Authentic pedagogy and participatory learning - a research in progress

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This is a presentation about my Ph.D. research in progress that was given to a small group of secondary learning leaders on November 2012. In this talk:
1. I first explore the definition of authenticity and argued that authentic pedagogy is a modification of the inauthentic pedagogy which shaped by the wider educational systems.
2. Then I introduce four noticeable movements to promote or adapt authentic pedagogy in three English speaking countries. The qualities they advocate seemed to be in three categories for me: authentic learner, authentic knowledge construction and authentic learning context.
3. Next, following brief description of my research design and the data collected, I discussed some preliminary findings. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed two world views of school: a) expert-led model and b) participatory model.
4. Quantitative analysis suggested that authenticity, as perceived by students, has a small but positive correlation with the sense of engagement with school as well as engagement with learning beyond the school.

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  • Surely there is a question about why we need authentic pedagogy. But it can not be achieved with today’s 20 minute presentation.\n\nBelow are references related to research or initiatives mentioned in this slide:\n\nLadwig, J. G., & King, M. B. (2003). Quality teaching in NSW public schools: An annotated bibliography: NSW Department of Education and Training.\n\nNewmann, F. M., Marks, H. M., & Gamoran, A. (1996). Authentic Pedagogy and Student Performance. American Journal of Education, 104, 280-312. \n\nTeaching for Effective Learning framework can be found at: http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/core_learning/files/links/TfEL_Framework_horizontal.pdf\n\nResources of Learning Futures initiatives can be found at:\nhttp://www.innovationunit.org/our-services/projects/learning-futures-increasing-meaningful-student-engagement\n
  • Surely there is a question about why we need authentic pedagogy. But it can not be achieved with today’s 20 minute presentation.\n\nBelow are references related to research or initiatives mentioned in this slide:\n\nLadwig, J. G., & King, M. B. (2003). Quality teaching in NSW public schools: An annotated bibliography: NSW Department of Education and Training.\n\nNewmann, F. M., Marks, H. M., & Gamoran, A. (1996). Authentic Pedagogy and Student Performance. American Journal of Education, 104, 280-312. \n\nTeaching for Effective Learning framework can be found at: http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/core_learning/files/links/TfEL_Framework_horizontal.pdf\n\nResources of Learning Futures initiatives can be found at:\nhttp://www.innovationunit.org/our-services/projects/learning-futures-increasing-meaningful-student-engagement\n
  • Surely there is a question about why we need authentic pedagogy. But it can not be achieved with today’s 20 minute presentation.\n\nBelow are references related to research or initiatives mentioned in this slide:\n\nLadwig, J. G., & King, M. B. (2003). Quality teaching in NSW public schools: An annotated bibliography: NSW Department of Education and Training.\n\nNewmann, F. M., Marks, H. M., & Gamoran, A. (1996). Authentic Pedagogy and Student Performance. American Journal of Education, 104, 280-312. \n\nTeaching for Effective Learning framework can be found at: http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/core_learning/files/links/TfEL_Framework_horizontal.pdf\n\nResources of Learning Futures initiatives can be found at:\nhttp://www.innovationunit.org/our-services/projects/learning-futures-increasing-meaningful-student-engagement\n
  • Surely there is a question about why we need authentic pedagogy. But it can not be achieved with today’s 20 minute presentation.\n\nBelow are references related to research or initiatives mentioned in this slide:\n\nLadwig, J. G., & King, M. B. (2003). Quality teaching in NSW public schools: An annotated bibliography: NSW Department of Education and Training.\n\nNewmann, F. M., Marks, H. M., & Gamoran, A. (1996). Authentic Pedagogy and Student Performance. American Journal of Education, 104, 280-312. \n\nTeaching for Effective Learning framework can be found at: http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/core_learning/files/links/TfEL_Framework_horizontal.pdf\n\nResources of Learning Futures initiatives can be found at:\nhttp://www.innovationunit.org/our-services/projects/learning-futures-increasing-meaningful-student-engagement\n
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  • Authentic pedagogy and participatory learning - a research in progress

    1. 1. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF !PARTICIPATORY LEARNING AND !AUTHENTIC PEDAGOGYShaofu HuangPhD studentCentre for Systems Learning and LeadershipGraduate School of Education, University of Bristolshaofutw@gmail.com !1
    2. 2. Introduction• The researcher• The theoretical framework• Research design and the data• Preliminary findings !2
    3. 3. Theoretical Framework !3
    4. 4. Authenticity• Authenticity is sometime linked with real life context, like its meaning in "authentic assessment"• In describing learning and learner, however, authenticity is more appropriately to be understood as self authorship !4
    5. 5. Authenticity"I am my possibilities of being. Toexist authentically is in some senseto choose these possibilities.……My possibilities of being arepossibilities of my being but when Iam existing inauthentically they are… determined not by me but bythe One""Authentic existence is not theannihilation of the One-self but amodification of the One-self." !5
    6. 6. Authentic Pedagogy Learning Futures ! (2008-2011)! England Ladwig &King (2003)Fred Newmann (1996)! Quality Teaching! Authentic Pedagogy! New South Wales Wisconsin Teaching for Effective Learning! (2009~)! South Australia !6
    7. 7. Wisconsin team Social support for Higher order thinking Connectedness beyond student achievement the classroom Depth of knowledge Substantive conversation Engagement Inclusivity Deep understanding Meta language for Problematic knowledge knowledgeteaching Quality Student’s self- Background knowledge Student direction regulation Explicit quality High Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration criteria expectations Narrative Develop democratic Connect learning to students Foster deep understanding relationships Negotiate learning lives and aspirations and skillful action Build a communityTfEL Explore the construction Apply and assess learning Communicate learning in of learners in authentic contexts multiple modes of knowledge Teach students how to Promote dialogue as a Build on learners Challenge students to achieve high means of learning understandings standards with appropriate support Learning Futures School as Learning Enquiry-based School as Extended learning commons learning base camp relationship !7
    8. 8. Authentic Authentic Authentic! Learner Knowledge Learning Context Social support for Higher order Substantive Connectedness beyond Depth ofstudent achievement thinking conversation the classroom knowledge DeepEngagement Student direction Problematic Background understanding knowledge knowledge Student’s self- Cultural Explicit quality regulation knowledge criteria High Narrative expectations Knowledge Inclusivity Meta language for knowledge integration Connect learning to students lives and aspirationsDevelop democratic Foster deep understanding relationships and skillful action Negotiate Communicate learning in learning multiple modes Build a community Explore the construction of learners of knowledge Apply and assess learning Promote dialogue as a in authentic contexts Teach means of learning students how to Challenge students to achieve high Build on learners standards with appropriate support understandings School as Learning School as Extended learning commons Enquiry-based base camp relationship learning !8
    9. 9. These three types of qualities of authentic pedagogy are interdependent to each others and are in inside-outside layers Authentic! Learning Context Authentic Knowledge Authentic Learner !9 Shaofu Huang © 2012
    10. 10. FRAMEWORKS THAT HELP US UNDERSTAND AND WORK ON LEARNER AGENCY Identity Self efficacy to beDeakin Crick, R., Broadfoot, P. & Claxton,G., 2004. Developing an Effective continued......Lifelong Learning Inventory: the ELLIProject. Assessment in Education:Principles, Policy & Practice, 11, pp.247–272.! !10
    11. 11. FRAMEWORKS THAT HELP US UNDERSTAND AND WORK ON AUTHENTIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION Applying Practical Validating Narrating Mapping Propositional Questioning Choosing to be Describing continued...... Presentational Incorporating Connecting Experiential Deakin Crick, R., 2009. Inquiry- based learning: Reconciling the personal with the public in aFour ways of knowing democratic and archaeological pedagogy. The Curriculum Journal,Heron, J. & Reason, P., 1997. A 20, pp.73–91. !Participatory Inquiry Paradigm.Qualitative Inquiry, 3, pp.274–294. ! Participatory Knowledge Construction !11
    12. 12. ASPECTS TO BE CONSIDERED ABOUT AUTHENTIC LEARNING CONTEXT Purposes of learning Authentic Pedagogical reaction from relationships complex systems Authentic to be criteria of continued...... success Count in experiential knowing !12
    13. 13. Research Design and the Data !13
    14. 14. RESEARCH METHOD OVERVIEWA multi-site mixed-method case study, involving four classes in two secondary schools in north England!!Qualitative approach!• Classroom observations!• Teacher’s teaching plans!• Teacher and student interviews!!Quantitative approach!• Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (learning power, n=400, pre & post)!• Me and My School survey (school engagement, n=400, pre & post)!• Authentic Pedagogy Practices Survey (n=210, post only)! !14
    15. 15. SAMPLE PAGE OF THE A.P.P.S. QUESTIONNAIRE Designed for more timely feedbacks for teachers practice !15 Shaofu Huang © 2012
    16. 16. DATA STRUCTURE School A School BYear 7 Year 7 ELLI &Engagement n=286 ELLI &Engagement n=149A science course A subject independent courseAPPS n=71 APPS n=139An applied art course Teaching planTeaching plan Teaching interviewsTeaching interviews Student interview n=3 Student interview n=3 Classroom observation Classroom observation !16
    17. 17. Preliminary Findings !17
    18. 18. TWO EXAMPLES OF AUTHENTIC PEDAGOGY IDENTIFIED FROM OBSERVATIONS Scenario A Scenario B• Learning was structured well and • Learning started with an situation introducing up-to-date knowledge designed by teachers! and technology! • Each student enquired into a• Students planned and learned about relevant topic chosen by him/ a given topic.! herself!• Had regular reflection time using • Had lessons about learning power meta-language for learning! and transactional analysis!• Assessment criteria was made • Students designed and explicit from the beginning and demonstrated their achievement to throughout.! people outside of class/school!• Students were invited to vote on • Learning processes flowed with other’s work according to the given student-teacher interactions criteria !18
    19. 19. FEATURES SHARED BY BOTH SCHOOLS! REVEALED FROM THE APPS• Teacher-led and classroom-based learning aiming at deep understanding. • High expectation expressed and learner’s active role recognised.• Long-term and application-oriented purposes of learning were less explored. • External resources, e.g., experts and stakeholders of the learning subjects, were limitedly exploited. !19
    20. 20. VARIATIONS FOUND IN EACH SCHOOL School A School Bteacher’s instruction and the prescribed criteriaprescribed assessment were considered lesscriteria both played important while learnersimportant roles and there were encouraged towas a strong problem- make decisions for theirsolving orientation. learning and family and community were more recognisable as learning resources. !20
    21. 21. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES FOUND IN ! 12 APPS ITEMS BETWEEN SCHOOLSSchool A valued more on:• I followed my teachers instructions. (item 2)!• I had a good understanding of what I was expected to do. (item 10)!• I focused on the assessment criteria to get a good grade. (item 11)!• Other students. (item 17)!• My class teacher or tutor. (Item 18) !21
    22. 22. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES FOUND IN ! 12 APPS ITEMS BETWEEN SCHOOLSSchool B valued more on:• I helped my teacher to understand what I was learning. (item 8)!• I chose the topic that I was going to learn about. (item 12)!• People outside my school who were involved in things I was learning about. (item 13)!• Members of my family or other people in my community. (item 16)!• To discover stories about what I was learning. (item 24)!• To explain what I learned in my own words. (item 27)!• Because it has prepared me for the next stage in my learning. (item 31) !22
    23. 23. WHAT’S WORLD VIEWS OF A SCHOOL REVEALED IN THIS QUESTIONNAIRE?Expert-led model Participatory model !23 Shaofu Huang © 2012
    24. 24. AN AUTHENTIC LEARNING SCALE WAS FORMED WITH 25 APPS ITEMS sample items sample reverse items• I made use of my own experiences and • I concentrated on the learning task the teacher set stories.! for us.!• I helped my teacher to understand what I • I followed my teachers instructions.! was learning.! • I had a good understanding of what I was• I chose the topic that I was going to learn expected to do.! about.! • I focused on the assessment criteria to get a good• Members of my family or other people in my grade.! community are important in my learning.! • Other students are important in my learning.!• To find out why things I was learning matter to me in my life.! • My class teacher or tutor is important in my learning.!• It has prepared me for the next stage in my learning.! • To remember all the facts and information.!• It helped me make changes in places that • To finish my end product to a high standard. matter to me. !24 Shaofu Huang © 2012
    25. 25. THE AUTHENTIC LEARNING SCALE (A.L.S.) As an indicator of personal perception: • about 9% of A.L.S. was explained by ethnicity that white students perceived more authenticity As an indicator of classroom pedagogy: • about 20% was explained by percentage of white students in the class (more white students, less authenticity) *Note that being white was strongly linked with lower school engagement • about 12% was explained by percentage of female students (more girls, more authenticity)These are rather observations than predictions, because of the small sample size !25
    26. 26. A.L.S. AND SCHOOL ENGAGEMENT Class mean of the perceived authenticity (A.L.S.) in a single course (four periods per week) also had slight but positive effect on the following scales regarding participants overall experience in the school: • changing and learning • meaning making • school engagement (MMS) • engagement with learning beyond the school (LF)These are rather observations than predictions, because of the small sample size !26
    27. 27. These are rather observations than predictions, because of the small sample size !27
    28. 28. These are rather observations than predictions, because of the small sample size !28
    29. 29. FURTHER ANALYSIS ON A.P.P.S. DATA• To further examine the interwoven relationships between ALS, engagement, gender and ethnicity. (using structural equation modelling• To explore in more detail about the constitution of ALS (and adjust the scale or items if that is useful) !29

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