The Quran and Computational Linguistics


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The Quran and Computational Linguistics

  1. 1. The Quran & Computational Linguistics Abdul-Baquee M. Sharaf 16 th April, 2009
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Quran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why CL of Quran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quranic Linguistic Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Research plan </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the Quran? <ul><li>Divine </li></ul><ul><li>God  Angel Gabriel  Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Arabic Language </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled over 23 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 years in Makkah, 10 years in Medinah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different themes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>114 Chapters, 77,804 words, 14,948 word types (5.2 ratio) </li></ul><ul><li>Content : monotheism, rulings, stories </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Quran Index
  5. 5. Contrast : Quran vs Old English Modern Standard Arabic The Quran (chapter 1) [1] What! We [of] Gar-Danes (lit. spear-danes) in yore-days [2] [of] people-kings, trim (glory) afrained(have learned of by asking), [3] how those athelings (princes) arm-strong feats framed (made/performed). [1] Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum, [2] þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon, [3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. Modern Translation Old English (Beowulf) – approx. 10 th century
  6. 6. The Quran: Corpus or Text Tognini-Bonelli 2001: 3 &quot;a collection of pieces of language, selected and ordered according to explicit linguistic criteria in order to be used as a sample of the language&quot; Sinclair 1996 not coherent communicative event coherent communicative event gives insights into langue instance of parole read as a sample of social practice read as an individual act of will read for repeated events read as a unique event read for formal patterning read for content read vertically read horizontally read fragmented read whole A CORPUS A TEXT
  7. 7. Computational Linguistics OR Corpus Linguistics <ul><li>Discover pattern of the language of God </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt for only shallow knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Computer assisted “human-understanding” vs. computer understanding </li></ul>Will they not then ponder on the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much contradictions . [4:82]
  8. 8. Why the Quran <ul><li>Adherents > 1.5 billion </li></ul>
  9. 9. global <ul><li>“ O Mankind” – used 22 times </li></ul>This is a declaration for mankind, a guidance and an admonition unto those who ward off (evil) Why the Quran
  10. 10. Challenge Say: Verily, though mankind and the jinn should assemble to produce the like of this Qur'an , they could not produce the like thereof though they were helpers one of another [17:88] Or they say: He hath invented it. Say: Then bring ten surahs , the like thereof, invented, and call on everyone ye can beside Allah, if ye are truthful! [11:13] Or say they: He hath invented it ? Say: Then bring a surah like unto it, and call (for help) on all ye can besides Allah, if ye are truthful. [10:38] Why the Quran
  11. 11. Source of Interesting Information 002.031 And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform Me of the names of these, if ye are truthful. And Solomon was David's heir. And he said: O mankind! Lo! we have been taught the language of birds [27:16] Till, when they reached the Valley of the Ants, an ant exclaimed: O ants! Enter your dwellings lest Solomon and his armies crush you, unperceiving.[27:18] The thunder hymneth His praise and (so do) the angels for awe of Him.[13:13] Why Quran
  12. 12. Computational Projects Lo! this Qur'an narrateth unto the Children of Israel most of that concerning which they differ. [27:76] Integration with Bible and We have revealed unto thee the Remembrance that you may explain to mankind that which has been revealed for them, and that haply they may reflect. [16:44] Integration with Hadith Integration with Tafsir Why Quran Building Quranic Ontology
  13. 13. The Quran Speaks about Itself Will they not then ponder on the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much contradictions . [4:82] Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, (this Qur'an would have done so) [13:31] And We reveal of the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy for believers [17:82] And verily We have displayed for mankind in this Qur'an all manner of similitudes, [18:54] If We had caused this Qur'an to descend upon a mountain, thou (O Muhammad) verily hadst seen it humbled, rent asunder by the fear of Allah. Such similitudes coin We for mankind that haply they may reflect. Why Quran
  14. 14. are these contradictions! They question you about wine and gambling. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) benefits for mankind; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness. [2:219] O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper. [5:90] 077.035 This is a day wherein they speak not , 006.027 If thou couldst see when they are set before the Fire and say : Oh, would that we might return! Then would we not deny the revelations of our Lord but we would be of the believers! On that day neither man nor jinni will be questioned of his sin. [ 55:39] And stop them, for they must be questioned. [37:24] And on the Day when He will call unto them and say: What answer gave ye to the messengers ? [28:65] Why Quran
  15. 15. Characteristics: Allah hath (now) revealed the fairest of statements, a Scripture who’s parts resembling each other , paired whereat doth creep the flesh of those who fear their Lord, so that their flesh and their hearts soften to Allah's reminder.. [39:23] Why Quran When they listen to that which hath been revealed unto the messengers, thou seest their eyes overflow with tears because of their recognition of the Truth. [5:83] <ul><li>Sentiments </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Word Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Word Association </li></ul><ul><li>clustering </li></ul>
  16. 16. Logical Arguments Were they created by nothing, or where they the creators [of themselves]? Originator of the heavens and the earth. How could He have a son when He does not have a companion? And among His Signs in this: thou seest the earth barren and desolate; but when We send down rain to it, it is stirred to life and yields increase. Truly, He Who gives life to the (dead) earth can surely give life to (men) who are dead. For He has power over all things.
  17. 17. Quranic Linguistic Styles
  18. 18. Shift of attention O Prophet ! When ye (men) put away women, put them away for their (legal) period and reckon the period, and keep your duty to Allah, 2 nd person singular  2 nd person Plural 3 rd Person plural  2 nd person plural Relationship with semantics? Sentiments? Emotions 2 nd person plural  3 rd person plural Linguistic Style They deny what We have given them . Then enjoy yourselves , for you are going to know When you are in ships and they sail with them by a good wind and they rejoice therein informing  addressing
  19. 19. Word form & Meaning So they (Gog and Magog) were not able to pass over it, nor were they able in it any penetration [18:96] Ist’awu Is ta t’awu Linguistic Style
  20. 20. Complex morphology Linguistic Style should we force You [plural] you It [fem] prefix root suffix Should we force it upon you أ نـ ـلـزمـ ـكـمـ و ها prefix root postfix then will he Be sufficient you them Then He will be sufficient for you against them فـ ـسـ ـيـ ـكفيـ ـكـ ـهم
  21. 21. Word Order and Semantics Who remember Allah while standing and sitting and on their sides [3:191] And when affliction touches man, he call upon Us on his side or sitting or standing [10:12] Linguistic Style
  22. 22. Ellipsis Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, [13:31] Linguistic Style In the name of Allah the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful In the name of Allah the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful [ I start reading ] Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, (this Qur'an would have done so) [13:31]
  23. 23. Disambiguation through context صوم SAWM fasting fasting Refrain from smth O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may ward off (evil); So eat and drink and be consoled. And if thou meetest any mortal, say: Lo! I have vowed a fast unto the Beneficent, and may not speak this day to any mortal. technical literal Linguistic Style
  24. 24. Collocation and mutual information Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise Linguistic Style might wise Wisdom without mighty Might without wisdom Combining might with wisdom
  25. 25. Hidden Assumptions They stayed in their cave three hundred years, increased by nine . [18:25] 300 309 Solar years lunar years Linguistic Style
  26. 26. Imperative or not imperative: that is the question? But when ye have left the sacred territory, then go hunting (if ye will). [5:2] Sacred territory Allowed to hunt Allowed to hunt Prohibited to hunt time <ul><li>Verb tenses in Arabic: </li></ul><ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative </li></ul><ul><li>Computational algorithm for detecting imperatives. </li></ul><ul><li>False positive or false negative </li></ul>and whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein there is no lewdness nor abuse nor angry conversation on the pilgrimage . [2:197] Linguistic Style
  27. 27. “ except” resolution O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter , nor when ye are polluted , except when journeying upon the road, till ye have bathed. [4:43] And when Saul set out with the army, he said: Lo! Allah will try you by (the ordeal of) a river. Whosoever therefore drinketh thereof he is not of me, and whosoever tasteth it not he is of me , except him who taketh (thereof) in the hollow of his hand. [2:249] Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred except for just cause, nor commit fornication ; - and any that does this (not only) meets punishment. The torment will be doubled to him on the Day of Judgement, and he will abide therein in disgrace; except those who repents, believes, and works righteous deeds, for Allah will change the evil of such persons into good, [25: 70] Linguistic Style Needs linking with other verses and Hadith/Tafsir
  28. 28. in negation mention the general Their similitude is that of a man who kindled a fire; when it lighted all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in utter darkness. So they could not see. [2:17] [Yousuf Ali Translation] Radiant, shining light e.g, moon e.g., sun Linguistic Style ..and in confirmation mentioning the specific Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous,-[3:133] paradise Width = Heavens + earth Length ?
  29. 29. Analogies Illumination source Rainstorm, darkness, thunder, lightening Their [the hypocrites] likeness is as the likeness of one who kindleth fire, and when it sheddeth its light around him Allah taketh away their light and leaveth them in darkness, where they cannot see,… Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and the flash of lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears by reason of the thunder-claps, for fear of death, Allah encompasseth the disbelievers (in His guidance, His omniscience and His omnipotence). The lightning almost snatcheth away their sight from them. As often as it flasheth forth for them they walk therein, and when it darkeneth against them they stand still. If Allah willed, He could destroy their hearing and their sight. Lo! Allah is able to do all things. Analogy of the reaction of hypocrites to Islam heat light heat light water sound Quran Linguistic Style
  30. 30. Association with different preposition When they meet those who believe, they say: &quot;We believe; but when they are alone with their evil ones, they say: &quot;We are really with you: We (were) only jesting.“ [2:14 Yusuf Ali Translation] Linguistic Style are alone to Literal translation are alone with when they are alone with their evil ones, leave to when they leave to their evil ones, are alone to when they leave to their evil ones and are alone with them Check problems with translations
  31. 31. Figurative Linguistic Style He said, &quot;My Lord, the bones have turned brittle in my body, and my hair is aflame with grey . As I implore You, my Lord, I never despair. When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when eyes grew wild and hearts reached to the throats , and ye were imagining vain thoughts concerning Allah.
  32. 32. Metonymy Ask the township where we were, and the caravan with which we travelled hither. [12:82] Christ the son of Mary was no more than a messenger; many were the messengers that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their food . See how Allah doth make His signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth! [5:75] Linguistic Style And We carried him (Noah) on planks and nails And let not thy hand be chained to thy neck nor open it with a complete opening , lest thou sit down rebuked, denuded.
  33. 33. Research Plan
  34. 34. Linking Verses on on Guide us to the straight path path straight shape The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour Allah favour bestows WHOM ? recipient Those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favour among the prophets, the saints, the martyrs and the righteous prophets saints martyrs righteous And whoever holds firmly to Allah has been guided to a straight path Who holds firmly to And this is the path of your Lord straight owner Indeed, my Lord is on a path straight on
  35. 35. Linking verses: generate new information The mothers should suckle their children for two whole years [2:233] And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship. And she delivers him with hardship. And (the period of) his gestation and the weaning of him is thirty months [46:15] gestation ? ? weaning 30 months duration duration total Mathematical inference X + Y = 30 X = 24 Y = 6 24 m 6 m
  36. 36. inference Nay! Surely, they (evil-doers) will be veiled from their Lord that Day. Allah Wrong-doers Will not see Day of Judgement when Good-doers Will see when Reverse argument
  37. 37. Completing a Story scattered in many places Moses is mentioned 132 times in more than 20 chapters.. Ch. No. Verse Words K/M Ch. No. Verse Words K/M Ch. No. Verse Words K/M Ch. No. Verse Words K/M 1 7 29 K 30 60 818 K 59 24 448 M 88 26 93 K 2 286 6141 M 31 34 551 K 60 13 353 M 89 30 140 K 3 200 3501 M 32 30 373 K 61 14 227 M 90 20 83 K 4 176 3762 M 33 73 1305 M 62 11 178 M 91 15 55 K 5 120 2837 M 34 54 885 K 63 11 182 M 92 21 72 K 6 165 3057 K 35 45 779 K 64 18 243 M 93 11 41 K 7 206 3341 K 36 83 731 K 65 12 290 M 94 8 28 K 8 75 1243 M 37 182 866 K 66 12 255 M 95 8 35 K 9 129 2504 M 38 88 736 K 67 30 334 K 96 19 73 K 10 109 1839 K 39 75 1178 K 68 52 302 K 97 5 31 K 11 123 1948 K 40 85 1228 K 69 52 261 K 98 8 95 M 12 111 1795 K 41 54 795 K 70 44 218 K 99 8 37 M 13 43 855 M 42 53 861 K 71 28 228 K 100 11 41 K 14 52 830 K 43 89 837 K 72 28 286 K 101 11 37 K 15 99 1488 K 44 59 347 K 73 20 201 K 102 8 29 K 16 128 1846 K 45 37 489 K 74 56 257 K 103 3 15 K 17 111 1559 K 46 35 646 K 75 40 165 K 104 9 34 K 18 110 1584 K 47 38 543 M 76 31 244 M 105 5 24 K 19 98 972 K 48 29 561 M 77 50 182 K 106 4 18 K 20 135 1354 K 49 18 354 K 78 40 175 K 107 7 26 K 21 112 1175 K 50 45 374 K 79 46 180 K 108 3 11 K 22 78 1280 M 51 60 361 K 80 42 134 K 109 6 28 K 23 118 1053 K 52 49 313 K 81 29 105 K 110 3 20 M 24 64 1320 M 53 62 361 K 82 19 82 K 111 5 24 K 25 77 897 K 54 55 343 K 83 36 170 K 112 4 16 K 26 227 1321 K 55 78 353 M 84 25 109 K 113 5 24 K 27 93 1160 K 56 96 381 K 85 22 110 K 114 6 21 K 28 88 1440 K 57 29 576 M 86 17 62 K 29 69 979 K 58 22 476 M 87 19 73 K
  38. 38. Research Framework morphology POS tagging Syntactic parsing <ul><li>Deeper Semantic Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Information Extraction Tasks </li></ul>IE System (e.g, QA system) Gold [hand coded] fully annotated Quran Haifa Morphology Analyzer Arabic WordNet Pilot Arabic PropBank Machine Readable Quran English FrameNet Machine Readable Arabic Tafsir Arabic Treebank time resources Track I Track II QFrameNet Novel contributions Novel contributions Semantic Analysis WSD of the Quran Relation detection metonymy analysis figurative analysis evaluation Automatic parsing algorithm for Quran Domain Specific IE System (e.g, QA system) F-score exceeding state-of-art results Automatically generate valid information not captured in any Tafsir book Automatic SRL algorithm for Quran ?OWL ontology
  39. 39. Thank You