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  1. 1. LIDAR Compiled by:- R.Sharath Kumar Reddy ECE-B 107R1A0477
  2. 2. WHAT IS LIDAR ? ?  LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging also LADAR) is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a target by illuminating the target with light, often using pulses from a laser..
  3. 3. General Description The term "laser radar" is sometimes used, even though, LIDAR does not employ microwaves or radio waves and therefore is not radar in the strict sense of the word. LIDAR uses ultraviolet, visible, or infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds. A narrow laser beam can be used to map physical features with very high resolution.
  4. 4. Basic Principle Distance to clouds Telescope Laser
  5. 5. This animation shows a LIDAR with a single beam scanned in one axis. The top image shows the scanning Mechanism. The middle image shows the laser's path through a basic scene. The bottom image shows the sensor's output, after conversion from polar to Cartesian coordinates.
  6. 6. What can we measure with lidar? • Clouds • Aerosol • Water Vapour • Minor constituents e. g. ozone, hydrocarbons • Temperature Lidars can be used from the ground, aircraft or from space
  7. 7. 1) Laser 2) Scanner and optics 3)Photo detector and receiver electronics 4)Position and navigation systems Components used in lidar...
  8. 8. • 600-1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. • Better target resolution is achieved with shorter pulses, provided the LIDAR receiver detectors and electronics have sufficient bandwidth. Laser
  9. 9. • How fast images can be developed is also affected by the speed at which they are scanned. • Optic choices affect the angular resolution and range that can be detected. A hole mirror or a beam splitter are options to collect a return signal Scanners and optics
  10. 10. • Two main photo detector technologies are used in Lidars: solid state photo detectors, such as silicon avalanche photodiodes, or photomultipliers. • The sensitivity of the receiver is another parameter that has to be balanced in a LIDAR design. Photodetector and Receiver electronics
  11. 11. • LIDAR sensors that are mounted on mobile platforms such as airplanes or satellites require instrumentation to determine the absolute position and orientation of the sensor. • Such devices generally include a Global Positioning System receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Position and navigation systems
  12. 12. • Agriculture - LIDAR also can be used to help farmers determine which areas of their fields to apply costly fertilizer to achieve highest crop yield. LIDAR can create a topographical map of the fields and reveals the slopes and sun exposure of the farm land. • Biology and conservation- LIDAR has also found many applications in forestry, Canopy heights, biomass measurements, and leaf area can all be studied using LIDAR systems. Similarly, LIDAR is also used by many industries, Including Energy and Railroad, and the Department of Transportation as a faster way of surveying. Topographic maps can also be generated readily from LIDAR. Applications..
  13. 13. • Wind farm Optimization-Lidar can be used to increase the energy output from wind farms by accurately measuring wind speeds and wind turbulence. An experimental lidar is mounted on a wind turbine rotor to measure oncoming horizontal winds, and proactively adjust blades to protect components and increase power. • Law enforcement- LIDAR speed guns are used by the police to measure the speed of vehicles for speed limit enforcement purposes Continued..
  14. 14. The other methods of topographic data collection are land: surveying, GPS, inteferrometry, and photogrammetry.LIDAR technology has some advantages in comparison to these methods,which are being listed below: 1) Higher accuracy 2) Fast acquisition and processing 3) Minimum human depe11dence- As most of the processes are automatic unlike photogrammetry, GPS or land surveying. 4) Weather/Light independence- Data collection independent of sun inclination and at night and slightly bad weather. 5) Canopy penetration-LIDAR pulses can reach beneath the canopy thus generating measurements of points there unlike photogrammetry. Advantages of LIDAR technology
  15. 15. 6) Higher data density - Up to 167,000 pulses per second More than 24 points per m2 can be measured. and Multiple returns to collect data in 3D. 7) Cost - Is has been found by comparative studies that LIDAR data is cheaper in many applications. This is particularly considering the speed, accuracy and density of data. Continued..
  16. 16. • High operating costs (> £10k / hour) • Ineffective during heavy rain and/or low cloud/mist • Degraded at high Sun angles and reflections • Latency data not processed locally • Unreliable for water depth (< 2m) and breaking/turbulent Waves. • Lack of foliage/vegetation penetration • Precise alignment must be maintained Disadvantages
  17. 17. The lidar technology is now planned for a wide range of applications that can enable NASA’s achievement of its scientific and space exploration goals. These applications fall into four general categories: a) Earth Science: long-duration orbiting instruments providing global monitoring of the atmosphere and land b) Planetary Science: orbiting or land-based scientific instruments providing geological and atmospheric data of solar system bodies c) Landing Aid: sensors providing hazard avoidance, guidance and navigation data d) Rendezvous and Docking Aid : sensors providing spacecraft bearing, distance, and approach velocity. Future scope
  18. 18. • Lidar technique allows continuous monitoring of profiles with good height resolution. • Different scattering mechanisms permit different kinds of measurement. • New technology offers more compact sources and development of transportable and mobile systems. Summary