue their own economic and political interests the whole nation would benefit<br />
Two plans proposed<br />James Madison: VA Plan<br />More pwr to st w/ lg pops<br />Bicameral (2 house)<br />Membership based on pop.<br />Voters elect to lower house and who would elect members to the upper<br />William Patterson: NJ Plan<br />Better for smaller states<br />Single house congress (unicameral)<br />Ea state having an equal vote<br />
The Great Compromise<br />Proposed by Roger Sherman<br />2 house Congress<br />Equal representation in the Senate (each state getting 2 reps)<br />Lower house (H. of Reps) representation based population<br />
Zenger Trial and the 1st Amendment<br />The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the Congress from making laws "respecting an establishment of religion", impeding the free exercise of religion, infringing on the freedom of speech and infringing on the freedom of the press. In the 20th century, the Supreme Court held that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendmentapplies the First Amendment to each state, including any local government.<br />
Quartering Act and the 3rd Amendment<br />The Third Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment III) is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. It was introduced on September 5, 1789, and then three-fourths of the states ratified this as well as 9 other amendments on December 15, 1791. It prohibits, in peacetime, the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent. It makes quartering legally permissible in wartime only, and then only according to law. The Founding Fathers' intention in writing this amendment was to prevent the recurrence of soldiers being quartered in private property as was done in Colonial America by the British military under the Quartering Act before the American Revolution (1775–1776).<br />
Townshend Act and the 4th Amendment<br />The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the Bill of Rights which guards against unreasonable searches and seizures. The amendment specifically also requires search and arrestwarrants be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause. It was adopted as a response to the abuse of the writ of assistance, which is a type of general search warrant, in the American Revolution. Search and arrest should be limited in scope according to specific information supplied to the issuing court, usually by a law enforcement officer, who has sworn by it.<br />