Civics Today chapter 2 section 1


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Civics Today chapter 2 section 1

  1. 1. Civics & Economics Civics Today text
  2. 2. Enlightenment <ul><li>Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual rights </li></ul></ul>Major influence of colonial governments!
  3. 3. How do you think this impacted ideas of colonial governments? <ul><li>England was controlled by monarch and aristocracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocrats paid taxes, kept monarch in business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave power and influence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Magna Carta <ul><li>“ The Great Charter” </li></ul><ul><li>Limited power of the monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Extended rights to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Established the principle of limited government </li></ul>
  5. 5. Magna Carta-1215 <ul><li>1 st document to limit power of English rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings and queens must obey the law too! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major step toward constitutional government </li></ul><ul><li>Where? - England </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parliament <ul><li>Started out as a large group of elite advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Later added representatives for the common people </li></ul><ul><li>By 1300s became a legislature </li></ul>
  7. 7. Glorious Revolution <ul><li>~ 1600s there is a power struggle between king and Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>1688 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament removes King James II and replaces with William and Mary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No blood shed so referred to as Glorious Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul>Demonstrates the strength of parliament and solidly establishes a Constitutional Monarchy
  8. 8. English Bill of Rights <ul><li>1689 </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted monarchs power </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed free elections </li></ul><ul><li>Right to fair trial </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Common Law <ul><li>Determined by custom </li></ul><ul><li>Court legal decisions are based on precedent </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced American laws of property, contracts, and personal injury </li></ul>
  10. 11. Enlightenment Thinkers Ideas <ul><li>They argued that the laws of nature also applied to human life and society. </li></ul>
  11. 12. John Locke (England) <ul><li>Viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>All humans have “natural rights” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to have their “natural rights” protected, humans give up certain freedoms to Government </li></ul><ul><li>If gov’t does NOT protect your Rights, citizens can OVERTHROW it!!! </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>DISCUSS: When you go through airport security, what freedoms might you give up? Which one of your “natural rights” is the government protecting? </li></ul>
  13. 14. Baron de Montesquieu (France) <ul><li>Viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Believed too much power in one place is dangerous for others </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced “Separation of Powers” between branches of government </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: England’s Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King-enforced laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament-made laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judges-interpreted laws </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>DISCUSS: What might happen if Police Officers were the ones who determined the people they arrested guilty instead of judges or juries? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Jean Jacques Rousseau (France) <ul><li>Viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Humans will destroy themselves if they don’t give up some freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Humans create a “social contract” with government to protect themselves </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Discuss: How are speed limits examples of the social contract ? </li></ul>
  17. 18. Voltaire (France & England) <ul><li>Viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in Civil Liberties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by Jury of peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>DISCUSS: Voltaire once said: “I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your RIGHT to say it.” What do you think he meant by that? </li></ul>